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Ch.all his members with all things. And God hath given life II. to you (who were dead in offences and sins *, in which 2 ye formerly walked according to the course + of this
world, according to the powerful ruler of the air ļ, and
of the spirit which now worketh in the sons of disobe3 dience: among whom all of us likewise lived formerly,
in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh,
and of our minds; and were by nature children of 4 angers, even as others : but God, who is rich in
mercy, 5 for his great love with which he loved us, when we were
dead in offences, bath given life, I say, to us also) to6 gether with Christ, (by favour || ye are saved,) and hath
raised us up together, and made us sit together in the 7 heavenly places I, through Christ Jesus : that in the ages
to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his fa
vour|l, in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. 8 For by favour are ye saved through faith : and this salva9 tion is not from yourselves: it is the gift of God: not
* Some connect this clause with the preceding verse. q. d. who filleth all his members with all things, even you, who were dead in offences and sins. See Hallet's Obsers. vol. i. p. 49. Chandler in loc. + Manner, Wakefield. The state, or constitution, of the gentile world. Newcome.
As Jews and Christians residing (figuratively) in heaven, are represented as como stituting a polity under the government of angels, principalities, and powers, &e. so the unevangelized world are a polity under the government of a fictitious personage called Satan, the ruler of the air, &c. and his angels. This whole jinagery is borrowed from the Oriental philosophy, and is not to be taken in a literal sense. See Mr. Lindsey, ubi supra.
Ś “ In our original state, before our conversion. Compare Gal. ii. 15. Heirs of the divine displeasure, on account of our actual vices.” Newcome. Or, children of anger' may signify persons of wrathful dispositions, as sons of disobedience, ver. 2, means the disobedient. H i. e. gratuitous goodness, N. m.
As ch. i. 20, it is said that God hath seated Christ at bis own right hand in heavenly places, so here it is also said, that God hath raised us up, and made us sit together in heavenly places,. “Where,” says Mr. Lindsey (ibid. p. 469.) “ it is observable that these Christians are actually supposed to be in heaven, and this change and exaltation to be effected whilst the apostles were alive. No real elevation therefore is intended, either of Christ, or his apostles, and the first Christians, but it is the dress and clothing which the writer gives to the subject, to raise in his readers the most er. alted ideas of the gospel, and of the mighty power of God by which it was propagated."
10 from works, lest any man should glory*. For we are his
workmanship, having been created through Christ Jesus to good works, in which God before designed that we
should walk. 11 Wherefore remember that ye, formerly gentiles in the
flesh, (who are called the uncircumcision by that which is 12 called the circumcision in the flesh made by hands; re
member, I say, that ye then) were without Christ, being aliens from the citizenship of Israel, and strangers to the
covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God 13 in the world. But now through Christ Jesus ye, who
formerly were far off, are brought near by the blood of 14 Christt. For he is our peace, who hath made both one,
and hath broken down the middle wall of partition be15 tween us; (having abolished by his flesh the cause of
enmity, even the law of the commandments consisting in
ordinances, to make 1 in himselfs of the two one new 16 man, thus causing peace; and to reconcile both unto
God in one body by the cross, having destroyed by it 17 their enmity ;) and hath come and proclaimed the glad
tidings of peace to you that were far off, and to those 18 that were near. For through him we both have access
by one spirit to the Father. 19 So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but
fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of 20 God; having been built on the foundation of the apostles
and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner21 stone ; by which all the building, being fitly framed to
gether, groweth to an holy temple through the Lord : 22 by which ye also are built together, for an habitation of
God througb the spirit.
* Or, so that no man can glory. N. m.
+ Jews and gentiles are harmoniously united in that dispensation, which is ratified by the death of Christ, and by which the burthensome ritual of Moses was superseded, as the apostle asserts more particularly in the following verses.
Or, create, N. m. “ In his mystical body, the church.” Newcome,
Ch. ii. For this cause I Paul, a prisoner on account of Je2 sus Christ for preaching to you gentiles; (since ye have
heard * the gracious dispensation of God, which is given 3 me toward you ; that by revelation the mystery was made 4 known to me, as I have written before in few words, by
which, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge 5 in the mystery of Christ, which in other generations was
not made known to the sons of men, as it hath now been
revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the spirit ; 6 namely, that the gentiles should be joint-heirs, and a
joint body, and joint-partakers of his promise in Christ, 7 by the gospel; of which I have been made a minister,
according to the gift of that favour of God which hath
been bestowed on me, according to the mighty working 8 of his power: on me, who am less than the least of all the
saints, this favour hath been bestowed, that I should
preach among the gentiles the unsearchable riches of 9 Christ; and should clearly manifest to all what is the dis
pensation of the mystery I, which from the beginning of
the world was hidden in God, who hath created all 10 things. To the intent that the manifold wisdom of God
might now be made known, by the church, to the prin11 cipalities and powers || in the heavenly places ; according
to the eternal purpose I which he formed through Christ
The apostle's expressions here, and in ver. 4, seem to indicate that the Christians to whom this epistle was addressed were not personally known to him; and therefore farour the supposition that the epistle was sent to the Laodiceans, and not to the Ephesians. + Gr. gift of the grace, N. m.
I fellowship of the mystery, R. T. $ The words “ by Jesus Christ” in the received text, and inclosed by the Primate in brackets, are not to be found in the Alexandrian, Vatican, Ephrem, or Clermont manuscripts, nor in the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Italic or Vulgate versions, and are plainly an interpolation, perhaps a marginal gloss introduced into the text. But if they were genuine, archbishop Newcome justly observes that “the sense most suitable to the place is this, Who hath created all things, that is, Jews and gentiles, anex to holiness of life. See ch. ii. 10, 15; iv. 24.”
il "'The angels.” See 1 Pet. i. 12. So Abp. Newcome, with the generality of interpreters. But the more probable meaning is, that even the priests and teachers of the Jewish church should see and acknowledge the wisdom of God in the conciliatory spirit of the gospel dispensation. Acts vi. 7. See Eph. i. 20; ii. 6. and the notes there.
according to a pre-disposition of the ages. Wakefield
12 Jesus our Lord; through whom we have freedom of
speech, and access with confidence by faith in him : 13 wherefore I entreat that ye faint not at my afflictions for 14 you, which are your glory : I say, for this cause I) bow 15 my knees to the Father [of our Lord Jesus Christ,] of
whom the whole family in heaven and upon earth is 16 named *, to grant you, according to his glorious riches †,
ye may be strengthened with might by his spirit in 17 the inner man ; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by
faith ; so that being rooted and grounded in love, ye, 18 and all the saints, may be able to comprehend what is
the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, of this 19 mystery; and to know the surpassing love of the know
ledge of Christ I, so that ye may be filled with all the
fulness of God g. 20 Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundant
ly || above all which we ask or think, according to the 21 power which worketh in us, unto him be glory in the
church by Christ Jesus throughout all generations I, for
ever and ever. Amen. Ch. iv. I THEREFORE, a prisoner on account of the Lord, beseech you,
that ye walk in a manner worthy of the call2 ing with which ye have been called ; with all humility
of mind and meekness, with long-suffering, bearing with 3 one another in love ; earnestly endeavouring to preserve 4 the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. There is
one body and one spirit, even as ye have been called
* heaven and earth, i.e. the body of believers collected from Jews and gentiles. See ch. i. 10, and Mr. Locke's note.
+ Gr. the riches of his glory, N. m.
# That is, the exceeding love of God in bringing us to the knowledge of Christ. Locke. This is the reading of the Alexandrian manuscript. See Griesbach, and Lindsey's Second Address, p. 236. The Primate's translation is, “ the love of Christ which indeed surpasseth knowledge."
§ Or, into all the fulness of God, i. e. that ye may be admitted into the Christian church. See Schleusner.
|| very abundantly, N. See Wakefield.
5 unto * one hope of your calling ; one Lord, one faithi, 6 one baptism, one God and Father of all; who is above 7 all, and through all, and among us all t. But on every
one of us favour hath been bestowed according to the 8 measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore it is said, ,
“When he ascended on high, he led a multitude of 9 captives, [and] gave gifts to men :” (now, this expres
sion ļ, he ascended, what is it but that he [first] descend10 ed also into the lower (parts] of the earth ? he that de
scended is the same that ascended also far above all the 11 heavens, that he might fill all things :) and he gave some
to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some evange12 lists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting
of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifi13 cation of the body of Christ : till we all come to the same
faith in the Son of God, and to the same knowledge of
him, to a perfect inan, to the measure of the full stature | 14 of Christ : that we may be no more children, tossed like
waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine,
through the sleight of men, and through their craftiness 15 for the purpose of artful deceit; but embracing I the truth
in love, may grow up in all things to him that is the 16 head, even Christ: from whom the whole body fitly com
pacted and connected by every assisting joint, according to the mighty working in the measure of every
limb ** maketh its increase tt to the edification of itself in love. 17 This I say therefore, and charge you in the Lord, that
ye no more walk as the [other] gentiles walk, in the 18 vanity of their mind, having the understanding darkened,
being alienated from the life of God, through the igno
* in one hope, N. See Wakefield.
now that, N. See Chandler.
every part, R.T. #1 Gr. increase of the body, N. m.