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Gen. X. Enterolithus. Intestinal concretions.
Spec. 1. E. Bezoardus. Bezoar. 2.-Calculus. Intestinal calculus. 3.-Scybalum. Scybalum.
Gen. XI. Helminthia. Worms. Spec. 1. H. Alvi. Alvine worms. 2.- Podicis. Anal worms. 3.- Erratica. Erratic
Gen. XII. Proctica. Proctica. Spec. 1.
P. Simplex. Simple proctica. 2.--Spasmodica. Spasmodic stricture of the rectum, 3.-Callosa. Callous stricture of the rectum. Tenesmus. Tenesmus. 5.-Marisca. Piles. 6.- Exania. Prolapse of the rectum.
Ord. II. Splanchnica. Affecting the collatitious viscera.
Gen. I. Icterus. Yellow Jaundice. Spec. 1. 1. Cholæus. Biliary jaundice. 2. - Chololithicus. Gall-stone jaundice. 3.-Spasmodicus. Spasmodic jaundice. 4.—Hepaticus. Hepatic jaundice. 5.-Infantum. Jaundice of infants.
Gen. II. Melæna. Melena. Spec. 1. M. Cholæa. Black or green jaundice. 2.-Cruenta.
2.-Cruenta. Black vomit. Gen. III. Chololithus. Gall-stone. Spec. 1. C. Quiescens. Quiescent gall-stone. 2.-Means. Passing of gall-stones.
Gen. IV. Parabysma. Visceral turgescence. Spec. 1. P. HePaticum. Turgescence of the liver. 2.-Splenicum. Turgescence of the spleen. 3.--Pancreaticum. Turgescence of the pancreas. 4.-Mesentericum. Turgescence of the Mesentery. 5.—Intestinale. Turgescence of the intestines. 6.— Omentale. Turgescence of the omentum. 7.-Complicatum. Turgescence compounded of various organs.
Dr. Good remarks, that a pretty active spirit of physiology pervades the whole work. He has also availed himself of the advantage so readily afforded by his arrangement, of prefixing to every class a “Physiological Proem,” containing a summary of the most important laws and discoveries in physiology, that tend to elucidate the subjects comprehended in the class to
which the proem belongs. “The author has, also, occasionally enriched these dissertations by a glance at the more striking analogies of the animal, and even of the vegetable world at large, wherever they could add to the illustration.” To me these “proems" seem to constitute the most entertaining and instructive portions of this highly entertaining and instructive work. I have read some of them again and again, and always with an increased gratification. If they are throughout correct, of which I need scarcely declare myself again an incompetent judge, they would of themselves form an interesting volume. But many regions of physiological research, are as yet debateable ground; and as the author confesses that he has here indulged “a pretty active spirit,” it is not improbable that the properly qualified reader may not yield an entire assent to every statement or deduction in these preliminary disquisitions—however sound the author's general principles, and however diversied and beautiful many of his illustrations.
With a view to convey some idea of Dr. Good's method of treating a disease, I select for an example that which relates to Entasia Rachybia, muscular distortion of the spine. After laying down a general definition, he adverts to the various kinds, and dilates upon that first described by Pott; scrofulous, and producing caries. He then traces the rachetic source, and remarks, that in these cases the disease is a primary affection of the bones, producing angular distortion as opposed to lateral. He next speaks of muscular, ligamentous, or cartilaginous distortion, the organs being affected sometimes singly, sometimes jointly. Then he adverts to the distinctions observed by the Greek
writers, viz. Lordosis, Cyrtosis, and Hybosis, distinctions well discriminated by Pott. To these succeed brief accounts of the views of the disease taken by Baynton, Wilson, Lloyd, and Jarrold. The author then observes, that the muscular is much more common than the osseous distortion of the spine, and sketches the different explanations of Grant, Harrison, and Dods. He next shews the nature of the muscular distortion now most common, assigns muscular debility as the proximate cause, traces the commencement and progress of the disease, the augmentation of the evil by the modern discipline of ladies' schools, and then describes the preventive and remediable means, as cupping, shampooing, friction, advantageous position, couch, inclined plane, &c.; adding, however, that, besides these, pure air, sea-bathing, and every other kind of tonic, whether external or internal, are of the utmost importance.
Among the occasional causes of this diseased incurvation, Dr. Good includes the various contrivances adopted to mould the female form into greater symmetry than it is supposed to have received from its Creator. On this topic, his remarks are as important as they are just.
“The greater frequency of the lateral distortion of the spine in our own day, compared with its apparent range in former times, together with the increased coercion and complication of the plan laid down in many of our fashionable schools for young ladies, seems clearly to indicate that some part at least of its increased inroad is chargeable to this source.
“ The simple fact is, that the system of discipline is carried too far, and rendered much too complicated ;
and art, which should never be more than the handmaid of nature, is elevated into her tyrant. In rustic life we have health and vigour, and a pretty free use of the limbs and muscles, because all are left to the impulse of the moment, to be exercised without restraint. The country girl rests when she is weary, and in whatever position she chooses or finds easiest; and walks, hops, or runs, as her fancy may direct, when she has recovered herself: she bends her body and erects it as she lists, and the flexor and extensor muscles are called into an equal and harmonious play. There may be some degree of awkwardness, and there generally will be, in her attitudes and movements; and the great scope of female discipline (as to the motions of the body) should consist in correcting this. With this it should begin, and with this it should terminate, whether our object be directed to giving grace to the uncultivated human figure, or the uncultivated brute. We may modify the action of muscles in common use, or even call more into play than are ordinarily exercised, as in various kinds of dancing; but the moment we employ one set of muscles at the expense of another; keep the extensors on a full stretch from day to day, by forbidding the head to stoop, or the back to be bent; and throw the flexors of these organs into disuse and despisal; we destroy the harmony of the frame, instead of adding to its elegance; weaken the muscles that have the disproportionate load thrown upon them; render the rejected muscles torpid and unpliant; sap the foundation of the general health, and introduce a crookedness of the spine instead of guarding against it. The child of the opulent, while too young to be fettered with a fashionable dress, or drilled into the discipline
of our female schools, has usually as much health, and as little tendency to distortion, as the child of the peasant: but let these two, for the ensuing eight or ten years, change places with each other; let the young heiress of opulence be left at liberty; and let the peasant-girl be restrained from her freedom of muscular exertion in play and exercise of every kind; and instead of this, let her be compelled to sit bolt-upright, in a high narrow chair with a straight back, that hardly allows of any flexion to the sitting muscles, or of any recurvation to the spine; and let the whole of her exercise, instead of irregular play and frolic gaiety, be limited to the staid and measured march of Melancholy in the Penseroso of Milton:
With even step and musing gait; to be regularly performed for an hour or two every day, and to constitute the whole of her corporeal relaxation from month to month, girded, moreover, all the while, with the paraphernalia of braces, bodiced stays, and a spiked collar;—and there can be little doubt, that, while the child of opulence shall be acquiring all the health and vigour her parents could wish for, though it may be with a colour somewhat too shaded with brown, and an air somewhat less elegant than might be desired, the transplanted child of the cottage will exhibit a shape as fine, and a demeanour as elegant, as fashion can communicate, but at the heavy expense of a languor and relaxation of fibre that no stays or props can compensate, and no improvement of figure can atone for.
Surely it is not necessary, in order to acquire all the air and gracefulness of fashionable life, to banish from the hour of recreation the old rational amusements