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JAMES, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ,

to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. 2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into various 3 trials * ; knowing that the proof of your faith worketh 4 patience. And let patience have its perfect work: that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.

of you want wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not ; and 6 it shall be given him. But let him ask in † faith, no

thing doubting. For he that doubteth is like a wave of 7 the sea, moved by the wind and tossed about. And let

not that man think that he will receive any thing from 8 the Lord: he is a man of a divided mind, unsteady in all


Now if any

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his ways.


Now let the brother of low degree glory in that he is 10 exalted ; but the rich, in that he is made low: for as 11 the flower of the herb he will pass away. For the sun

is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the herb, and its flower falleth, and the beauty of its appearance perisheth : so the rich man also will fade in his

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ways. 12 Happy is the man that endureth trial I: for, when he


N. m. temptations, N. t.

+ Or, with, N. m.

# N.m. temptation, N. Co

1 1

hath been proved, he will receive the crown of life,

which the Lord hath promised to those who love him. 13 Let no man say, when he is tempted, “ I am tempted of

God:” for God cannot be tempted by evils, nor doth he 14 tempt any man. But every man is tempted, when he is 15 ensnared and allured by his own evil desire. Then when

desire bath conceived, it beareth sin : and sin, when it 16 is finished, bringeth forth death. Do not err, my be17 loved brethren. Every good gift, and every perfect be

nefit, is from above, and cometh down from the Father

of lights, with whom is no variableness, nor shadow of 18 turning. Of his own will he regenerated * us by the

word of truth, that we might be a kind of first-fruits of

his creatures. 19 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be 20 swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger. For the

anger of man worketh not the righteousness of God t. 21 Wherefore lay aside all defilement, and abundance of

wickedness, and receive with me kness the word im22 planted in you, which is able to save you I. But be ye

doers of the word ; and not hearers only, deceiving your 23 own selves. For if any be an hearer of the word, and

not a doer, he is like a man beholding his natural face 24 in a mirror: for he beholdeth himself, and goeth away,

and immediately forgetteth what manner of man he was. 25 But whoever looketh into the perfect law of freedom,

and continueth in it, this man, being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer $ of the work commanded, will be

happy in his deed. 26 If any man || seem to be religious, and bridle not his

tongue, but deceive his own heart, this man’s religion is 27 vain. The religion which is pure and undefiled before

our God and Father is this ; to take care of orphans and

* begat, N.

+ Or, the righteousness which God requireth. N. m. # N. m. your souls, Gr. and N.t.

Or, an active doer, Wakefield, 11 any man among you, R. T. and N. with doubt,

widows in their affliction, and to keep one's-self unspotted from the world.

Ch. 11. My brethren, hold not the faith of our Lord Jesus

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Christ, the Lord of glory”, with respect of persons. For if there come into your assembly a man with a gold ring in gorgeous apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile apparel; and ye regard him who weareth the gorgeous apparel, and say [to him], “Sit thou here in a good place;” and say to the poor man, “Stand thou there,” or, “Sit here under my footstool;” have ye not then been partial among yourselves, and have ye not be. come judges whose thoughts are evil? Hearken, my be. loved brethren: hath not God chosen the poor of the world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to those who love him But ye hate dishonoured the poor man. Do not the rich oppres you, and draw you before the judgement-seats? Do not they blaspheme that honourable name by which year called 2 Now if ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture, “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." ye do well: but if ye have respect of persons, ye commit sin, and are convicted by the law as transgressors. For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of shewing disrepect to alt. For he who said, “Do not commit adultery,” said also “Do not commit murther.” Now if thou commit no adultery, and yet commit murther, thou becomes transgressor of the law. So speak ye, and so act, as tho' who will be judged by the law of freedom. For he shall have pitiless judgement, that hath shewn no pity; but pity glorieth over judgement. What doth it profit, my brethren, if a man say thath hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him’

* Or, bold not your glorious belief in the Lord Jesus Christ, Wakefield. + see Bell on the Lord's supper, p. 101, 102. This indeed is all the writer* mutan. Comp. 1 Cor. xi. 27. “He is liable to the punishment of effending in all.” N.

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Now if a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food; and one of you say unto them, “Depart in peace, be ye warmed, and be ye filled;” but ye give them not those things which are necessary for the body; what doth it profit P. Thus faith also, if it have not works, is dead by itself. Yea, a man will say, “Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without * thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works.” Thou believest that God is one f: thou doest well: the demonst also believe, and tremble. But art thou willing to know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead 2 Was not our father Abraham justified by works, when he offered up his son Isaac on the altar P Dost thou see that faith wrought with his works; and that faith was made perfect by works 2 and that the scripture was fulfilled which saith, “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness:” and he was called the Friend of God? Do ye see § that a man is justified by works ||, and not by faith only 2 In like manner was not Rahab the harlot also justified by works, when she received the messengers, and sent them out another way P For as the body without the spirit T is dead, so faith without works is dead also.

Ch. III. My brethren, be not many teachers; knowing that 2 we shall receive a greater condemnation. For in many

things we all offend: if any offend not in word, he is a

* by thy works, MSS. # that there is one God: N.

† human ghosts: Mr. Farmer supposes an allusion to Job xxvi. 5, which he renders, “the giants, or the ghosts of the dead, tremble under the waters together with their host.” He adds, that St. James doth not appear to be delivering any new doctrine concerning demons, but rather to be arguing with the persons to whom he writes it, on their own principles. Farmer on Demoniacs, p. 211-216. 1st edition.

§ See, therefore, R.T.

| “So astoreceive God's continued and final favour. St. Paul's justification, Rom. iii. 28. v. 1. &c. &c., is admission into the gospel-covenant. St. James declares that such as are admitted into that covenant must perfect their faith by works, ver, 22, in order to be finally justified." Newcome.

‘I Or, breath, N. m.

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s perfect man, and able to bridle the whole body also. Be

hold, we put bits in the mouths of horses, that they may 4 obey us : and we turn about their whole body. Behold,

ships also, which are so great, and are driven by fierce

winds, yet are turned about by a very small helm, whi5 thersoever the pilot chooseth. Thus the tongue also is a

little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how 6 great a pile doth a little fire kindle! And the tongue is a

fire, a world of iniquity * : [so] is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth

on fire the course of nature t; and is itself set on fire by 7 hell. For every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of

creeping things, and of things in the sea, is subdued, 8 and hath been subdued, by mankind. But the tongue

no man can subdue: it is an evil not to be restrained, full 9 of deadly poison. Therewith, we bless our God and Fa

ther; and therewith we curse men, that are made after 10 the likeness of God. Out of the same mouth proceed

blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought 11 not so to be. Doth a spring send forth out of the same 12 place sweet and bitter water? Can a fig tree, my brethren,

bear olives? or a vine, figs ? So neither can that spring

which is salt yield sweet water I.. 13 Who is wise and knowing among you ? Let him shew

by bis works a good behaviour, with meekness of wis14 dom. But if ye bave bitter envy and strife in your heart,

boast not yourselves, and speak not falsely concerning 15 the truth. This wisdom cometh not down from above; 16 but is earthly, animal, demoniacal g. For where envy

and strife are, there disturbance is, and every evil work. 17 But the wisdom which is from above is first pure, then

peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of pity and

* the tongue is a spark, the varnisher of injustic:: Wakefield.
+ Gr. the wheel “ Setteth on fire the wheel of life." Wakefield.
I no fountain can yield both salt water and fresh. R.T.
$ d. inspired by evil spirits.

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