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but He for our profit, that we might be partakers of his
which burned with fire, nor to blackness, and darkness,
and tempest, and to the blast of the trumpet, and to the sound of words || ; which sound those that heard, entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more : (for they could not bear what was commanded; “If even a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned T:” and so terrible was the sight that Moses said, “I exceedingly fear and tremble:”) but ye are come near * to mount Sion to, and to the city of the living
* that are, N. + and holiness, N. # lest there he any, N.
God, the heavenly Jerusalem *, and to myriads of mes.
trasted with that of Moses. “We that are the peculiar people of God,” says Dr. Sykes (in his note upon the text), “are not brought to a dreadful mountain, where we could not hear the word spoken for storm, and tempest, and thunder, and fire, as it was at Sinai : but we receive onr law from Sion, which we may ascend ourselves with: out the terror which Moses felt.” * The Christian church, figuratively represented by the city of God, the heaval: Jerusalem. + A myriad is ten thousand : it is used proverbially for an indefinitely large number. The Primate's version is, “to very great numbers of angels,” which is commonly + terpreted of celestial spirits. But as the writer is evidently describing the Christin church and dispensation as contrasted with the Mosaic, the connexion requires thattle word angels should be understood, as in chap i., of prophets and messengers from God. And the writer may well be supposed to allude to the abundant effusion of the boy spirit in the apostolic age, by which multitudes were divinely qualified, as messenger from God, to teach and to confirm the doctrine of the gospel. : “Not where others are to officiate for you, as the Levites for the first-bom, to where all are numbered as the people of God, and where you may all sacrifice your selves." Sykes. § “Among the citizens of heaven. The image of a city, ver. 22, is continued." Newcome. | The spirits of righteous men, Gr. and N. but the spirits of men are men them. selves. See 1 Cor. ii. 11. Gal. iv. 18. 2 Tim. iv. 22; and it seemed better to omitto word in the translation, because it leads the English reader to suppose that the writor is discoursing of disembodied spirits, when he evidently means men living in the world. Righteous or just men, are men who are brought into a justified state by be. fieving in Jesus as the Messiah: and they are said to be perfect because they are " secrated by a sacrifice which needs no repetition. Ch. x. 1. The law could not make” comers thereto perfect, but, ver, 14, by one offering Christ has for ever perfected them that are sanctified. “I better things. R. T. ** “See that ye refuse not him who speaketh.” Gr. and N. That God is the Po intended is evident from the quotation from Hag. ii. 6, 7. See Peirce in loc. God spoke on earth when he delivered the law upon Mount Sinai: he now speaks from heaven by the gifts of the holy spirit. 1 Pet. i. 12. See Lindsey's Seq. p. 356.
speaking from heaven: whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, “’Yet once more I shake not only the earth, but also the heaven ".” Now this expression, “Yet once more,” signifieth the removing of the things shaken, as of things which are made, that the things which are not shaken may remain. Wherefore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us hold fast favour +, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For even our God f is a consuming fire.
Ch. xiii. Let brotherly kindness continue. Be not forgetful
of hospitality: for by this some have unknowingly entertained angels S. Remember those that, are in bonds, as if bound with them; and those that are cruelly treated, as being yourselves also in the body. Marriage is honourable || among all, and the bed undefiled "I : but fornicators and adulterers God will judge. Let your manner” of life be without covetousness. Be content with such things as ye have: for God himself hath said, “I will never leave thee, nor utterly forsake thee ++.” So that we may boldly say, “The Lord is mine helper, and I will not fear what man can do unto me.” Remember those who preside over you, whoff spake to you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their behaviour $$. Jesus Christ || is the same yesterday, and to-day, and
* The shaking of heaven and earth denotes convulsions in the political and moral world; and, as the writer explains it, the abolition of the Jewish dispensation, to make way for the everlasting kingdom of the Messiah. See Acts ii. 19, 20. “I shake not the earth only, but heaven also.” N. + The gospel with its benefits, Newcome. Or, let us give thanks, &c. : For our God, N. § “See Gen. xviii. xix. So among you hospitality may be attended with unexpected pleasure and reward.” Newcome. | Or, Let marriage be honourable, &c. Wakefield. of the bed is, &c. N. ** Or, conduct, N. m. ++ nor forsake thee. N. See Wakefield, #: Or, your rulers, or leaders, or guides, who, N. m. $5 The issue of their course of life. Wakefield. #| “The evangelical doctrine, as delivered by Christ and his apostles.” Newcome.
for ever *. Be not carried aside + by various and strange doctrines: for it is a good thing that the heartbe strengthened by the gracious gospel f, not by meats, which have not profited those that have attended to them $. We have an altar of which they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle. For the bodies of those beasts the blood of which shed for sin is brought into the sanctuary by the high-priest ||, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people by his own blood, suffered without the gate. (Let us therefore go out unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach T : for here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.) By him there. fore let us offer up the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips which render thanks to his name**. But to do good, and to distribute, forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. Obey those who preside over you ++, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your benefitti, as those who must give account: that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for this would be unprofitable to you. Pray for us: for we trust that we have a good conscience, desiring to behave ourselves well in all things. But I more especially beseech you to do this, that I may be shortly restored to you. - Now the God of peace, who brought back $$ from the dead our Lord Jesus, who is the great shepherd of the
* Or, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday and to-day, will also be the same for ever, + carried about, R.T. .
1. Gr. favour, N. m. § Gr. in which those that have walked have not been profited. N. m. || whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high-priest for sin, N. *I bearing the cross, his reproach: N. ** the fruit of lips which confess his name. Wakefield. ++ Or, your leaders, or guides, N. m. #f Gr. “in behalf of your souls,” which is equivalent to “in your behalf.” Newcomo §§ Or, who raised. S. 41. N. m.
sheep by the blood” of the everlasting covenantt, make
of Italy salute you. The favour of God be with you all. Amen ||.
* “By shedding his blood to ratify that covenant which will never be annulled. Ch. viii. 13.” Newcome. + who brought from the dead that shepherd of the sheep, become great by the blood of an everlasting covenant, even our Lord Jesus Christ. Wakefield. 1. i. e. to the God of peace. $ Or, your leaders, or guides. N. m. | The epistle to the Hebrews is the first of those books which are distinguished by Eusebius as having been disputed in the primitive ages of Christianity, and which, therefore, are not to be received as of equal authority with the rest. This epistle, however, which contains many important observations and many wholesome truths, mingled, indeed, with some far-fetched analogies and inaccurate reasonings, was probably written before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, for it contains no allusion to those calamitous events. But by whom it was written is uncertain. Origen says that no one can tell who was the author of it. It has been ascribed to Paul, to Barnabas, to Luke, and to Timothy: but if Origen, the most learned and inquisitive writer in the third century, could not discover the author, it is in vain for us to attempt it, and we must be content to remain in ignorance.