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, Loke,


ADING, LUKE, an Irish ecclesiastic of Germany, he was made in 1667 professor of the order of St. Francis, resided at Rome, law and history in the University of Altdorf. where he died in 1655. He wrote « Annals He had afterwards the chair of oriental lanof his Order,"in 8 vols. fol

. afterwardscontinued guages, and the office of public librarian; and by other authors, till the edition of Rome in he died at Altdorf in 1705 at the age of 72. 1731 et seq. amounted to 17 vols. fol. An- Of his writings, some of the most distinguished other of his works was a “ Bibliotheca of Writers are, a “ Dissertation on a supposed Fragment of of the Franciscan Order," 1650, fol. which has Petronius;" “ Fasciculus Opusculorum variobeen in considerable esteem, and was continued rum Historicorum et Philologicorum ;" “ Tela by Father Harold. Wading was a man of ignea Satanæ,'' 2 vols. 4to. being a collection industry and probity, but his zeal for his order of Jewish works against the Christian religion, has caused him to adopt several fables worthy with their refutation; “ Dissertatio de Moneof the dark ages, and his piety was greater than tali veterum Romanorum ;" « Commentatio de his critical sagacity. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Civitate Norimburgensi ;” .

« Dissertatio de Hist.-A.

Academiis.” He was a member of the acadeWAGENSEIL, John-CHRISTOPHER, mies of Turin and Padua. learned philologist, was born at Nuremburg in HELEN-SIBILLA, his daughter, married to Dan 1633, in which city his father was a tradesman. Mollerus, was celebrated for her erudition, and After studying at various universities, he re- particularly for her skill in žne Lat:1, Greek, sided during five years at that of Altdorf, and and Hebrew languages. Moreri... Saxii; then engaged as a preceptor in the family of a Onom.

A. nobleman, with whose son he made a tour WAKE, William, an eminent : English through great part of Europe. At Turin he prelate, born at Blandford, Dorsetzhje, in: discovered in the cabinet of the Duke of Savoy 1657, was the son of a gentleman of fortune in the famous Isiac table, which had been lost from that place. In 1672 he was entered of Christthe time of the pillage of the Duke of Man- church college, Oxford; where having taken tua's cabinet. By his publications, and his his degrees in arts, he made choice of the ecclecorrespondences with the learned, he obtained siastical profession, and entered into holyorders, a high reputation, and was one of those foreign to the disappointment of his father, who had men of letters who tasted the bounty of Lewis purchased a share for him in the clothing trade. XIV. In 1665 he was admitted to the degree His fellow collegian, Lord Viscount Preston, of doctor of laws in Orleans ; and returning to having been nominated by Charles II. envoy



extraordinary to the court of France in 1682, Dr. Wake had thought proper to annex as an Wake accompanied him, as his chaplain, and explanation of the text. resided a considerable time in that kingdom. In 1694 he was presented to the rectory of He returned to England soon after the accession St. James's; and in 1697 he was the first chamof James II. and having distinguished himself pion who appeared in favour of the regal authoby his pulpit-compositions, was chosen preacher rity in ecclesiastical matters, in the warm conto the society of Gray’s-inn. Whilst at Paris, troversy which was started on that subject. he had obtained a copy of Bossuet's original The work which he published on this occasion edition of his famous “ Exposition of the Doc. was “ A Defence of the Power of Christian trine of the Catholic church,” in which that Princes over their Ecclesiastical Synods, with subtle controversialist had sunk or softened particular respect to the Convocations of the many articles, in order to conciliate the Pro- Clergy and Church of England.” It was foltestants; but which was suppressed on a re- lowed by a “ Vindication of the King's Supremonstrance of the doctors of the Sorbonne, and macy against both popish and fanatical Opposers an edition with considerable alterations was of it;” and by “ The State of the Church and subsituted. This circumstance was made Clergy of England," 1703, fol. By these writknown, and the sophistical arts of the writerings he naturally recommended himself to the were exposed, in a work published by Wake crown; and in 1701 he was promoted to the in 1686, entitled “ An Exposition of the Doc- deanery of Exeter, whence, in 1705, he was trine of the Church of England.” In this tract advanced to the bishopric of Lincoln. Whig he closely followed the method of Bossuet's principles were now predominant, and the new book, opposing to the professed doctrines of bishop distinguished himself by a long and the Roman-catholic church, those of the En- learned speech in favour of a comprehension glish church; and he published two defences with the Dissenters, and zealously concurred in of his work against replies to it by Bossuet and the censure and punishment of Dr Sacheverel. a writer who appeared as his vindicator. He He retained his moderation during the remaincoinposed other pieces in the popish contro- der of Queen Anne's reign ; and when the versy, which was carried on with so much vi opposite party came into power, and urged the gour during that reign; and at its close he Schism-bill

, he was one of the opposers of that published “ A State of the Controversy,” in intolerant measure. This conduct would un

” an account of the books that were written on doubtedly have prevented any farther promoboth sides during its course. At the approach tion in that reign; but soon after the accession of the Revolution, he quitted his patron, Lord of George I. on the decease of Archbishop Preston, who was much attached to King James, Tenison, Dr Wake was raised to the see of and after marrying in 1688, he took the degree Canterbury in January 1715-6. Being now of D.D. at Oxford, and was collated to a placed at the head of the church, and the circanonry in Christ-church. In 1689 he was cumstances of the time being also changed, difappointed deputy-clerk of the closet to King ferent views of things seem to have opened on William and Queen Mary. He published in his mind. In 1718 he both wrote and spoke 1693 “ An English Version of the genuine against therepeal of the Schism and ConformityEpistles of the Apostolical Fathers, with a Pre- bill; and in the following year he opposed the chose Fithers. In this performance he stated Corporation and Test-acts. As a reason for his

a their authority in matters of doctrine at a high conduct on these occasions he said, “ The acts tate saying, among other things, that " they against occasional conformity and schism were were endued with a large portion of the Holy proper means of self-defence and preservation, Spirit; audas such could hardly err in what they and the Dissenters were never to be gained by demverect as the gospel of Christ.” A new edi- indulgence.” He expressed much displeasure tion of this work with many corrections and at Hoadly's famous sermon “ Christ's Kingdom improvements was printed in 1710._A passage not of this World ;” and he joined the Earl of from it having been quoted against Dr. Middle- Nottingham in bringing in a bill for imposing ton as an instance of plain reference to mira- a new test against the Arian opinions. For culous powers in that age, contained in St. Cle- these proceedings he underwent some severe ment's Epistie to the Corinthians, that author charges of inconsistency and tergiversation. found himself obliged, in the defence of his The apology made for him is that he was in“ Free Enquiry," to shew how extremely arbi- fluenced by a sincere regard for the good of the trary and forced the paraphrase was, which church over which he presided, and that he had

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neither done nor designed to do any harm to by which they would shew the church of Engthe Dissenters as a religious sect.

land that they did not hold every decision of One of the most remarkable circumstances the Pope for an article of faith. After the in this primate's life was the part he acted in delivery of this discourse, Dupin shewed Archendeavouring to promote an union between the bishop 'Wake’s letter to Girardin, and it was English and the Gallican churches. For this, also communicated to Cardinal de Noailles ; too, he has incurred censure. Dr. Mosheim and a closer correspondence ensued between in his Ecclesiastical History has affirmed that the divines on both sides in pursuance of the “ Dr. Wake formed a project of peace and plan of union, in which, however, the Archunion between the English and Gallican bishop made no concession which supposed an churches, fourded upon this condition, that approximation to the doctrines or high preteneach of the communities should retain the sions of the church of Rome. At length he greatest part of their respective and peculiar received from Dupin a “Commonitorium," or doctrines ;” upon which assertion, the author advice concerning the method of uniting the of the “ Confessional” has built the accusa- two churches, which had been read in the Sortion that this “pretended champion of the Pro- bonne, and contained an examination of the testant religion had set on foot a project for 39 Articles of the church of England, with union with a popish church, and that, with con- an approval of, or objections to, each. The cessions in favour of the grossest superstition Archbishop gave an indulgent reception to this and idolatry.” But the relation of the whole advance, though he thought the piece insuffitransaction in the Biographia Britan. and more cient to serve as a basis for the desired union, particularly in Dr. Maclaine's Appendix, iii. to and he observed in his answer, that unless the his translation of Mosheim's work, confirmed Roman-catholics gave up some of their docby original letters, seems entirely to acquittrines and rites, no union could be effected. Dr. Wake of this severe charge. It thence He appears to have been desirous of keeping appears, that the Archbishop, corresponding the matter in a state of suspense, in expectation on literary matters with Mr. Beauvoir, chap- of a separation of the Gallican church from the lain to the English ambassador at Paris, the papal jurisdiction, in consequence of the violatter took occasion to mention, that having lence with which Clement XI. proceeded dined with the eminent ecclesiastical writer against the opposers of the bull. It is to be Dupin, and three other doctors of the Sor- observed that the correspondence was carried bonne, in 1717, they intimated an intended ap- on with great secrecy, which on Dr. Wake's peal of the kingdom of France to a general side was partly owing to his having nobody council in relation to the much disputed affair whom he could trust with it. 6. Most of the of the bull Unigenitus, and expressed a wish high-church bishops and clergy (he says in a for an union with the church of England, as letter to Mr. Beauvoir) he was satisfied would the most effectual means of uniting all the readily come into such a design, but they were western churches. The Archbishop in his not men to be confided in or made use of by answer spoke very handsomely of Dupin, which him.” The secret, however, was divulged, gave the latter an occasion to write a letter of and became the topic of conversation at Paris. acknowledgment, at the close of which he Lord Stanhope and Lord Stair were congrahinted his desire of an union between their tulated upon the prospect of an union, and the two churches, observing that the difference be- Regent and Dubois seemed at first favourable tween them, in most points, was not so great to the plan. But the Jesuits and Constitutionas to render a reconciliation impracticable. alists sounded such an alarm, that the French Dr. Wake thereupon wrote a reply, dated government, which had only some political February 1717-18, in which, after asserting ends in view, was obliged to discountenance the purity of the English church, he exhorted it. Girardin was sent for, severely reprithe French to maintain the rights and privileges manded, and compelled to give up all the Archof the Gallican church, and expressed his readi- bishop's letters, which were sent to Rome.

It ness in concurring to the formation of the is said they were greatly admired for their cawished for union. In the following month, tholic spirit and the ability with which they Dr. Piers de Girardin pronounced a remarks were composed, but the correspondence was able discourse at an extraordinary meeting of probably represented in a light favourable to the Sorbonne, in which he recommended to the the church of Rome. Dupin soon after died; members of that society to proceed in their re- and all prospect of effecting the union having vision of the doctrines and rules of their church, vanished, the correspondence at length ceased.


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Dr. Maclaine concludes from the whole trans- mation respecting English ordinations, of the
action, that the correspondence originated with validity of which he became a strenuous de-
Dupin ; that Dr. Wake entered into it with the fender; and His Grace not only entered into a
view of improving a favourable opportunity of large correspondence with him, but gave him
withdrawing the church of France from the shelter when the freedom of his opinions had
power of the Pope; that he never afforded the driven him from his native country. The
smallest reason to hope that the church of Eng- Archbishop held his see many years, but he
land would give up any one point of faith or was at length so far disabled from its duties
practice to that of France; that he never spe- by age and infirmities, that part of the care
cified the particular alterations which would be of the church was transferred to Dr. Gibson,
requisite to satisfy the church of England, but Bishop of London. He died in January 1736–7
only expressed a general desire of an union, or, in his 80th year, leaving six daughters, all
at least, a mutual toleration; and that he never married. He bequeathed his library, manu-
fattered himself that this union could be per- scripts, and coins, of a considerable value, to
fectly accomplished, but thought that every the college in which he had been educated.
concession of the doctors of the Gallican church Besides the writings above mentioned, he pub-
must prove advantageous to the Protestant lished “A Preparation for Death, being a
cause. It may however be observed upon this Letter to a young Gentlewoman,” of which
statement, that we seem to want an adequate four editions were printed; and three volumes
motive which should engage the primate to of “ Sermons, Charges,” &c. Biog. Britan.
enter into a secret negotiation on his private Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. translated by Mac-
authority for an union, from which his own laine. - A.
church could derive no assignable advantage, WAKEFIELD, GILBERT, a distinguished
whilst it would certainly occasion much jea- scholar and critic, was the son of the Rev.
lousy and dissention. If he was resolved to George Wakefield, rector of St. Nicholas,
concede nothing to the Catholics, on what could Nottingham, in which town he was born in
an union be founded, and what must be its na- 1756. After a grammatical education in dif.
ture? Upon what ground could he expect the ferent schools, the last of which was that
concurrence of the high-church party in the of the Rev. Mr. Wooddeson at Kingston-
measure, except that of some mutual aid in the upon-Thames, and in which he had displayed
two churches for the support of ecclesiastical uncommon solidity of character, and powers
power and intolerant principles ? Upon the of application, he was entered in 1772 of
whole, if the Archbishop's general intentions Jesus College, Cambridge. In this seminary
are satisfactorily vindicated, it will still be dif- he pursued his studies with great ardour, the
ficult to discover his discretion or sagacity in classical and theological in preference, though
the transaction.

without neglecting mathematics. He took That, however, a spirit of charity and mode- the degree of B.A. in 1776, and was soon ration, and a desire of Christian union, influ- after elected a Fellow of his college. In the enced him on this occasion, is proved by the same year he gave the first specimen of his correspondence he held, more extensively than literary proficiency by the publication of a any former possessor of his see, with the fo- small collection of Latin poems, with a few reign Protestant churches, which he readily ac- critical notes on Homer. At this period a knowledged to be true members of the Chris- free spirit of theological inquiry prevailed tian cominunity, a rank from which the high- among several of the studious members of church party at that time would have excluded that university, of whom Mr. Wakefield was them. In his extant letters to the members of one, and his doubts with respect to the these churches he is the constant advocate of articles of the English church had proceeded peace and concord, and recommends mutual so far, that his compliance with the forms toleration and forbearance respecting the con- requisite for receiving deacon's orders in 1778 troverted points of abstract theology. If his was the source of acknowledged self-reproach. conduct towards separatists at home was not On leaving college, he engaged in a curacy at perfectly consistent with this advice, some al- Stockport, and afterwards occupied a similar lowance must be made for his station, and the situation at Liverpool. He performed the circumstances of the time, when the bigotry of duties of his office with seriousness and puncparty rendered it very difficult to hold an eventuality; but his dissatisfaction with the doccourse. The Archbishop was applied to by trines and liturgy of the church pro ressively that liberal Catholic, Father Courayer, for inforo increasing, he determined to take the first

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