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faith: but “he * who doeth them, shall live by them.” Christ hath redeemedt us from the curse of the law, having been made a curse; for us: for it is written, “ Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:”) that the blessing of Abraham might come on the gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the spirit by faith. Brethren, (I speak according to the manner of men,) though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth it or addeth to it. Now to Abraham and to his seed the promises were made. (It is not said, “And to seeds,” as of many; but, as of one ; “And to thy seed,” which one person $ is Christ.) And this I say, that the covenant which God confirmed before [concerning Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, doth not disannul, so as to make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God freely gave it to Abraham by promise. To what purpose then was the law? It was added because of transgressions ||, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ministered by messengers I through the hand of a mediator. **Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God

# The man, R.T.
+ “By abolishing the law, and dying to establish a better covenant.” Newcome.
: “That is, as it were accursed: treated by men as if he had committed a crime
worthy of death, and of the divine wrath.” Deut. xxi. 23. Newcome.
§ which is Christ. N. See Chandler.
| Or, What then? The law was added because of transgressions. Chandler.
“I Angels, N. with the public version. The meaning probably is, that the law was
promulgated to, or rather enjoined upon (see Schleusner and Phavorinus apud Schleus.)
the Israelites by the proper officers, viz. priests and Levites, under the direction of
Moses, who was the medium of divine communication, and who received it imme-
diately from God.
** Abp. Newcome, with Michaelis and others, suspects this verse to be a gloss. But
it seems necessary to the apostle's argument. Moses was a mediator, not between
God and the promised seed, but between God and the Israelites. The covenant there-
fore which he introduced could not annul that which had been made before with the
promised seed. For though God, one of the parties, was present and joined in the
Mosaic covenant, the other party, the promised seed, had no concern in it. See Looke.

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is one. Is the law then against the promises of God?

By no means: for if a law had been given, which could have bestowed life, then truly justification would have

been by the law. But the scripture hath included all together under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, included together to the faith which was afterward to be revealed. So that the law was our conductor * to Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But now faith is come, we are no longer under a conductor*. For ye are all the sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor gentile, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye all are one in Christ Jesus. But if ye be Christ's, then ye are the seed of Abraham, [and] heirs according to the promise.

Ch. Iv. Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child,

differeth nothing from a servant, though he be master of all; but is under tutors and guardians, until the time appointed by his father. So we likewise, when we were children, were in servitude under the elements of the world +: but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his son f, born of a woman $, born under the law, to redeem those that were under the law ||, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

* So Wakefield. guide, N.
+ “Under an introductory and ritual law, which occupied us about the things of this

world.” Observe Col. ii. 8, 20; Heb. ix. 1. Newcome. † “God sent forth his son,” gave him a divine commission. John i. 6; xvii. 18. “St. Paul then says here, that at his appointed time the Almighty gave a commission to Jesus, the son of Mary, of a Jewish family, subject to the law of Moses.” Lindsey's Second Address, p. 282. * - § The phrase, ‘born of a woman,’ bears no allusion to the supposed miraculous conception of Christ. It is a common Jewish phrase to express a proper human being. See Job xiv. 1; xv. 14; xxv. 4. Matt. xi. 11. Luke vii. 28. || To deliver us from the bondage of the Mosaic institute, and to introduce a new and more liberal dispensation. See ch. iii. 13, 14.

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And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into our hearts", crying outt, “Abba,” that is, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir [of God] through Christ. At that time, however, when ye knew not God, ye were slaves; to those who by nature are not gods: but now, after ye have known God, or rather have been known by Him, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly $ elements to which ye desire to be again in servitude 2 Ye observe days, and months, and seasons, and years. I fear concerning you, lest I have bestowed on you labour in vain. Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I also was as ye are || Ye have not wronged me in any thing: but ye know that in weakness of the flesh I preached the gospel to you at first: and [my] trial which was in my flesh ye did not set at nought nor scorn: but ye received me as a messenger" of God, or even as Christ Jesus. What therefore [were] your congratulations of yourselves for I bear you witness that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to me. Am I therefore become your enemy, when I tell you the truth 2 Some zealously affect you, but not well: yea, they desire to exclude you “, that ye may zealously affect them. But it is good to be always zealously af. fected to a good man tit; and not only when I am present with you, my children, of whom I travail in birth : again, until Christ be formed in you. But I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my voice: for I doubt concerning you. Tell me, ye who desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law 2 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons; one by a bond-woman, and another by a free-woman. But he that was of the bond-woman, was born * your hearts, R. T. + Or, which spirit crieth out. t ye served, N. § So the public version, and Wakefield. poor, N. | am as ye art. N. * So Wakefield. an angel, Newcome, with the public version.

** to exclude us, R.T. ++ in a good thing, N. See Locke, ## whom I am bearing again, Wakefield.



26 27

28 29


according to the flesh; whereas he of the free-woman
was by promise. Which things are spoken by me alle-
gorically : for these women signify the two covenants”;
the one from mount Sinai, bearing children to servitude,
which is Agar: (for this Agart is mount Sinai in Arabia,
and answereth to the Jerusalem which now is: for she is in
servitude with her children :) but the Jerusalem from
above is the free-woman, who is our mother f. For it is
written, “Rejoice, thou barren, who bearest not; break
forth and shout, thou who travailest not; for the desolate
hath many more children, than she that hath an husband.”
Now we, brethren, like $ Isaac, are the children of pro-
mise. But as then he that was born according to the flesh
persecuted him that was born according to the spirit, even
so it is now. Nevertheless, what saith the scripture ?
“Send forth the bond-woman and her son : for the son
of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the
So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-

•woman, but of the free. Stand firmly therefore in the freedom with which Christ hath made us freel, and be

not again put "I under the yoke of servitude. Behold, I Paul say unto you that, if ye be circumcised, Christ will profit you nothing. Yea, I testify again to every man who is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is become of none effect to you, whosoever of you seek to be justified * by the law; ye are fallen from the covenant of favour. For we by the spirit look for the hope of justification through faith. For

* So Wakefield. these are the two covenants, N.

+ this character Agar. Wakefield. : the mother of us all. R. T.

§ according to the manner of, N.

| Some copies read, “we are not children of the bond-woman but of the free, with which liberty Christ has made us free. Stand firmly, therefore, and be not,” &c. See Griesbach.

“I Or, encumbered with, N. m.

** Gr, are justified, N. m.

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in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.

Once ye ran well: who hindered you that ye might not

obey the truth This persuasion came not from him who
called you. A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump,
I am persuaded concerning you, through the Lord, that
ye will not think otherwise than I do : but he who trol-
bleth you will bear his judgement, whosoever he be.
And as to myself, brethren, if I still preach circum-
cision, why do I still suffer persecution ? then would the
stumbling-block of the cross be done away.
I could wish that they were even cut off” who disturb
you. For, brethren, ye have been called to freedom:
only use not freedom for an occasion to the flesh, but by
love serve one another. For all the law is fulfilled in
one commandment, even this; “Thou shalt love thy
neighbour as thyself.” But if ye bite and devour out
another, take heed that ye be not consumed by one
another. -
Now I say, Walk by the spiritt, and fulfil not to
desire of the flesh. For the flesh desireth against the
spirit, and the spirit against the flesh: and these are co"
trary the one to the other; so that ye do not the things
which ye would. But if ye be led by the spirits, year
not under the law. Now the works of the flesh are ma"
nifest, which are these; [Adultery, fornication, ur
cleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, con-
tentions, rivalries, wrath, disputes, divisions, heresies,
envyings, murthers, drunkenness, revellings, and such:
like: of which I tell you beforehand, as I have also
told you before, that those who do such things will not
inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the spirit
is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodně

* Or, would even cut themselves off from you, N. m. + Or, Walk spiritually, Wakefield. t or, spiritually led, wo"

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