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no monument raised over him, no paces of the Duke's person, when a epitaph engraved; but while the vil- shot struck his charger, and he was lage yet retains its name, and history hurled headlong to the ground. Starthas a page left unforgotten, Fontenoying to his feet, he cui down, one by is his monument, his epitaph is Fonte one, three dragoons who essayed to noy.
seize him; and, although offered quarIt was scarce two months later, ter, made a defence so desperate, callthat a small frigate set sail from Porting repeatedly upon the men to kill St. Nazaire, with the young Chevalier, him, that the Duke himself cried aloud and a determined handful of devoted to the soldiers to “shoot the scoundrel followers. They sailed round the before worse should come of it." The west coast of Ireland, and Gerald Des- brutal order was obeyed instantly, and mond-for, faithful to the last, he was three balls struck the gallant veteran. still at his post--saw from the deck He staggered, but still stood erect, and, the turrets of his ancestral home, and nerving himself with a last dying breathed one sigh toward the tombs of effori, broke his good sword across his his happy parents; happy in the poor knee, and flung the fragments from privilege of lying under the green sod him, never to be borne by another, or of their native Erin! They landed in wielded in what he deemed a less holy the Hebrides, crossed over to the main, cause; raised his plumed hat from his and then commenced the last campaign long snowy locks, and, crying in a loud that has been fought upon the soil of clear voice, “God save King James !" England. Splendid campaign! bril- yielded his gallant spirit, thankful to liant, and promising, but how deceitful quit a world in which he stood all in its promise! Never was throne desolate, without a friend, or kinsman, more nearly won than by those bold or king, or cause, or country! No adventurers. But what avails it to tombstone covered the last Desmond. record what has been written by pens His corpse was thrust, with fifty with which no living writer can con- others, into a rude trench cut in the tend! It is enough to say that Gerald bare moor of Culloden by the hands of Desmond fought in the van at Preston the peasantry after the strife was over. Pans' and Falkirk; that, had bis bold And now the green grass grows advice been followed, instead of loiter. all rank above it, and the wild broom ing at Derby, the Prince would have and heather shed their bright blossoms dashed on for London; and that a on the soldier's grave, and the grey Stuart might once again have sat upon plover sings his obsequies. Thus was the throne of England! But so it was ihe prophecy sulfilled. No one of that not ordered. Bloody Culloden finished high race slept in the sepulchre of his the last hopes of the latest Jacobites; forefathers; no two were buried in one and in the last charge of the butcher country. In their lives they were Cumberland's dragoons, when all the unhappy although glorious, and in host was scattered and disorganized, their deaths they were divided. Verily routed, and trampled under foot, and of them it might be said that, although mercilessly sabred, Gerald, with half- in their pleasant childhood a-dozen others, charged home, and They filled one home with glee, breaking the ranks of the dragoons, Their graves are severed far and wile, actually cut his way to within six By mountain, stream, and sea.
THE DYING MACHINIST.*
John Flich, a native of Connecticut, was probably the earliest inventor of the steamboat. In the year 1766, on the Delaware River, was made his first successful experiment; but from lack of sufficient patronage, he was unable to carry out the discovery. His life was one of hardship and penury, and ended in grief and disappointment. He was confident, however, to the last, in the ultimate success of his invention, and predicted all its future vasiness and advantages. His dying request was, “that he might be buried on the banks of the Ohio, where the song of the boatmen mighi entiven the stiune88 Testing place, and the music of the steam engine socihe nis spirit, "-the ruling passion strong in death, and it was gratified.
WHERE broad Ohio's stream goes sweeping
Gloriously toward the setting sun,
His latest wish-his only one.
To work the thought his genius gave,
Fire-winged o'er the foaming wave.
A feverish strife-a troubled dream;
Yet toiled he still his glorious scheme.
Cold doubt of friends, foes' taupt unkind,
For truth to which their own was blind.
He lived not to the great fulfilling
His genius saw and sought so long,
Endured privation, pain, and wrong.
By his own blue Atlantic strand;
Heralds to every furthest land.
Europe, fair Asia's fabled streams,
The secrets of their time-long dreams.
Nor long the stern design may sleep,
In battle o'er the trembling deep.
Lived on this dream of brighter days,
His lowly toil, in world-wide praise.
• We are pleased to learn that the Life and Letters of this interesting and most unfortunate man,” to whose memory we willingly insert this tribute, will shortly be given to the world—we believe by Miss Leslie, of Philadelphia.-ED. D. M.
Then turned and thought, with saddened spirit,
Time's judgments how unjust, and vain!
And wield the palm and reap the gain.
So have its noblest spirits known,
Or pays when he who earned is gone!
A bed beside that sair broad wave,
Where few now mark his humble grave.
With shadowy red the river's breast,
So peaceful may his spirit rest!
J. S. B.
PsychOLOGISTS, in addition to Activity, the Mind, than powers or faculties of Intelligence, and Sensibility,—the the mind, as they are termed by Reid three faculties of the subject already and Stewart. enumerated,--distinguish in the mind certain Powers which they divide into Moral Powers and Intellectual Powers. These powers are Perceiving, Remem
91. Perception. bering, Imagining, Reflecting, Comparing, Compounding, Distinguishing, Ab- PERCEPTION is the official name, in the stracting, Desiring, Willing, and Rea- Scottish school, for the recognition by soning; all of which may be arranged, the external senses of material objects, and treated, under the three general and answers to the Sensation of the heads of
old French school of Condillac. But 1. PERCEPTION,
the restriction of the term to this class 2. WILLING,
of our cognitions is purely arbitrary. 3. REASONING.
The fact designated by it is common to
all our mental operations. We perBut as these are facts of life, mereceive in sensation, in sentiment, in modes of the activity of the subject, desire, in volition, in reasoning, in not principles, or elements of human consciousness. This is implied in the nature, they are more properly termed, fact, which lies at the basis of all scias Locke terms them, OPERATIONS of ence of Life, that the subject never
• From last Number, page 578.
manifests itself, in any degree, nor in The doctrine of passivity, that we any direction, or under any aspect, save are passive in the reception of external in conjunction with the object. impressions, has no solid foundation.
It is unquestionably true that there It is not easy to define Perception. can be po mental phenomenon save by It is the simplest operation of the sub- the concurrence of an active force from jeet, and therefore incapable of being without; but it is also equally true resolved into a simpler operation, or that there can be no inental phenomeexplained by being shown to have non but from the concurrence of an some analogy to another operation active force from within. Even in the more easily apprehended. Reference reception of an external impression we to the etymology of the word, here as are not passive but active. If we did well as elsewhere, may help us to not exist, we could not receive an seize the psychological fact designated impression ; if we were totally inactive, by it. The word comes to us from the that is, literally dead, we should be Latin per-capio, and means to seize, to precisely as if we were not, and there. take hold of, to possess, or invade. Its fore as incapable of receiving an imradical meaniog is to seize, and implies pression as of giving one. No phenothat the subject establishes between menon, whether we speak of man, itself and the object the relation of animals, plants, or inorganic matter, possession. Every being capable of can be generated save by the concurestablishing or sustaining any relation rence of TWO FORCES, both of which between itself and another, must be must act, and act too from opposite percipient. Hence Leibnitz endows directions. Every phenomenon of his monads, or elements of things, with every dependent being, is necessarily perception. In perception the perci- THE RESULTANT OF TWO FACTORS. In pient subject contrives in some way to life, no more than in arithmetic, can invade and possess the object. Hence we obtain a product with only a single with the French the word perception factor. All nature is created according is applied to the collection of taxes and to one and the same original Type or imposts.
Idea. Through the whole runs a
never failing duality; all is bifold, or Locke says that “in bare naked per- separated, as it were, into two sexes, ception the mind is for the most part without whose conjunction there is passive;" but according to the view never a generation. But more of this just given of the meaning of the term, when we come to speak of the Forthe subject must be not passive but MULA OF THE OBJECT, or what some active. Even Locke himself implies philosophers call Ontology, or the Scias much, notwithstanding, what he ence of Being, in opposition to Psychosays to the contrary; for he reckons logy, or the Science of the SUBJECT; perception among the operations of though very improperly, for being is as the mind, and assures us that there can predicable of me or Subject, as of not be no perception, though all the requi- me or Object. site external conditions be present, unless there be also a noting of the Though in perception the subject is mind from within. This noting from always active, yet in simple perception within must needs be an active opera. it is not sufficiently so, to be as Locke tion. The subject, in point of fact, contends, able to 'note the object. In never is passive at all
. According to simple perception nothing is noted, the Formula of the Me already estab- distinguished; and therefore, strictly lished, the subject is inherently, essen- speaking, nothing cognized or known. tially a cause, or productive force. We Clear, vivid perceptions, in which the cannot then be passive, for our passi- subject marks or distinguishes the vity would negative our activity: Per- object, are APPERCEPTIONS. These, ception must always be taken, then, as however, do not differ at bottom from an active operation Analyzed, it gives simple perceptions. Simple percepus: 1. The subject perceiving: 2. The tions are so feeble, so dim, confused, conatum, or effort of the subject to per- and short-lived, their objects are so ceive: and 3. The presence of the numerous, run one so into another, object, the seizure or apprehension of come and go in such rapid succession, which, is the perception.
that the subject is unable to distinguish
them one from another. In the apper. must needs have in every fact of life ceptions we distinguish ; in the percep- an object, yet since we can, as in retions we do not. In the former we flection and imagination, think on the think our existence; in the latter we facts which we have ourselves created, have only an obscure and confused the object may, in certain cases at least, sense of it. Any seizure of the object be of our own creating, and therefore is an act of intelligence, if the subject not necessarily not me, in the strict seizing be only conscious. That which sense contended for. enables one to be conscious, to include oneself, is sentiment, or sensibility. A 1. Our life, as we look upon it, conbeing destitute of sentiment, would be sists entirely in efforts to explore and capable of perception ; but might be find out ourselves. The soul, restless incapable of cognition. But, since and uneasy at home, goes out into the man is sensible in his essence, he must not me, to find what is necessary to fill always act whenever he acts, in some up its view of itself. Since it finds degree, as sensibility. Consequently, a itself only in finding the object, and certain degree of sentiment must enter only so far forth as it finds the object; into each one, even the feeblest and and since it finds the object only in most obscure, of his perceptions. The finding itself, and only so far forth as perception then does not, as we might it finds itself, all our inquiries may be at first sight suppose, become apper- summed up in the two questions, ception by the addition of sentiment, WHAT IS THE SUBJECT? WHAT IS THE but by becoming more marked and OBJECT? The answer to the one of distinct. Perception, then, in man, is these questions, will always be the of the same nature with cognition, and answer to the other. At boitom they always is cognition when there is not are not two questions, but one question, such a multitude of perceptions rushing and those old sages who summed up all as it were upon us at once, and with in the injunction, “KNOW THYSELF," such rapidity that nothing can be dis- were not so far out of the way. Ac. tinguished; as when we witness the cording to the doctrine, thus far conrapid revolutions of a wheel, the points tended for, man knows himself only follow one another in such quick suc so far as he comes to know God and cession, that there appears to us to be nature, and God and nature only so far no succession at all; as a top when it as he comes to know bimself. The spins with the greatest rapidity does knowledge of the one is always by the not appear even to move.
knowledge of the other, and the knowledge of both is but one and the
same knowledge; or at least, only the 2. Memory
reciprocal knowledge of two correla
tive terms, as will hereafter be shown UNDER the head of Remembering, or at full length. Memory, may be considered more at large, certain objections to the doctrine, The question, what is the subject? that the subject never does and never it follows from this, can never be fully can know itself save in the phenome- answered, save by one who knows all non in conjunction with the object, and that there is to be known. Before we that the object is always veritably not can answer it, we must know both God me; that is, is always really and truly and nature, and know them completely. existing out of the subject and inde. The whole of our life, individual and pendent of it.
social, temporal and eternal, cannot
suffice for a knowledge so extensive; In opposition to the first of these for in order to be able to suffice for it, assertions, it is alleged that the sub- we should need to be capable of an ject can know itself in itself; for there infinite knowledge. The subject unis an order of facts open to our inspec- questionably represents in life" the intion, when once we retire within our finite, but represents it only in a finite selves, in which we may study the manner; in order to represent it in an subject by direct, immediate conscious. infinite manner, it must itself be in.
In opposition to the second finite, which it is not and never can be. assertion, it is urged, that though it is The complete and final answer to the unquestionably true that the subject question, what is the subject ? must