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opportunity of resigning his station in it. His In 1790 Mr. Wakefield quitted Nottingham marriage in 1779 was therefore soon followed for a residence at Hackney, in consequence of by his acceptance of an invitation to under his acceptance of the othce of classical tutor in take the office of classical tutor at the academy a new dissenting-college established at that of Warrington. It has by some been repre- place, to which he meant to unite private tuition. sented as if on this occasion he became a His services in this institution were highly Dissenter; but in fact he never entered that esteemed; and his lectures were attended by body considered as a particular sect, though the students with enthusiastic admiration on thenceforth many of its members were his most account of the eloquent and copious variety valued friends, with whom he cordially con- of illustration, and the refined elegance of curred in the cause of free enquiry, and in taste, which they exhibited. Circumstances attachment to civil and religious liberty. His however occurred which rendered this but a own system of divinity was exclusively formed short-lived connection, of which one of the upon the study of the Scriptures, which he most prominent was his peculiar notions conpursued with great assiduity, aided by a very cerning public worship. Though actuated by uncommon extent of philological learning. a warm spirit of piety, he withdrew from every
Mr. Wakefield early formed the design of a public exercise of devotion, and openly mainnew version of the New Testament, of which tained his sentiments' on the subject in “ An he published a specimen in a “ Translation of Enquiry into the Expediency and Propriety of the first Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the public, or social, Worship,” 1791. In that Thessalonians,” with an account of his plan, year his connexion ceased with the Hackney Warringt. 1781. It was followed in the next college ; and having no longer the avocation year by “ A new Translation of the Gospel of of private pupils, he occupied himself with St. Matthew; with Notes critical, philological, his own family and his literary labours. His and explanatory,” 4to. which displayed the “Translation of the New Testament, with Notes copious store of collateral and illustrative critical and explanatory,” 3 vols. 8vo. appeared knowledge of which he was possessed. On in 1792, very respectably patronized. In the dissolution of the Warrington academy he language it preserves as much as possible of removed to Bramcote in Nottinghamshire, on
the old version.
Its deviations from that in the plan of taking private pupils. He there sense are numerous. A second edition of this published in 1784 the first volume of an “ En- work was given in 1795, 2 vols. 8vo. In the quiry into the Opinions of the Christian Writers same year he published “ Memoirs of his own of the three first Centuries concerning the Life ;" a curious and entertaining performance, Person of Jesus Christ,” 8vo. a learned and relating the events of his life down to that elaborate performance, which however did not period, and interspersed with many anecdotes meet with encouragement sufficient to induce and characters of persons with whom he had him to proceed in his plan. Subsequent re- been connected, marked by that unreserved movals to Richmon and to Nottingham, and openness and freedom from disguise, that simple the attacks of a painful disorder in one arm, attachment to truth and the whole truth, by rendered him unable for some following years which he was ever remarkably distinguished. to undertake any considerable literary task, Every year now produced proofs of his exthough he continued occasionally to issue from traordinary mental activity, and of the variety the press writings on temporary and other of topics on which he interested himself. He topics. But in 1789 he made a commence- defended revealed religion by his “Evidences of ment of one of his principal publications in the Christianity," and his “ Replies to the two Parts capacity of a critic and philologist, intitled of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.” He planned “ Silva Critica : sive in Auctores sacros pro- a new edition of Pope's works, the poet whose phanosque Commentarius Philologicus," of correctness of versification and splendor of which the first part was printed in that diction particularly gratified his classical taste; year at the university-press of Cambridge. and though his scheme was finally rendered The author's intention in the plan of this abortive by Dr. Warton's edition of that poet, work was “the union of theological and classi- he proceeded so far as to print the first volume cal learning; the illustration of the Scriptures of the poems, a volume of “ Notes on Pope,” by light borrowed from the philology of Greece and an edition of his version of the Iliad and and Rome.” Of this learned performance Odyssey. In the department of classical literafive parts appeared in succession to 1795; the ture, besides continuing his “ Silva Critica” to three first from the Cambridge press.
the 5th volume, he gave editions of some select
« Greek Tragedies,” of “Horace," “ Bion & place in May 1801, and he was restored to soMoschus," « Virgil,” and in fine, of “ Lucre- ciety with the prospect of many future years of tius,” in 3 vols. 4to. his opus magnum in this enjoyment and usefulness. He opened a course walk, and which alone would have transmitted of lectures upon the works of Virgil in the his name with distinction among the most eru- metropolis, during the summer, of which he had dite and industrious of critical editors.
delivered the first part, when at the close of He also entered the dangerous path of poli- August he was seized with a typhus fever, tics. He had long upon principle been an which terminated his life on Sept. 9th, 1801, enemy to war, thinking it absolutely incompa- in the 46th year of his age, to the irreparable tible, unless as a measure of direct defence, loss of his family, and the keen regret of his with Christian morality, and especially detesting numerous friends. it when employed to usurp upon the rights of Mr. Wakefield's habits of life were those of mankind, and overthrow the plans of liberty. a scholar of the old stamp. Early and regular He thought it bore this character when it was in his hours, indefatigable in study, sober and waged against the principles of the French temperate, drawn aside by no pursuits either Revolution, an event which, in its commence- of pleasure or ambition, he was always capable ments, he, in common with many other philan- of bending the whole force of his mind to his thropists, hailed as the promise of a much work, and
was thus enabled, in the course of a improved state of human affairs. When his short life, to effect what in the common own country therefore joined in the confede- estimate would appear sufficient occupation racy against France, he became a severe censurer for the longest. He says of himself, « What of her policy, and exercised his energetic pen, knowledge I have been able to acquire has with his habitual disregard to the dictates been effected by a most methodical distribuof personal prudence, in attempts to render it tion, and parsimonious application of my time, odiqus. A pamphlet which he wrote to this with a punctuality, allied to religious scruple, purpose in 1798, intitled “ A Reply to some in all my engagements, seconded by an incesparts of the Bishop of Landaff's Address to sant purpose of intellectual improvement." the People of G-Eat Britain," brought on him a This devotedness to study was however by no prosecution for libel from the Attorney-Gene- means attended with a reserved or unsocial ral, which, after impending many months over disposition ; for no one could delight more in his head, terminated in a trial and conviction free conversation, or bear his part in it with a in February 1799. His sentence was an im- more truly social spirit. And if, in controprisonment for two years, at a distance from versial and critical writing, he was apt to inhis friends and connections, in the county gaol dulge in the contemptuous and severe expresof Dorchester. He felt it as a severe stroke sions which he found too much sanctioned by upon his domestic confort, and a mortifying polemical use ; in disputation by word of interruption to his course of literary occupa- mouth he was singularly calm and gentle, pation; but the calamity was considerably alle- tient in hearing, and placid in replying. To viated by the exertions of a number of generous conclude the topic of moral character, -it friends, who, warmly attached to him for his was marked by an openness, a simplicity, a private virtues, and the purity of his public good faith, an affectionate ardour, a noble eleprinciples, raised a subscription which not only vation of soul, which made way to the hearts of indemnified him from any pecuniary loss in all who nearly approached him, and rendered consequence of his prosecution, but exonerated him the object of their warmest attachment. him from a considerable part of his cares for In his capacity of a classical critic and the future support of his family. The de- editor, in which he will be chiefly known to rangement of his plans of study during his posterity, an able judge has said of him that confinement rendered him unable to prepare « in conjectural criticism he exhibits much of for the press any other works than “ Select the character of Bentley and Markland; men Essays of Dio Chrysostom translated into Eng- whom he esteemed according to their high lish from the Greek, with Notes,” 1800, 8vo.; deserts in that species of learning to which and “ Noctes Carcerariæ, sive de Legibus Me his own mind was peculiarly directed. Like tricis Poetarum Græcorum qui Versibus Hex- them, he is always learned, sometimes bold, ametris scripserunt, Disputatio," 1801, 12mo. and frequently happy. Like them he had a He also made considerable collections for an mind which disdained to be held in a servile intended Lexicon, Greek and English, for subjection to authority; and, in defiance of which he issued proposals. His liberation took established readings, he followed without fear
wherever reason and probability seemed to own experience. C. Hamberger's Zuverlassige lead the way.” It may be added, that his very nachrichten von den vornehmsten Schrieftstellera extensive reading, treasured in a faithful me vom Anfange der Welt bis 1500.- J. mory, supplied him with an inexhaustible store WALÆUS, JOHN, an able anatomist, of passages for illustration or parallel, which was born near Middleburg in Zealand, in 1604. often renders his annotations extremely excur. He studied physic at Leyden, where he grasive, while they seldom fail to be interesting duated in 1631 ; and in that year he was deand instructive on account of the nice percep- puted by the curators of the university to carry tion they exhibit of all the minuter beauties of an invitation to Saumaise. In the next year composition. Besides the works enumerated he was nominated a medical professor extrain the preceding sketch of his life, he pub- ordinary, and in 1648 he obtained a chair in lished many others, of which an exact cata- ordinary. Though much engaged in practice, logue is given in the second edition of his and in his academical duties, he found time to Memoirs published after his death. There carry on his researches by dissection, especially has since appeared a Collection of Letters in a of living animals; and by his experiments he correspondence between him and that illus- threw much light upon the functions of ditrious statesman the Hon. Charles Fox, by gestion, the distribution of the chyle, and the whom he was greatly esteemed, chiefly rela- action of the heart. He was one of the first tive to topics of Greek literature. -A. who taught publicly the Harveian doctrine of
WALĀFRIDUS, surnamed STRABO or the circulation of the blood; though jealousy STRABUS, on account of a squint in his eyes, of the glory of the inventor caused him to atwas a native of Swabia, where he was born tempt to find vestiges of the truth in the writin 807. He embraced the monastic state, and ings of the ancients. Walæus died at Leyden after being educated in the monastery of in 1649. His anatomical observations are Reichenau, he proceeded to Fulda, in order to principally contained in “ Epistolæ duæ de hear Rabanus. On his return to his mo- Motu Chyli et Sanguinis ad Thomam Barnastery, he was made director of the school of tholinum," Lugd. B. 1641, printed with Barthat establishment, which he brought to a very tholine's edition of his father Caspar's flourishing condition. In the year 842 he « Institutiones Anatomicæ," several times rebecame successor to the abbot Rudhelmus; printed. They are regarded as very excellent. and it is generally believed that he was for Halleri Bibl. Anatom. Elay. A. some time expelled by the monks, because he WALKER, GEORGE, the Rev. F.R.S. appeared to them to sacrifice the interest of an able mathematician, and liberal writer, the monastery to his studies; but however was the son of a respectable tradesman of the this may be, he must have again attained to dissenting persuasion at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, his former dignity, for it is certain that while where he was born about 1734. He received abbot he was sent by King Louis to his bro- his early education in his native place, and at ther Charles the Bald, and that he died during Durham, after which he was sent to the Unithis embassy, in the year 849. His principal versity of Edinburgh. He was there a pupil works are short observations on the whole text of the distinguished mathematician, Dr. Matt. of the Bible, known under the name of Stewart, from whom he imbibed his taste for “ Glossa Ordinaria,” which are derived chiefly pure and elegant demonstration. From Edinfrom the exposition of Rabanus. They are burgh he removed to Glasgow for the study of added to many editions of the Vulgate, printed theology and moral philosophy; and having in the lifteenth and sixteenth centuries, toge completed his education, he sat down about ther with the glossa of Nicholas Lyra, where 1756 at Durham as a dissenting minister, sucthey are inserted between the text, while the ceeding in that office a very respectable uncle. latter are in the margin : “ De Exordiis et After occupying this situation some years, he Incrementis Rerum Ecclesiasticarum ;" « De accepted an invitation to Yarmouth, in which Vita beati Galli Confessoris, Libri ii.;" “ Vita town he passed several more years, generally Otmari Abbatis S. Galli;". “ Poemata," beloved and esteemed. His qualifications, inamong which are “ Vita S. Mamma, S. Blait. deed, were of no common kind. To a stock maici;” “ Visiones S. Wettini ;” “ Carmen of classical knowledge, he added an intimate ad Ruadbernum ;” and “ Hortulus,” that is, acquaintance with history, ancient and moa description of the garden which he cultivated dern, a familiarity with the best authors of himself, with an account of herbs and flowers, various classes, a natural and glowing eloand their use in medicine, according to his quence, and a heart in which every kind and
social affection occupied a place. He mar- enlightened statesman, Mr. Fox. He had ried in Yarmouth, and soon after, in 1772, likewise published the first part of a “ Trearemoved to Warrington to take the post of tise of Conic Sections,” which was worthy of mathematical tutor in the academy of that his mathematical reputation. Coming to Lonplace. He there published, in 1775, his don in 1807, for the purpose of publishing “ Doctrine of the Sphere,” 4to. containing two more volumes of Sermons, and two vomany plates for the demonstration of proposi- lumes of Philosophical Essays, he was seized tions; of a peculiar construction. The work with a disorder at the house of a former pupil, is considered by good judges as a very com- which carried him off at the age of 73, replete treatise on the subject, and an example gretted by all who knew him. Athenæum.-A. of the purest method of geometrical demon WALLACE, Sir WILLIAM, a dis inguished stration. In that year he changed his abode Scotch patriot and warrior, of the latter part for Nottingham, where he was chosen one of of the 13th century, was the son of a small the ministers of the High Pavement meeting. landholder of an ancient family in the west of Mr. Walker had been always warmly attached Scotland. Possessing undaunted courage, a to the principles of civil liberty, and had spe- gigantic frame of body, and a constitution culated deeply on the subjects connected with capable of enduring every hardship, together it; and being undaunted in the declaration of with magnanimity, and a devoted attachment his sentiments, and gifted with a ready elocu- to his country, he resolved to undertake the tion, he greatly distinguished himself as a arduous task of liberating his native land from speaker at public assemblies for political pur. the foreign yoke of Edward I. King of Eng
The corporation of that town being land. Having in a quarrel put to death an under the influence of sentiments similar to English officer, for which he expected to be his own, his pen was employed in their ad- called to account, he fled to the woods, where dresses and petitions relative to the popular he placed himself at the head of a band of topics then most engaging attention, and he outlaws, and commenced an incursive war marked them with his characteristic spirit and against the English stationed in that country. energy. Of one of these productions, re- His daring enterprize and local knowledge commending the recognition of American in- rendered him successful in these encounters; dependence, Mr. Burke, then an advocate in and though as yet joined by no persons of the same cause, declared that he had rather rank, he became the hero of his countrymen, have been the author, than of all his own com and the terror of their oppressors. In 1297 positions. This party-warfare must necessa- he found himself strong enough to concert an rily have given much offence to persons in attack upon the English justiciary, Ormesby opposite interests; but such was the kindness of Scone; but this person, apprized of the of his heart, and the ease and cheerfulness of danger, prevented it by flight, and all the his social conversation, that they who hated other officers of that nation followed his exhis principles could not hate the man. Nor ample. Many of the barons now openly was he only benevolent in words; he countenanced the designs of Wallace, and bountiful and hospitable even beyond the mea Robert Bruce secretly favoured the same sure of his income, and alive to every call of cause. Earl Warenne, who had been enhumanity,
Having passed 24 years at Not- trusted by Edward with the government of tingham, he was at length induced by the Scotland, now collected in the north of Engdeath of friends and other circumstances to land an army of 40,000 men, and advancing quit it, and undertake the office of theological into Annandale, struck such an alarm, that tutor and superintendant at a dissenting aca- many of the Scotch nobles submitted, and demy in Manchester. Advancing ycars ren- others joined the English army. Wallace dered this a too onerous task for him, and he with his partizans retired northwards; and resigned it, and retired to the neighbourhood when Warenne reached Stirling, he found this of Liverpool
. He had published during the chief encamped at Cambuskenneth, on the opperiod from his leaving Warrington several posite bank of the Forth. Cressingham, the single sermons, and two volumes of sermons, English treasurer, was led by his precipitation distinguished by a manly and original train of to cross the river with his troops. Wallace, thought, and a singularly lively and fervid having suffered such a number as he thought manner and expression ; and also an “ Appeal proper to pass over, made a fierce attack upon to the People of England" upon the Test-laws, them while yet in disorder, and defeated them which was greatly admired by that liberal and with great slaughter, Cressingham being slain
in the action. Warenne thereupon retreated, caused him to be conveyed to London, where, and withdrew with his remaining troops into though he had never sworn fealty to the England.
English sovereign, he was tried, condemned, This success so much enhanced the reputa- and executed as a traitor, August 23. 1305. tion of Wallace, that his followers declared His memory is still revered in his native him regent of the kingdom under the captive country; and his exploits have been the freBaliol. Wallace now retaliated the English quent subject of popular tradition and the invasion by leading his army into the northern songs of minstrels, with many fabulous exagcounties of England, which he laid waste gerations, indeed, but founded upon real with fire and sword, pushing his ravages as achievements. Hume. Henry. - A. far as Durham, and recovering Berwick. WALLER, EDMUND, an eminent English Edward, informed of these events whilst in poet, born at Coleshill, Hertfordshire, in March Flanders, returned, and marched with a host 1605, was the son of Robert Waller, Esq. a of 90,000 men to the northern frontier.
gentleman of an ancient family and good forWallace, sensible that his elevation had tune, of Agmondesham in Buckinghamshire, caused envy and discontent among the great and of the sister of the celebrated John Hampnobility, nobly resigned his authority as re- den. His father dying during his infancy, left gent, and only retained his command over him heir to an estate of 3500l. a-year, an ample his particular followers. The Scotch, under fortune at that period. He received his school the Steward of the kingdom and Cumming of education at Eton, whence he was removed to Badenoch, waited the approach of Edward at Kings-college in Cambridge. The strength of Falkirk in the summer of 1298. A battle en his interest, if not the early display of his sued, in which the superior force of the Eng- parts, is evinced by his premature election to lish, and the skill of their archers, obtained an Parliament in his i6th or 17th year, an exentire and bloody victory: Wallace, however, traordinary fact, confirmed by some speeches kept his separate body unbroken, and retired of his printed in Grey's collection of debates. with it behind the banks of the Carron. Here His appearance as a poet was not much later the Scottish historians relate a conference to than that as a politician; for his verses on the have taken place between the chieftain, and « Prince's Escape at St. Andero” were written young Bruce, then serving in Edward's army, in his 18th year; and it is very observable which terminated in his winning the latter that they exhibit a style and versification as persecretly to the cause of his country. But fectly formed as those of his latest and most Hume, though he copies the narrative, ob- mature productions. He must therefore have serves that two English authors of credit possessed almost instinctively a nicety of ear affirm that Bruce was not at that time with for poetical melody, which enabled him at once Edward. The story was probably borrowed to surpass all his predecessors ; for although from the interview between Arminius and his he acknowledged that he had been indebted for brother, related by Tacitus.
the smoothness of his numbers to Fairfax's After the defeat at Falkirk, no force re- translation of Tasso, yet he improved this quamained in Scotland capable of resisting the lity to such a degree, as justly to merit the English arms; and Wallace appears to have praise of affording the model of English versitaken to the fastnesses of the country. He fication, especially in heroic couplet, as it has still, however, retained an unsubmitting spirit, since been practised by the most correct wriand asserted his independence with the few ters. Waller again served in parliament before partizans whom he could muster. He is said he was of age, and continued his services after to have hung upon the English army in that period. He also employed his muse on another expedition northwards in 1303, but courtly topics ; addressing the King (Charles I.) he found few opportunities of acting to ad- on the collected manner in which he received vantage. So high, however, was his name, the news of the Duke of Buckingham's assassithat Edward could not consider his conquest nation, and congratulating the Queen on her as secure whilst such a patriot was living. fertility. Not insensible of the value of wealth, He employed various arts to discover the he augmented his paternal fortune by marriage retreat of Wallace, and obtain possession of with a rich city heiress, whom he carried against his person, and at length succeeded, through the interest of the court, which was employed the treachery, it is said, of his friend Sir John for another suitor. In the long interfnissions Monteith. Edward indulged an ignoble spirit of parliament which occurred after 1628 he of animosity against his brave enemy. He retired to his mansion of Beconsfield, where he VOL. X.