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lican travellers have said little about the employment of Infant Labor.
“ Our condition of the poor in Great Britain factories,” says a recent number of an of any class; much less have they thought excellent journal, the “ Non-Conformof looking for distress in the English cot- ist,” “are daily scenes, even now, of tage. Little has been known, even in hecatombs of youthful victims, sacriEngland, among the higher classes, of the ficed not only without remorse, but agricultural distress until recently, and with a stoical'indifference, to which it they have cared still less than they knew. is difficult, we should imagine, for huAll hear the groan of the Factory operatives who are congregated in dense masses
man nature, in its most depraved state, in the large manufacturing towns. But to attain.” “Thirty thousand child from the scattered and isolated position of dren,” says the London Morning Post, the country laborers, their sufferings are many of them under eight years of less likely to be inquired into. Poets who age, are worked in cotton factories vegetate in Grub street attics may sing of even now, in many cases, more than “vine-clad cottages," and Republican twelve hours a day. Nay, these helptourists, who struggle to gain admittance less creatures are compelled (as was to aristocratic circles abroad, (and this fully proved before a Parliamentary is no difficult matter for any foreigner,) Committee) to walk after the machinand who are there flattered, not only out ery from twenty to thirty miles a day: of their republicanism but their humanity, The cruelties proved, by irresistible evimay say a thousand soft things of Lords dence, to be committed on these helpand Ladies, and England being a Paradise; less victims of our gambling system of it will nevertheless remain true, that there is not a step but simply a hand's: trade, are sufficient to chill the blood breadth between the condition of the Eng- of every person possessed of the ordilish agricultural laborer and pauper- nary attributes of humanity." " It is
a monstrous thing,” says the Quarterly
Review, Dec., 1840, “ to behold the We have extracted the more co- condition, moral and physical, of the piously from the pages which_treat of juvenile portion of our operative classes, ihe Agricultural Laborers in England, more especially that which is found in because the general fact of the Factory the crowded lanes and courts of the distress is less novel to most of our larger towns, the charnel-houses of our readers than the equally bad condition race. ... Emerging from these lairs of these “muzzled oxen that tread out of filth and disorder, the young workthe corn.” We pass over all that re- ers,—-rising early, and late taking lates to the Collieries, the ineffable rest-go forth that they may toil horror of which was so recently brought through the fifteen, sixteen, nay seven, up to the light of day-with only an teen relentless hours, in sinks and allusion to the remark made by some abysses, oftentimes even more offensive of the most sensible members of the and pernicious than the holes they have House of Lords, on the occasion of the quitted; enfeebled in health and exasBill for their reform, which grew out of perated in spirit, having neither that these revelations, namely, that it was repose which is restorative to the body, questionable whether there was any nor that precious medicine which can humanity in going any further than a alone tranquillize the soul, they are very slight modification of some of the forced to live and die as though it were abuses of the system, as they were, after the interest of the state to make them all, a refuge from greater evils of their pigmies in strength and heathens in starvation above ground.
religion. Much are we often tempted We have no space to dwell on the to imprecate on these cities the curse condition of the slaves of the Factory of Jericho (Joshua 6, xxvi.); but far system, though we have not been able better is it for us, at most humble disto read through Mr. Lester's accumu- tance, to imitate those gracious and lation of facts and evidence in relation holy tears which fell over the pride to their destitution and degradation and covetousness and ignorance of Jewithout the most sickening sensations. rusalem.” It is evident that very little good has Of the ignorance and demoralization, resulted from the enactments which the necessary accompaniments of the were adopted in 1833, after the cele- state of semi-starvation of the great brated Report of the Factory Commis- mass of the English operatives, we sioners, to regulate the abuses of the need not speak. The proportion of
them is extremely small who possess, by this, though there would needs be or can acquire, even the humblest rudi- some considerable transfers of wealth ments of education. “The conclusion from certain classes of holders to forced upon us from the testimony we others. The Debt need not be repudihave adduced," writes Mr. Lester, “is, ated; unrighteous as it is, let it be paid; that
among the working classes, which or at least the compromise might be are by far the most numerous, not more made between the different classes of than one half, so far as direct education wealth, by the payment of all under a is concerned, are in a condition very certain amount. Let the Establishmuch better than barbarians !" And ment go next, and, applying its prohe thus closes the chapter devoted to perty toward the extinction of the this branch of his sad subject:
Debi, let the various forms of Religion,
purified and renovated by the process, “In bringing to a close this faint but find the support which in this country dreary picture of the woes of the poor, I proves so ample, in the Voluntary again ask what has England get done for Principle. And let the enormous burthe mass of her slave population at home? then of the support of the splendor She has been experimenting on human of the monarchy and its attendant arissuffering for a thousand years. While she tocracy, and the great military establishhas made her commerce and wealth eclipse ments, with the thousands and tens of that of Alexandria and Tyre-while she thousands of little drains upon the pubhas extended her domain over continents, lic treasury, growing out of the official and reared an empire greater than that of abuses and corruptions incident to Rome—while she has enlarged the bounds of civilisation in the earth-she has not them, be cast off by the only means yet achieved the first work of all just gov: adequate to reach the evil, the adopernments,—to supply the lowest physical tion of a simple, easy, and cheap rewants of her people. But there is some- publican form of government. All this thing more painful to contemplate than a
The parts of the famishing population—it is a population huge fabric of the English system are of heathen under the shadow of a Chris- so inseparably united together, that the tian throne."
fall of one must drag down all the
It cannot work on much longer. However, thank heaven, things are The dike that restrains the great ocean fast ripening in England for a change force of the roused energies of the Peoof all this. The present generation ple is fast wearing away. As soon as cannot pass away without beholding one single breach is made, the whole it. To be effectual, the change must will soon be swept away. God speed be radical and thorough indeed. The the advent of the day!-God bless the Corn-Laws must be the first thing to go noble men engaged in the noble work! --that question is now beyond argu By a coincidence which proves the
The annual burthen of the in- coincidence of sympathy from which terest on the National Debt must be the it proceeds, we have received, for the next. Labor must be relieved from
same Number in which this Article apthe crushing weight of that tax. In pears, from one of the truest Poets our one mode or another it must be trans- country has produced, some fine lines ferred to accumulated Property, with as addressed to this gallant and glorious little hardship as possible to the actual band—the Reformers of England. holders of the funds, especially the less They will be found on another page; wealthy classes of them. There are va- but we may be permitted to quote their rious modes in which this can be done. concluding verse, with the warm and Let the necessary property and income
earnest adoption both of their exhortataxes increase, perhaps largely, in pro- tion and their prayer : portion to the rising scale of wealth. Let the whole wealth of the three
“ Press on !-and we who may not share kingdoms be taxed directly to any ex The toil or glory of your fight, tent necessary for its redemption. La May ask, at least, in earnest prayer, bor, destitute Labor, would not suffer God's blessing on the Right!"
must come soon.
ODE FOR NEW YEAR'S-DAY.
BY GEO. H. COLTON, AUTHOR OF
I. 1. HARK! I heard a mournful sound,
Deep as ocean's groaning surge;
A low, funereal dirge;
I. 2. Lo! a haggard spectre train,
Wild and shadowy shapes appear,
A corse and sable bier;
I. 3. * Wearily, 0, wearily,"
(The mournful chant was said),
Thy children all are dead;
Ever wasting hapless Man,
Whose joyless life is shortened to a span,
On each and all we aye attend,
JI. 1. “Sisters, brothers, slowly bear
To his grave the perished Year, Wailing to the darkened air
A dirge above his bier. Around him flitting, faded Hours, Scatter upon his corse pale, withered flowers; For he is hasting to thai dim domain, Whence he may ne'er return again, The Past,-into that peopled Solitude, The voiceless, shadowy throng, the years beyond the Flood.
“Ever with the perishing years
From the earth man's race decay, . Journeying on in dust and tears,
Of Time and Death the prey ! Ours is the joy to see them fall, To wrap them in the winding-sheet and pall, And bearing their cold forms, like thine, along, With mockery of mourning song, Whelm them at last 'neath dark Oblivion's main, Whence they and thou, O Year, shall never wake again!"
Merrily, O, merrily,
Arose another strain,
And lo! a joyous train
Hand in hand with Joy and Mirih,
And star-eyed Hope, that ever looks from earth,
Hovered above the sleeping child,
Until the boy awoke, and waking smiled,
“See the golden Morn arise,
Where the first faint streaks appear,
To hail the new-born Year!
“See the star of Bethlehem
Up the burning east ascend ! Cherubim and Seraphim
Upon its course attend ! Away, away the shadows roll, That hopeless darkened erst the human soul, As its bright beams on that mean mansion shine, Where lowly sleeps the Child Divine. Peace, peace to men!' the heavenly voices sing, And peace, good will 10 men !' the heavenly arches ring !
O child of Earth and Heaven,
Grateful for bounty given,
In her every hue and form;
Enrobed in sunsbinė, or begirt with storm,
Yield not, O man, thy soul to gloom,
But watching Bethlehem's star beyond the tomb,
Hope for immortal life and never-fading bloom !" New Haven.
TO THE REFORMERS OF ENGLAND.*
BY JOHN G. WHITTIER.
God bless ye, brothers !- In the fight
Ye're waging now, ye cannot fail,
Than kingcraft's triple mail.
More mighty is your simplest word;
Than crosier or the sword.
The lesson it has learned so well;
of Heaven or hell.
Did Freedom die when Russell died ?
From earth's green bosom cried ?
* The present struggle in Great Britain between the People and the Aristocracy-, between liberal, republican principles and class legislation has not attracted that notice in this country which the important interests staked upon its issue would seem to claim at the hands of American democracy. The formation of the National Complete Suffrage Association--pledged to universal suffrage and annual parliaments—at the head of which stands JOSEPH STURGE, the eminent“Quaker Chartist of Birmingham," has had the effect of uniting the middle and working classes throughout the United Kingdom, and inducing the liberal electors to make common cause with the disfranchised class. Among those who are directly or indirectly connected with this movement are Lord Brougham, Daniel O'Connell, Dr. Bowring, M.P., Sherman Crawford, M.P., Col. Thompson, Feargus O'Conner, and T. S. Duncombe, M.P. A national conference of delegates has been invited to meet at Birmingham on the
27th of December to prepare a bill for complete suffrage, and the other points of the Charter, to be sabmitted to Parliament.
J, G, W.