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husband, that bringing home his store of provisions another time at once, his labour may be lessened. Let a mind, capable of delicate sensations, conceive, if possible, the pleasing thoughts that must employ our first mother whilst at work; the transport of the husband, at receiving the pretty useful toy, a proof at once of the ingenuity, industry, and affection of one so dear; the pleasure he must have in bestowing praises so well deserved; the heart-felt innocent joy she must have in receiving them, for the desire of praise is not in itself sinful; and, lastly, the cheerful grateful hearts with which they must offer up together their evening hymns. I must indulge the pleasing subject a little further: suppose Adam, intent to repay the kind present, having often experienced the use'of clay when hollowed out to contain water for his plants, and also the effect of the sun in hardening that part of the clay thrown up on the sides of his reservoir, now sets himself to work, and forms a kind of portable cistern, which, when well dried, he carries home, where, notwithstanding its rustic form, its extreme usefulness must make it highly valuable. But, lo! the little basket, slightly fastened, breaks in pieces, and shows the necessity of more durable materials, than a slight thorn, easily shook out; the rushes now are woven in to fasten the rows: hence in time arise the useful needle and thread. But in the mean time, how many useful works in earth, how many mats for beds, for seats, for cradles, and all kinds of baskets for stores, are invented from these first hints? And how many dull winternights are usefully and agreeably employed? So that every bitter want, after performing its office for reproof and correction, is repaid with exquisite pleasure by the useful invention which supplies it. Thus, may we likewise suppose our first parents to proceed as to astronomy. An upright stile or stalk placed as a memorial of the place where the

sun set at the equinox, with its fellow pointing out the rising of the moon at the same time; these, daily observed, would by their oblique shadows, show the course of the sun continually rising and setting nearer the north unto the summer solstice; then gradually returning to the equinoctial point, and getting nearer and nearer to the south, till the winter solstice following; the consequent lengthening and shortening of the days, with the regular return of the seasons. Another stile, erected to observe the sun's meridian altitude, would soon be observed to mark by its shadow the regular advance of summer and winter, and the course of the moon and stars. Thus much, and much more might be attained, by the constant observations of nine hundred years; and whatever else was necessary would probably be supplied by Him who appointed the heavenly bodies 'for signs and for seasons, and for days and for years.'—Gen. i. How far the revelation might go, we are not told; much farther I believe, than is commonly thought: and yet I cannot think it went to that exact nicety which Mr. Kennedy's calendar supposes, because a more simple method of discovery seems to me to have been more suitable to the situation of man, wanting continually useful and agreeable employments. The Creator could have produced, I doubt not, ready clothing by some means or other; yet he only points out the use of skins, most ready and warm indeed, and most fit to typify the covering of our sins by a suffering Redeemer, but far short of the use and elegance contrived since by the sons of Adam. How prodigiously has this want alone, and the command of supplying it, contributed to the happiness of mankind, by civilizing, by employing, by uniting them! Thus has the goodness of God provided that our miseries should become advantages, to lessen the wickedness of man, by employing his thoughts and labours to the use of himself and others, but not till, having felt his wants, he should be willing to be so employed. Something of this kind is observable in the conduct of God towards his peculiar people: his omniscience wanted not to be informed, that the yoke of legal observances would be needful to restrain the sons of Israel, yet he laid it not on them, till their shameful fall in the worship of the golden calf showed, by experience, its necessity. So, also, Moses was not directed to divide his authority, till experience, and the counsel of Jethro, made him of himself desire it . So, in the case of a second passover, for such as by legal impurity were disqualified to eat of the first, the experience of the want of such a provision led the people to desire it, and then God, who could not be ignorant of it, provided a remedy.—Num. ix. 6. So in the case of the daughters of Zelophehad, Num. xxxvi. 1., and many others might be added; in all which we should be mad to suppose Omniscience could overlook the inconvenience; and must see the design was, that man should be sensible of it himself. 1 have been, perhaps, in all this too minute; but I could not help endeavouring to show, what I never saw pointed out by any other, the happiness of man, even after his fall, and the great mercy of God in continually bringing good out of evil."

Having seen Mrs. Bowdler's notions on the means possessed by man of acquiring knowledge subsequently to the loss of paradise, the reader may be willing to peruse a very short paper, which led to several others, ascribing the origin of many of the most important arts to the immediate teaching of God, by the appointment of sacrifice.

Reflexions sur l'Origine du Sacrifice, aux quelles une Expression hasardée par Monsieur de Bitffbn a donné lieu.

"Monsieur Buffon, vol. xxix. p. 162. dit de l'homme, "Par un seul rayon de son intelligence il a produit l'element du feu, qui n'existoit pas sur la surface de la terre."

"Il est bien vrai que le feu ne paroît pas un produit naturel, et qu'il a été probable que l'usage en ait demeuré longtems inconnu; mais s'ensuit-il que l'homme par sagesse ou même par hazard, en ait fait la découverte? S'il y avoit des sauvages au monde qui pussent en ignorer l'usage, ils pourroient peutêtre à la longue en faire par le frottement de deux pieces de bois, ou en frappant un caillou; mais qu'il y a loin de cette découverte aux usages du feu. On verroit des étincelles cent fois, sans être plus instruit de la nature du feu, sans découvrir qu|il peut échauffer, et éclairer l'horreur des ténèbres; sans savoir ce que c'est qu'aprêter les viandes, cuire des ouvrages de terre, bouillir de l'eau, ou fondre des métaux. Le bois frotté s'allume à la longue, mais pourquoi l'homme, à qui l'on imagine l'usage du feu inconnu, se seroit-il amusé à frotter ainsi le bois? S'il l'a fait sans dessein, il faut aussi que sans connoissance et sans dessein il se soit placé près d'un tas de matière combustible; alors le feu ayant pris aura pu lui faire sentir une douce chaleur, mais une douleur cuisante a du se faire sentir ensuite, les effets de cet élément lui étant entièrement inconnu. Si une découverte si hazardeuse, et en même tems si utile, eut été faite par un homme, son nom et sa patrie seroient connus par toute la terre, comme le sont les avantages de cette découverte. On parle d'un certain Promethée, mais on l'accuse de sacrilège pour avoir volé ce feu du ciel. Cet élément dans tous les tems et dans tous les pays, a été connu, et a été presque partout considéré comme sacré, comme un don du ciel. On l'a voulu entretenir continuellement sur les autels: on a consacré pour cela des vierges, des prêtres, dans diffcrens pays: tout cela ne semble-t-il pas prouver que l'homme n'a jamais été privé d'un don si utile, et qu'il l'a reçu de la main de Dieu même. Pourquoi un Créateur, dont la bonté éclate partout, auroit-il laissé souffrir à sa créature des inconveniens si terribles, si capables de l'abutir, lorsqu'il lui étoit si aisé de l'en délivrer. Ne'st-il pas naturel de croire, que lui ayant enseigné (comme l'Ecriture le dit expressément) à lui offrir des sacrifices, ce premier acte d'obéissance après sa chute fut récompensé par un témoignage visible de l'acceptation de Dieu, seul capable de rassurer l'homme pécheur; Et quel signe plus convenable que celui d'un feu miraculeux, tel que celui qui consuma le sacrifice à la consécration du tabernacle, et qui par l'ordre de Dieu ne devoit jamais s'éteindre? Signe miraculeux, signe frappant de la colère divine, exerçant sa juste vengeance sur l'image du pécheur; mais signe plein de bénédictions pour l'homme; puis-qu'il lui faisoit connoître la bonté de son Père tout-puissant par la connoissance d'un élément si utile; et que, selon toute apparence, il n'eut jamais pu découvrir par lui-même.

"Monsieur Buffon auroit pu aussi apprendre de Moise que Dieu avoit enseigné à l'homme à se vêtir."

By the death of his father, Mr. Bowdler became possessed of such an income as he deemed sufficient to enable him to live, as those who preceded him had lived, humbly, but respectably, without the labour and anxiety of

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