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18 and hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and

thine anger is come, and the time of the dead that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give a reward to thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and to

those who fear thy name, small.and great ; and shouldest 19 destroy those who destroy the earth.” And the temple

of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of the covenant of the Lord * was seen in his temple : and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an

earthquake, and great hail. Ch. xii. Now a great wonder appeared in heaven ; a woman

clad with the sun, and the moon was under her feet, and 2 upon

her head a crown of twelve stars : and she was with child, and cried out being in travail, and in great pain 3 to bring forth. And another wonder appeared in heaven;

for, behold, a great red dragon, having seven heads and 4 ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. And his

tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the wo

man who was about to bring forth, that, when she 5 brought forth, he might devour her child. And she

brought forth a male child, who was to rule all the na

tions with a rod of iron : and her child was caught up to 6 God, and to his throne. And the woman fled into the

desert, where she had a place prepared of God, that she should be fed there a thousand two hundred and sixty days.

And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels warred against the dragon; and the dragon warred, and 8 his angels, but they prevailed not, nor was their place 9 found any more in heaven. For the great dragon was

cast out, that old serpent, called the devil and Satan, who

deceiveth the whole world; he was cast out upon the 10 earth, and his angels were cast out with himt. And I


* the ark of his covenant, R. T. and N. See Griesbach.

t “ All this is a visionary scene, presented to the mind of St. Jobd. See the note on ch. iv, ver. 2. The meaning of the allegory seems to be, that, after a contest in

heard a loud voice saying in heaven,

• Now is come salvation, and might, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority * of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren

is cast down, that accused them before our God day 11 and night. But they overcame him by the blood of the

lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they 12 loved not their lives, but exposed them to death. Rejoice

therefore, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Alas for the earth, and for the sea ! + because the devil is come

down unto you, having great wrath, knowing that he 13 hath but a short time." And when the dragon saw that

he was cast out upon the earth, he pursued the woman 14 who brought forth the male child. And to the woman

were given two wings of the great eagle I, that she might fly into the desert, to her place, where she is to be fed for

a time and times and half a time, from before the serpent. 15 And the serpent cast out of his mouth, after the woman,

water as it were a river, that he might cause her to be 16 carried away by the river. But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth, and drank


the 17. iver which the dragon cast out of his mouth. And the

dragon was angry with the woman, and departed to make war with the rest of her offspring, who kept the com, mandments of God, and maintained the testimony of

Jesus 8. Ch. xIII. Then I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a

beast rise up out of the sea, having ten horns, and seven

heads; and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his 2 heads names of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw

was like a leopard, and his feet were as those of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon

the Roman empire, the champions of the christian cause prevailed; heathenism, or the religion of the empire, was abolished; and the christian emperor Constantine gave a civil establishment to christianity.” Newcome. * power, N. + alas for the inhabitants of the earth, and the sea, R. T. a great eagle, N.

of Jesus Christ, R.T,

gave him his own power, and his own throne, and

great 3 authority. And I saw one of his heads wounded, as it

were, to death; but his deadly stroke was healed : and all 4 the world wondered and followed after the beast. And

men worshiped the dragon, because he had given authority to the beast *: and they worshiped the beast, saying,

" Who is like the beast ? and who is able to make war 5 with him?” And there was given to the beast a mouth

speaking great things, and blasphemies; and authority + 6 was given him [to continue 1] forty-two months. And

he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blas

phreme bis name, and his tabernacle, and those who 7 dwell in heaven. And it was given him to make war with

the saints, and to overcome them : and authority Ở was

given him over every tribe, and people, and language, 8 and nation. And all that dwelt on the earth worshiped

him, whose name was not written from the foundation of

the world, in the book of life of the lamb that was slain. 9 If any man have an ear, let bim hear. If any lead into 10 captivity, he shall go into captivity : If any shall kill

with the sword, he must be killed with the sword. Here.

is the patience and the faith of the saints. 11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth;

and he had two horns like a lamb, but he spake as a 12 dragon. And he exerciseth all the authority of the first

beast in his presence, and causeth the earth, and those

who dwell in it, to worship the first beast, whose deadly 13 wound was healed. And he doeth great miracles;

that he maketh fire to come down from heaven on the 14 earth in the presence of men. And he deceiveth those

who dwell on the earth by means of those miracles which it was given him to do in the presence of the beast ; saying to those who dwell on the earth, that they should

which had given authority, R. T. power, N.

+ power, N. Or, to act, or to make war. See Griesbach. The MSS. vary.

power, N.

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make an image to the beast which had the wound by a 15 sword and yet lived. And he had power to give life to

the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should

both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship 16 the image of the beast should be killed. And he causeth

all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slaves,

to receive* from him a mark on their right hand, or on 17 their foreheads : [and] that no man might be able to buy

or sell, but he that had the mark, even the name of the 18 beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let

him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is

six hundred and sixty-six. Ch. xiv. And I looked, and, behold, the lamb stood on

mount Sion, and with him a hundred and forty-four thou

sand persons, having his own name t and his Father's name 2 written on their foreheads. And I heard a sound from

heaven, as the sound of many waters, and as the sound

of a great thunder : and the sound which I heard was as 3 that of harpers playing on their harps : and they sang as

it were a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures, and the elders : and none could learn

that song, but the hundred and forty-four thousand, that 4 were bought from the earth. These are they that were

not defiled with women : for they are virgins: these are they who follow the lamb whithersoever he goeth : these

were bought from among men, as the first-fruits to God, 5 and to the lamb. And in their mouth was found no

falsehood : for they are spotless I. 6 And I saw another angel flying in mid-heaven, ha

ving an everlasting gospel s to proclaim unto those who

dwell on the earth, and unto every nation, and tribe, and 7 language, and people, saying with a loud voice,

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« Fear

* Gr. MSS. that men should give them, N. m. f his own name, omitted in R. T.

was found no guile: for they are spotless before the throne of God. R. T.
the everlasting gospel, Ñ.

And an

God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judge

ment is come: and worship Him who made heaven, and 8 earth, and the sea, and the springs of waters.”

other angel followed, saying, “ The great Babylon * is

fallen, is fallen ; [because] she made all nations drink of 9 the wine of the fury of her fornication f." · And another

third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “ If

any one worship the beast and his image, and receive the 10 mark of the beast on his forehead, or on his hand; he

shall drink of the wine of the fury of God, which is pre. pared | without mixture in the cup of his anger; and he

shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence 11 of the holy angels, and in the presence of the lamb: and

the smoke of their torment shall go up for ever and ever g: and they shall have no rest day or night who worship the

þeast and his image, and if any one receive the mark of 12 his name." Here is the patience of the saints, who keep || 13 the commandments of God, and faith in Jesus. And I

heard a voice from heaven, saying 1, “Write: happy are the dead who die in the Lord henceforth: Yes, saith the Spirit; they rest from their labours; and their works fol

low them **" 14 And I looked, and, behold, a white cloud, and


* the great city, Babylon, R. T. + Or, of her furious fornication. N. mn.
* Gr, mixed.

It would be very unreasonable to infer the gloomy doctrine of eternal misery from the loose and figurative language of a prophetic vision, in opposilion to the plainest dictates of reason and justice, and to the whole tenor of divine revelation. But if any one is disposed to lay undue stress upon this text, it may be sufficient to remark, that it is not here asserted that the torment continues, but that the smoke of it ascends for ever and ever. The smoke of a pile in which a criminal has been consumed-may continue to ascend long after the wretched victim has ceased to suffer. And a memorial of the punishment which has been inflicted on vice may remain long after vice itself has been utterly exterminated. After all, as the prophecy relates wholly to states of things in the present world, the punishments threatened ought, in all reason, to be understood of temporal punishments, and not of the sufferings of a future life. So in Jude, ver. 7, Sodom and Gomorrha are represented as suffering the vengeance of eternal fire, i. e. of a temporal calamity, a fire which completely destroyed them. || Here are they who keep, R. T:

saying unto me, R. 'T. ** Or, go with them,

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