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SULPHITE PULP, see Pulp
Ostberg & Diedrichs (importers Exp. 4
SULPHURIC ACID, see Chemicals
Allmanna Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson .. D 9—12
Kockums Mekaniska Verkstads A.-B B 54—56
TALCUM, see Chemicals
A.-B. P. Ericsson & Co H 7
Jonsereds Fabrikers A.-B B 82—85
Stockholm! Superfosfat Fabriks A.-B G 7
Allmanna Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson .. D 9—12
Allmanna Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson .. 1) 9—12
Nydqvist & Holm A.-B B 1—9
A.-B. P. Ericsson A Co H 8
TERRITE, see Explosiees
TNT SHELL CHARGES, see Explosives
Month-wash, Parba shaving sticks and creams,
Barnangens Tekniska Fabrikers A.-B (115
Svenska Verktygsmaskinfabrikers Export A.-B. B 66
A.-B. Max Sievert C 33—34
Milling cotters, reamers
Lidkiipings Mekaniska Verkstads A.-B B 10—13
Pneumatic, see Pneumatic tools
A.-B. Svenska Kullauerfabriken C 21—27
TOOTHPASTE, see Toilet articles
Gotha Canal Steamship Co., Ltd Es. 8
TRACTORS, see Machines, agricultural
Asea, Allmiinna Svenska Elektriska A.-B D 1—6
Nordiska Kullager A.-B C 28—30
Nydqvist & Holm A.-B B 1—9
A.-B. Svenska Kullaeerfabriken C 21—27
TRAVELLING REQUISITES, see Fi'»re products
TROLLEY WIRE, see Metal*
A.-B. Tidan F 15—17
TUBES AND PIPES
Uddeholms A.-B A 36—43
A.-B. KarUtads Mekaniska Verkstad, Verkstaden
i Kristinehamn C 5—20
Nydqvist * Holm A.-B B 1—9
Governors, regulators, sluice gates, valves
i Kristinehamn C5—20
Nydqvist & Holm A.-B l1 1—9
A.-B. Lindholmen-Motala B 48—53
A.-B. Karlstads Mekaniska Verkstad. Verkstaden
Nydqvist .t Holm A.-B B 1—9
Gadelius & Co., Ltd Exp. 1
TURPENTINE, see Chemicals
A.-B. Malcus Holmquist B 70—73
Nydqvist & Holm A.-B B 1—9
UREA, see Chemicals
A.-B. Sveriges Forenadc Konscrvfabriker H 3
LldkSplngs Mekaniska Verkstads A.-B ll 10—13
•VIKING. POLISH, see Polishes
Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags A.-B A 1—21
Brief Survey of the Principal Industries of Sweden
The Sweden of only fifty years ago was a country in which 72 per cent of the population gained their livelihood from farming, while only 15 per cent were engaged in manufacture. In the intervening time it has been industrialized to a rather remarkable extent, inasmuch as probably only about 40 per cent nowadays live by agricultural pursuits, and about an equal number are engaged in industry. In spite of these facts it cannot be said with truth that Sweden has ever been a really agricultural country. The area of farming land is only 12 per cent of the total, and the cultivated portion only 9 per cent.
No less than 52 per cent of the total area of the country, exclusive of water, consists of woodlands. Forestry is therefore one of the principal occupations, and the industries based on the forests as raw material, especially the sawmilling, pulp, and paper industries, are the chief industries of Sweden.
The remaining portion, 34 per cent of the total area, consists of land other than farmland and forests. Rather a large portion is bogland, which is utilized to some extent for the production of peat-fuel and peat-dross. A still greater portion, however, consists of rock and mountains which contain one of the greatest national resourees of Sweden: great deposits of rich iron-ore in Central and Northern Sweden. Mining has in consequence for many centuries been one of the principal occupations as well as iron production, and the iron, steel, and machine industries are among those of chief importance in the country at the present day.
The greatest obstacle to a rapid industrial expansion has been the lack of fossil fuel. Thanks to the enormous resourees of water-power, which have of recent years been utilized to a very great extent for the generation of electricity, an at least partial compensation has been obtained that provides a firm basis for a powerful development of Swedish industry in the future.
The foregoing summary of the chief resourees of Swedish industry makes plain, in a general way, its main characteristics from a manufacturing and commereial point of view. The remainder of this survey will be devoted to a description of the principal branches of industry with special regard to their import requirements of raw materials, and the selling conditions for their products at home and abroad.
As has been mentioned above, Sweden is particularly rich in high-pereentage iron-ore A very great portion of the ore mined is exported, normally about 80 per cent. Large quantities are worked up in the country, however, and Swedish pig-iron and bar-iron are among the greatest export articles of long standing, and of later years Swedisli steel. The high quality of Swedish iron and steel is well known and appreciated in all industrial countries, all of the export grades being chareoal iron and steel. The rather high price of the Swedish iron, however, due to the expensive methods of production, makes it more advantageous for the Swedish engineering works to use imported coke pig-iron especially for foundry purposes. This fact explains the fairly large importation of that commodity.
Of the decarburized iron, both wrought iron and ingot iron, a certain part is exported in the the crude state. The principal export, however, is concerned with iron and steel which has been forged or rolled. The chief articles of this kind are hammered or hot-rolled bars, wire rods and wire, and tube billets. The manufacture of plate and, on the whole, wire and ropes is mainly for the home market, the exports not being very large. On the other hand, there is a considerable import of heavy building materials: beams, joists, etc., and rails, as well as plates, sheets, wrought- and cast-iron tubes.
The production of metals other than iron is not important. The largest is the copper production. A very large import of copper takes place. The manufacture of products of copper and alloys is very much more important, and about covers the requirements. The importation is balanced by an approximately equally large export.
Iron and steel wares of many different kinds arc manufactured in Sweden on a large scale and partly for export. Particularly characteristic of this branch of Swedish metalworking is the Eskilstuna trade, dating from the eighteenth century and concentrated in the town of Eskilstuna. The products include knives, scissors and shears, axes, sawblades, other edged tools, locks, hinges, etc., all kinds of hardware and fine forgings. This trade is indeed a very important industry with a considerable export.
The Swedish engineering industry and allied manufacturing branches manufacture a vast variety of products, among which the most important are oil-engines, machines and implements for agriculture and dairy-working, machines and machine-tools for all kinds of industries, all of them being exported to a great extent. For mainly domestic consumption are manufactured such articles as bicycles, sewing machines, steel structures, and war material.
Despite the comprehensive nature of the Swedish machine and tool production, the importation of machines of different kinds has kept even steps with the export of Swedish machines abroad. This, of course, is due to the increased specialization which makes it necessary for a country with so small a home market as Sweden to concentrate the export manufacture on a comparatively small number of standard articles. A typical feature of the Swedish machine production is just its devotion to certain specialities, as a rule the result of Swedish inventions, such as cream-separators, ballbearings, lighthouse, buoy and railway lighting, and some other lines, all of them large export articles and well known in all countries.
Swedish shipbuilding has forged ahead to a very prominent place, and constructs large seagoing vessels of modern types. The shipping has grown at a greater rate, however, which necessitates orders for ships being placed abroad and purehases made in other countries.
The electrical industry in Sweden is represented by three main branches, the manufacture of machines and appliances for high-tension electricity, the manufacture of telephones and telephone systems, and the manufacture of electric conducting material. Especially the telephone industry has a very large export. In the other spheres the competition with other countries is very strong, and the importation of such goods by Sweden has been not inconsiderable.
The Swedish mountains are of a certain national economic importance apart from the ore they contain. They consist to a great extent of very fine granite, which is quarried on a large scale, especially in the southern and south-western coast provinces. A very large export of mainly rough blocks, building and paving stone has taken place. The large limestone formations have been instrumental in building up one of the large export industries of the country, the cement industry. Despite the great increase of cement consumption in Sweden, it has been possible to maintain a very large export BRIEF SURVEY OF THE PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES OF SWEDEN • XXIII
to overseas countries. The brick, poreelain, pottery, and glass industries are mainly devoted to the home market.
The greatest national resourees of Sweden are the forests. The annual lumbering amounts to about 40,000,000 cubic metres of wood. During the past fifty years woodgoods have constituted the largest export article of the country, as computed in value. Of the entire exports the woodgoods alone reach normally a figure of between 30 and 40 per cent. There is little need here to go into an account of the quality of Swedish wood and its markets in different parts of the world. The greatest portion sent out consists of sawn goods, while planed wood, and unworked and hewn timber plays a comparatively small part in the export. A considerable woodworking industry has grown up in the country, with a large export especially of joinery but also of furniture, carpentry and turned articles, cooperage goods, etc.
A wood product of an increasingly growing importance in the national husbandry of Sweden is woodpulp. The Swedish pulp occupies a leading position on the world's markets. The character of the industry is best indicated by stating that three quarters of the output is exported.
Nevertheless, the portion remaining in the country is very considerable and is worked up into paper and boards, which also are great articles of export. The tendency in the Swedish paper trade points to a specialization on certain chief products, viz. newsprint and wrapping paper, and composition-boards. These constitute the principal export goods. The production of fine papers and building-boards is mainly for domestic consumption, but the export is not inconsiderable, especially of the finer grades of paper and moisture-absorbing boards.
The Swedish textile industry is almost entirely based on imported raw materials. Only slight quantities of flax and wool are produced in the country. Finished goods: yarn and cloth, clothing and knitted goods, are imported very largerly, though the Swedish textile industry has developed to considerable proportions and is regarded as one of the great industries of Sweden. No export industry exists as such, but an export of certain articles takes place.
The importation of raw materials and products of the leather industry has for a long time exceeded the exports of such goods. Raw hides have been imported in great quantities. At the same time, however, rather large quantities of Swedisli hides and skins have been exported. This cireumstance is due to the fact that the Swedisli tanning industry uses Swedish hides only to a very small extent. The Swedisli tanneries are mostly engaged in making heavy sole leather, for which the thin Swedisli hides are not suitable. The importation of top-leather is rather considerable too. Sweden is not dependent on other countries in the matter of boots and shoes.
The Swedish rubber industry has expanded rapidly, especially in regard to the production of rubber overshoes. Other rubber articles are not made to any great extent, the greater part being imported from abroad.
The chemical industry in Sweden is comparatively incomplete, certain branches, such as the production of dyestuffs, not existing at all. Other branches, such as the manufacture of soap and candles is almost entirely devoted to the domestic market, and uses imported raw materials to a great extent. The most important branches, besides the ancient Swedish tar-production and production of other wood-distillates are