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account is given of its correspondence with medical men in all parts of the kingdom, and of several of the monstrous evils thus brought to light.
Section IV. contains observations on the principles of action adopted by the Pharmaceutic Association, and a vindication of them, as consistent with general justice and policy, and essentially calculated to promote the welfare of the nation generally, by preventing the profession of medicine from sinking into contempt, and giving to that department of it which depends upon the genuineness and purity of its drugs, greater efficacy and certainty.
The work, though comparatively small, exhibits strong evidences of the author's activity and powers of research. Though it was obviously drawn together in haste, to meet the exigencies of a particular occasion, it contains many proofs of extensive reading, even in that early period of Dr. Good's progress. Much of the information comprised within its pages was then known but to few even of the most active of medical men; but the substance of it has since been frequently introduced into our Cyclopædias, and other repositories of general knowledge, and now constitutes a part of that rich stock of theoretical and practical truth, which is possessed by the very numerous liberally educated men, who, in this age of intellectual impulse, adorn the medical profession.
TRANSLATION OF THE SONG OF SONGS.
In endeavouring to ascertain the expediency of a new translation of the Holy Scriptures, or of any
portion of them, into the English language, some inquiry must be made as to the purity and accuracy of the Authorized Version, which has obtained such general currency throughout the British realms, and, I believe, every part of the world where the English is the vernacular tongue. This is a question of grave and even solemn import, which ought to be examined with the utmost sobriety and caution, and without prejudice. Now, in reference to this inquiry, we may, at once, advert to a very curious fact; which is this: Between the year 1535, the epoch of the original publication of the English Bible, and 1611, the date of publication of the Authorized Version under the sanction of King James I., the public version received at least five revisions, that is, in the course of 76 years; while, from the year 1611 to the present time, an interval of more than 215 years has elapsed, without any authorized attempt at farther revision. Are there sufficient reasons, in the nature of things, in the reverence due to scripture, or flowing from a love of truth alone, to account for this interesting anomaly? Were our ancestors more desirous to possess a correct translation than we are ? Or did their frequent revisions involve great changes ? Or, is our present version so free from error, as to supersede all farther attempts at revision or improvement ?
We need not go into a minute history of the several translations; but may specify a few particulars. Tyndall's New Testament was completed by the assistance of John Fryth, and published at Antwerp in 1526. Miles Coverdale, one of Tyndall's coadjutors, published the whole Bible, at Zurich, in 1535. This is
the first printed English Bible* In 1537, Rogers, another of Tyndall's associates in this momentous labour, published an edition of 1500 copies, at Hamburgh. This is called Matthewe's Bible, that being the feigned name affixed to it, from an apprehension of the opposition which the name of Tyndall would excite. Soon after these appeared the “Great Bible,” in 1539. In 1540, “Cranmer's Bible" with his corrections, and a preface by that eminent man. The translation of the “ Psalms" still retained in the Book of Common Prayer, is from this by Cranmer. “The Geneva New Testament” was published in 1557, and the “Geneva Bible” in 1560, being printed by Rowland Hill. Thirty editions of this Bible were published between 1560 and 1616. The “ Bishops' Bible," as it was called, being a revision made by several bishops, at the instance of Archbishop Parker, was published in 1568, and ordered by Queen Elizabeth to be read in the churches. “King James's translators” were expressly ordered, in their revisal, to follow the Bishops' Bible, which they were to alter as little as the original necessarily demanded; but, when they came closer to the original, they were to use the translations of Tyndall, Coverdale, Matthewe, Whitchurch, and the Geneva Bible. So that, correctly speaking, the Authorized Version, notwithstanding the extraordinary pains taken to render it correct, must rather be regarded as an admirable revision of former versions, than as a new translation.
Wiclif's translation of the Bible was completed about 1380. This being before the invention of printing, men of piety and benevolence, to promote its circulation, caused select portions of it to be written in small volumes. These little books, or libels as they were called, are often mentioned as prohibited, in the bishops' registers of those days.
A brief comparative view of a passage, as it stands in four of these revisions, may not be uninteresting to the general reader. The passage selected is St. Matthew ii, 7, 8.
I GREAT BIBLE, GENEVA BIBLE, BISHOPS' BIBLE, K. JAMES': BIBLE, 1539. 1560. 1568.
1611. Then Herode when he 7. Then Herode pri- ,7. Then Herode, when 7. Then Herode when had prively called the vily called the wise- he had privilye called he had privily called wyse men, he enquyr- men, and diligently in- the wyse men, inquired the wise men, enquir. ed of them diligently quired of them the of them diligently what ed of them diligently, what time the starre time of the starre that time the starre appear- what time the starre appered ; and he bad appeared.
appeared. them go to Bethleem, 8. And sent them to 8. And he sent them to 8. And he sent them and said, Goyoure way Bethlehem, saying, go, Bethlehem, and sayde, to Bethlehem, and said, thyther, and search di- aud searche diligently go and search diligent- goe, and search dililigently for ye chylde, for the babe; and when ly for the young cbilde, gently for the young And when ye have ye have founde him, and when ye have child, and when ye founde him, bring me bring me word againe, founde hym, bryng me have founde him, bring word againe, that I that I may come also, worde againe, that I me word again, that I may come, and wor- and worship him. may come, and worship may come, and worship shyp hym also.
In various parts of the successive versions, it must be confessed that the diversities are greater than appear in the above specimen. Yet it is a fact too remarkable to be omitted in a candid inquiry, that scarcely any of them furnish greater varieties than those two, of which portions are appointed for general use in the Episcopalian church; I mean Cranmer's rendering of the Psalms, as preserved in “The Common Prayer,” and the translation of the Psalms given in the Authorized Version. I shall select only a few passages.
CRANMer's, or PRAYER BOOK
AUTHORIZED VERSION UNDER
xxvii. 1. The Lord is my delight The Lord is my light and my and my salvation.
salvation. xxix. 1. Bring unto the Lord, O Give unto the Lord, O ye mighty, ye mighty, bring young rams unto give unto the Lord glory and the Lord : ascribe unto the Lord strength. worship and strength. xxx. 13. Therefore shall every
To the end that my glory may good man sing of thy praise without sing praise unto thee, and not be ceasing
silent. xxxvii. 38. Keep innocency, and Mark the perfect man, and betake heed to the thing that is right: hold the upright: for the end of for that shall bring a man peace at
that man is peace. the last.
xliii. 6. The help of my coun The health of my countenance. tenance.
xlv. 5. Good luck have thou And in thy majesty ride prospewith thine honour: ride on, because rously, because of truth. of the word of truth. lviji. 8. Or ever your pots be
your pots can feel the made hot with thorns : so let indig- thorns, he shall take them away as nation vex him, even as a thing that with a whirlwind, both living, and is raw.
in his wrath. lxxi. 6. I am become, as it I am as a wonder unto many. were, a monster unto many.
Ixxxiv. 5, 6. Blessed is the Blessed is the man whose strength man whose strength is in thee: in is in thee; in whose heart are the whose heart are thy ways.
ways of them. Who going through the vale of Who passing through the valley misery use it for a well: and the of Baca make it a well, the rain pools are filled with water.
also filleth the pools. cv. 28. And they were not obe And they rebelled not against his dient unto his word.
No instance can be produced in the history of Sacred Literature, of greater honesty and circumspection than were evinced by the forty-seven learned men to whom the revision authorized by King James was consigned. And so far as the advantages which they possessed would enable them to advance towards perfection in