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Psalm 146: 10. The Lord shall reign forever, even thy God, O Zion.' But here again the common explanation is given 'unto all generations.' Also

To his wisdom or counsel. In Psalm 33:11. The counsel of the Lord standeth forever.' But it is said by way of explanation, the thought of his heart to all generations.' And


To his righteousness or salvation. Thus it is said, Isai. 51: salvation shall be forever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished.' Now compare with this verse 8. ' my righteousness shall be forever, and my salvation from generation to generation;' does not from generation to generation' here express precisely what is meant by forever?'

But I find the word olim rendered forever' and applied to God's mercy. The expression for his mercy


dureth forever is found once in each of the following texts. 2 Chron. 5:13. 20:21. Ezra 3:11. Psalm 106: 1. 107: 1. 138: 8. Jer. 33: 11. In each of the following places it occurs twice. 2 Chron. 7: 3, 6. 1 Chron. 16: 34, 41. In Psalm 118: 1-4, 29. it is found five times. And in Psalm 136. it occurs no less than twenty-six times. The expression for his mercy endureth forever,' is found then forty-two times in the Old Testament. The reason for being so particular in thus numbering the places will appear presently. Although the following texts do not contain this precise expression, yet it is evident they have an affinity to the present topic. I shall therefore introduce them here, before I proceed to make any remarks on the above expression.

David says, Psalm 89: 1. I will sing of the mercies of the Lord forever,' and explains it by adding,

with my mouth will I make known thy faithfulness to all generations.' And well he might, for he says, verse 2. Mercy shall be built up forever.' And again explains his meaning by saying, 'thy faithfulness



shalt thou establish in the very heavens.' Observe, that in the first of these verses forever is explained in the margin to generation and generation.' In the second by his faithfulness being established in the very heavens seems to be meant, that it should endure as the heavens or throughout all generations. Besides, David says, Psalm 100: 5. For the Lord is good: his mercy is everlasting,' and adds by way of explanation and his truth endureth to all generations.' He adds, Psalm 103: 17. But the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him,' and it is again added, and his righteousness unto children's children.'


On all these texts where it is said, 'for his mercy endureth forever,' with others of a similar nature, I shall now make a few observations.-1st. It is very evident, that the mercy of God formed the burden of song to the Jews in their worship. The God of the Jews, was a merciful God, slow to anger and of great kindness. 2d. If it be true, as our orthodox friends assert, that God is as much glorified in the display of his endless wrath against the wicked, as in the display of his endless mercy towards the righteous, how do they account for it, that the phrase 'for his wrath endureth forever' does not occur forty-two times as the phrase for his mercy endureth forever? Why have we not a Psalm, in which it is twenty-six times said, 'O! give thanks unto the Lord for he is good, for his wrath endureth forever.' Nor do we see what objection they could have to singing it, if God is as much glorified by the one as by the other. But supposing such a Psalm found in the Bible, and that they should sing both, would they not celebrate the endless mercy and wrath of the same God towards his own creatures? But I ask, how all this could be reconciled with God's declarations, that mercy rejoiceth against judgment, and that his tender mercies are over his

other works. But 3d. we would candidly ask our orthodox brethren, how they account for the extraordinary fact, that it is not once said that the wrath of the Lord endureth forever? so far from this being once asserted, it is repeatedly and expressly denied that God's wrath endureth forever. Thus it is said, Psalm 103: 9. He will not always chide: neither will he keep his anger forever.' Again, Isai. 57: 16. For I will not contend forever, neither will I be always wroth for the spirit should fail before me and the souls which I have made.' No, say our orthodox friends, they shall not fail but shall endure the endless wrath of God. But it is again said, Jer. 3: 5. Will he reserve his anger forever? Will he keep it to the end? Here it is supposed that forever is to end, and hence it is said, verse 12. for I am merciful saith the Lord, and I will not keep anger forever.' And in Lam. 3: 31. it is expressly said, the Lord will not cast off, forever.' Further, David says, Psalm 85: 5. Wilt thou be angry with us forever? but he adds by way of explanation, wilt thou draw out thine anger to all generations?" And Psalm 77: 8. says, is his mercy clean gone forever? Doth his promise fail for evermore? Notice here, that as forever and for evermore are expressions which convey to an English reader the same idea, so did the original word olim to the sacred writers. This appears also from other passages.

It is beyond all debate, that it is never once said, that the anger or wrath of God endureth forever. We solemnly call on any man to produce a single instance where this is said by any Old Testament writer. By what authority then do men in our day preach that God's wrath is to endure forever? Is it like men who reverence the sacred oracles, to speak of the everlasting anger and eternal wrath of God, yet can produce no example from them of such

modes of speaking? Yea, I ask every candid man if it is possible to select words, which could more clearly and emphatically deny that God's wrath endureth forever, than is done in the above passages? Granting then, for argument's sake, that olim, rendered forever, expresses endless duration, and that God's wrath or anger means punishment, no language could more definitely declare, that punishment is not of endless duration. Were I contending for a victory over the believers in endless punishment, it would be good policy in me to allow, that olim, rendered forever, expresses endless duration, for the above texts would be direct positive proof, that it is not of endless duration. Our orthodox friends in contending for this must perceive, that their doctrine of endless punishment is overturned from its base by the above passages. But I disclaim any contention for victory. My object is to examine what is truth, and embrace it whatever it may be, for this only can stand, or be of any real benefit to the human race.

4th. But granting, for the sake of argument, that God's wrath was as much celebrated in the Bible as his mercy, and that the endless duration of it was as often asserted, permit me to ask, what worse could be sung of an Eastern despot, or of the devil, allowing such a fallen angel to exist? We seriously urge our brethren who believe such a doctrine, to consider if such a God can appear to any person very lovely, or is likely to be loved. None can love him, but those who can persuade themselves that they are his particular favorites. Even this may be doubted, for a being of this character may turn their enemy tomorrow, and display his endless wrath upon them. All the apparent love and obedience which they pretend to pay him, it is to be feared, arises more from terror of, than love to him; and if a song of endless

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mercy and endless wrath are both alike orthodox, orthodoxy must be a very singular kind of thing.

To get rid of these, and other serious difficulties which might be urged, it may be said, "in all the above texts where it is denied that God's wrath endureth forever, the writers are not speaking of God's wrath in a future state of existence, but only in the present life." Well, how does this relieve the difficulties, unless it is proved from some other texts, that God says his wrath shall endure forever in a future state of existence? But can this be proved? No; this very attempt to escape from the difficulties, only shows the impossibility of making any escape, for if the above texts wholly refer to the present life, how happens it that they are the only texts where forever and the wrath of God are associated, and in them it is expressly denied that his wrath does endure forever? If denied in them, and found in no other, it settles the question, that God's wrath does not endure forever even in the present life, far less in a future state of existence. But is it not rather silly to make the inspired writers say, that God's wrath does not endure forever in the present life, yet contend for this in a future state without any Scripture authority? Who needed to be told that God's punishment of men in this world was not of endless duration?

5th. We come now to those texts in which olim is repeated, and is rendered "forever and ever."

I find, then, that forever and ever is used and applied to the following things, and in the following ways. David says, Psalm 119: 44. "I shall keep thy law continually, forever and ever." And in Mic. 4: 5. "We will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever." And Dan. 12: 3. "they that turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars forever and ever." And David says of God's judgments, that

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