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pearance in 1773. In 1775 his domestic hap- self nominated one of the foreign associates of piness was interrupted by the death of his the Institute, in addition to the numerous howife; but two years after, he repaired his nours of the same kind which had been conloss, marrying Georgina Brandes, daughter ferred on him before. In the year 1803 he of George Frederick Brandes, aulic counsellor. employed, and with complete success, the inAmong his labours at this time must be men- fluence he had acquired as a man of letters, to tioned A Catalogue of the Library, on a very preserve the university from experiencing any extensive and improved plan, which he began of those miseries which are the usual consein 1777, and completed in 1787; a most use- quence of war; and on that occasion he reful but laborious work, which he extended to ceived a very flattering letter from Berthier, about one hundred and fifty volumes in folio. then minister at war, containing an assurance In 1782 he published his « Apollodorus," and that the French army would grant special proin 1798 gave a new edition of his « Pindar," tection to that establishment. In 1806, when in five volumes. His most important work, in the seventy-seventh year of his age, he unhowever, and that on which he devoted the dertook a tour to Armstadt, to see one of his greater part of his life, was the edition of his daughters who had been married a short time Homer, which he began in 1787, and which before ; but after this period his infirmities inhe had in some measure been induced to un- creased so much, that he could not endure dertake by perusing Wood's Essay on the violent motion, and in 1809 he resigned his Writings and Genius of that Poet. During office as professor of eloquence. In 1810 he fifteen years he is said to have devoted two was made a Knight of the Westphalian Order hours daily to this great work, the appearance of the Crown, and died in the month of July of which he delayed so long, that he might 1812. After completing his Homer, he enprocure every possible assistance from men of gaged in no work of any magnitude. He had letters, among whom were Beck of Leipsic, once entertained an idea of writing a history of and Jacobs of Gotha, whose service he ac- the university of Gottingen, which was so dear knowledges in the preface, which made its to him; but a few lines of it only were comfirst appearance in 1802. In 1788 he gave mitted to paper. He, however, laboured with a second edition of his Virgil, in two different more diligence for the Gottingen Society, and forms, one of which was ornamented with a in particular the Literary Gazette. The nugreat many vignettes. This edition had been merous articles which he furnished to that carefully revised and considerably improved, work afford an evident proof that his faculties not only by the author himself, but by the were still sound and vigorous. assistance of literary friends, among whom nothing was so valuable as time. He rose at were Van Santen in Holland, and Jacob Bry- five o'clock in the morning, even in the latter ant in England. In the autumn of this year years of life; in his youth much earlier. The he made a tour to Swisserland, in company whole day was filled with writing, lecturings, with his friend Dr. Girtanner, in the course of and other literary occupations, not, however, which he took an opportunity of paying visits excluding domestic and social enjoyments; for to Schweighauser, Oberlin, and Brunk. At he was by no means of a recluse or solitary Zurich he formed an acquaintance also with disposition. Notwithstanding his great talents, Hottinger

and Lavater. Soon after his return, and the celebrity he had acquired, he was not he was offered the place of chief librarian at vain or conceited. He, however, set a proper Dresden, and was invited to Copenhagen to be value upon praise; but was much better pleased professor, with a salary of three thousand dol- to be esteemed as a man than as a scholar. lars and other advantages, but both these he By his first wife he had one son and two declined. During the short peace of Amiens daughters, one of whom married George For. in 1802, Heyne exerted himself to renew that ster, son of the celebrated Dr. John Reinhold literary connection which had been almost de- Forster, and on his death became the wife of stroyed by the political storms of the time. As Mr. Huber. The fruits of his second marsecretary to the Royal Society of Gottingen, riage were two sons and four daughters. he endeavoured to revive the correspondence Heyne was a member of the Royal Society of of that learned body with the French National London, and also of most of the learned soInstitute. Several of the French literati were cieties in Europe. His principal works are, admitted members of the Society, and the in- « Albii Tibulli quæ exstant carmina novis tercourse was rendered more active by his own curis castigata," Lips. 1755; “ P. Virgilii correspondence. In the same year he was him- Maronis Opera varietate lectionis et perpetua

To Heyne adnotatione illustrata," Lips. T. i. 1767, T. ii. from carrying it farther than the reign of 1771, T. iii, iv. 1775; “ Editio altera,” with Christian, the first king of the house of Oldenornaments and vignettes, ibid. 1788, 1789, burg, who ascended the throne of Sweden in 4 vols. Three editions also were published in 1457, and ruled over the three northern kingLondon. “ Editio tertia novis curis emendata doms. It was published 1769–1773, 4 vols. et aucta," Lips. 1803, 4 vols. 8vo.; “ Epicteti 4to. To render this work as complete as posEnchiridion Græce et Latine," &c. ibid. 1756; sible, the author consulted every source, both “ Apollodori Atheniensis Bibliothecæ libri foreign and domestic, that was likely to furtres, &c. Goetting. 1782; “ Ad Apollodorinish him with materials, and paid a visit to Atheniensis Bibliothecam Notæ cum commen- Copenhagen for the purpose of examining the tatione de Apollodoro, argumento et consilio public records. At the end of each period he operis et cum Apollodori fragmentis,” ibid. gives an account of the state of literature and 1987, P. i. ii. iii. 12mo.; “ Pindari Carmina the arts, sciences and manners. At the same cum lectionis varietate,” 1775, 4to. ; “ Pin- time he published an abridged history of Swedari Carmina cum lect. varietate adnotationibus den, in one volume octavo, continued to the et indicibus iterum curavit," &c. ibid. 1798, revolution in 1772, and accompanied with a vols. i. ii. p. 1. 2. vol. iii. p. 1. 2.; “ Homeri statistical account of the kingdom, and geneaIlias cum brevi annotatione,Lips. et Lond. logical tables of the different families who have 1804, 2 vols.; « Cononis Narrationis L. et

sat on the Swedish throne. He died at Lund, Parthenii Narrationis amatoriæ," Goett. 1798 ; in the month of December 1787. He had « Homer illustrated from the Antique, by been ennobled in 1769, and on that occasion William Tischbein, with Explanations, by his name was changed from Lager to LagerC. G. Heyne,” 1801, No. 1. 2. 3. 1802, No. 4. bring. His other works, besides those already 1804, No. 5. 6, fol.; “ Prolusiones nonullæ mentioned, are, “ Collection of Memoirs réAcademicæ in unum collectæ,Londini, 1790; lating to the History of Sweden,” Lund. 1754, « Opuscula Academica collecta et animadver- 1758, 3 vols. 8vo. ; “ Life of Field Marshal sionibus locupletata," vol.i. 1785, vol. ii. 1787, Count Aschenberg," ibid. 1751, 8vo.; “ Mo. vol. iii. 1788, vol. iv. 1796, vol. v. 1802, vol. vi. numenta Scanensia,” 2 vols. 4to. Diction1812. To these must be added, a great many naire Universelle. - J. dissertations and elogia, printed in the Trans- WAGENAAR, JOHN, an eminent Dutch actions of the Royal Society of Gottingen. writer, was born at Amsterdam in 1709. He Christian Gottlob Heyne Biographisch dargestellt distinguished himself no less by the purity of von A. H. L. Heeren.-J.

his morals than his literary acquirements, and LAGERBRING, SUENO Von, a Swedish in 1758 was appointed historiographer to his historian, was born in February 1707, in Sca- native city. Amidst his more serious studies nia, where his father was a clergyman. He he amused himself with poetry. He died in studied at Lund, and having applied chiefly to the year 1773.

the year 1773. His principal work is a “Hisjurisprudence and history, was appointed as- tory of Holland from the earliest period till sistant professor of the former in 1731. After 1751," published in twenty-one volumes ocremaining some time at Stockholm, employed tavo. A second edition, with engravings, in searching the ancient records, he was nomi- maps, and portraits, the last by Houbraken, nated by the King, in 1742, to be professor appeared at Amsterdam 1752-1759. This of history in the university of that city, where work, which forms one of the principal ornahe distinguished himself by attention to his ments of the Dutch literature, is distinguished official duties. At the coronation of Adolphus by depth of research and purity of style. Of Frederick, in 1751, he obtained a degree ‘as his other productions are i An Historical Dedoctor of laws; and in 1754 he was made a scription of the City of Amsterdam,” Amst. member of the new academy of the belles- 1760, 3 vols. fol. « The Character of John lettres, founded by Queen Louisa Ulrica. In de Witt placed in its true light;" “ Historical the year 1769, at the desire of the states then and Political Miscellanies," Amst. 8vo. 1776. sitting in a diet, he undertook a General His. Dictionnaire Universelle, 1. tory of Sweden, but was prevented by death




AS it has been a considerable object of this work to unite historical with biographical

information ; in order to render its perusal more conducive to this purpose, it has been
thought proper to annex a List of Sovereigns, arranged chronologically, according to the
dates of their accession, which will enable the reader to obtain a general view of the series
of events in any period towards which his enquiries may be directed, and will also, for the
most part, point out to him the names of those political characters of whom articles are
given, though not ranking among Sovereigns.

B. C.

B. C.


I 200



Jehoiachin or Jechoniah,} 598 Darius III. k. Pers.

CECROPS, k. Athens 1556 Gyges, k. Lyd.

B. C.
Hiero I. k. Syrac.

Sesostris, k. Egypt
1490 Numa, k. Rom.


Artaxerxes I. k. Pers.
Erechtheus, k. Athens

1399 Asar-Haddon, k. Assyr.


Darius II. k. Pers.
Belus, k. Assyr.

1322 Manasseh, k. Jud.
710 Archelaus, k. Maced.

Adrastus, k. Argos 1250 Dejoces, k. Med.

709 Artaxerxes II. k. Pers.
Semiramis, q. Assyr.

1215 Aristomenes, k. Messen. 685 Dionysius I. k. Syrac.
Agamemnon, k. Argos
Tullus Hostil. k. Rom.


672 Agesilaus, k. Spart. 401
Saul, k. Jud.

Psammitichus, k. Egyp. 670 Ahab, k. Isr.

David, k. Jud.
1050 Josiah, k. Juá.
640 Dionysius II. k. Syrac.

Codrus, k. Athens
1049 Cyaxares I. k. Med.
635 Ariarathes I. k. Cappad.

Solomon, k. Jud.
1015 Ancus Mart. k. Rom. 634 Archidamas, k. Spart.

Rehoboam, k. Jud.
975 Alyattes, k. Lydia 619 Artemisia II.


Jeroboam I. k. Isr. 975 Tarquinius Prisc. k. Rom. 616 Philip II. k. Maced.

Asa, k. Jud.
955 Jehoiakin, k. Jud.

609 Artaxerxes III. k. Pers.
Abijah, k. Jud.
954 Nebuchadnezzar, k. Babyl. 606 Agis III. k. Spart.

Nadab, k. Isr.

Alexander the Gr.
Benhadad, k. Syria


k. Jud.
Jehoshaphat, k. Jud. 914 Apries, k. Egypt 594 Ariarathes II, k. Cappad. 330
Benhadad II. k. Syria

901 Astyages, k. Med. 594 Lysimachus, k. Thrace.
Joram, k. Isr.

896 Servius Tullus, k. Rom. 577 Ariarathes III. k. Cappad. 317
Joram, k. Jud.

889 Amasis, k. Egyp. 569 Seleucus I. k. Syr.
Hazael, k. Syr.
885 Cyaxares II. k. Med.

560 Antigonus I. k. Asia
Jehu, k. Isr.
884 Cyrus, k. Pers.

559 Ptolemy Lagus, k. Egyp. зоб
Joash, ki Jud.

878 Cræsus, k. Lydia 557 Pyrrhus, k. Epir.
Joash, k. Isr.

839 Cleomenes I. k. Spart. - 557 Cassander, k. Maced.
Benhadad III. k. Syr.

836 Anaxandrides, k. Spart. 550 Demetrius I. k. Maced.
Amaziah, k. Jud.

823 Tarquinius Superb. k. Róm. 534 Agathocles, k. Sicily

Jeroboam II. k. Isr.

823 Cambyses, k. Pers. 529 Ptolemy Philad. k. Egyp. 281
Azariah, k. Jud.
810 Darius I. k. Pers.

521 Antiochus I, k. Syr.
Jotham, k. Jud.

757 Demaratus, k. Spart. 510 Antigonus Gonat. k. Maced. 277
Romulus, k. Rom.

Leonidas I. k. Spart.


Hiero II. k. Syrac. 265
Sardanapalus, k. Assyr. 740 Gelon, k. Syrac.

490 Ariarathes IV. k. Cappad. 262
Hoshea, k. Isr.

730 Artemisia I. q. Caria 490 Antiochus II. k. Syr. 261
Hezekiah, k. Jud.
726 Xerxes, k. Pers.
485 Arsaces I. k. Parth.




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B. C.

A. D.

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Seleucus II. k. Syr. 246 Caligula, e. Rom.

37 Zenobia, q. Palm.

Ptolemy Euerg. k. Egyp. 246 Claudius I. e. Rom.


Claudius II. e. Rom. 268
Agis IV. k. Spart. 243 Agrippa II. k. Jud.

49 Felix I. pope

Demetrius II. k. Maced.
242 Caractacus, k. Brit.

50 Aurelian, e. Rom.

Attalus I. k. Pergam. 241 Nero, e. Rom.

54 Tacitus, e. Rom.

Antigonus Doson, k. Maced. 237 Boadicea, q.

61 Eutychianus, pope

Cleomenes III. k. Spart. 230 Galba, e. Rom.

68 Probus, e. Rom.
Seleucus III. k. Syr.
226 Otho, e. Rom.

69 Carus, e. Rom.

Antiochus III. k. Syr. 225 Vitellius, e. Rom.

69 Numerianus, e. Rom. 283
Ariarathes V. k. Cappad. 224
224 Vespasian, e. Rom.

69 Carinus, e. Rom.

Ptolemy Philop. k. Egyp. Titus, e. Rom.

79 Caius, pope

Philip V. k. Maced.

Anacletus, pope

79 Diocletian, e. Rom. 285
Arsaces II, k. Parth. 212 Domitian, e. Rom.

81 Maximian, e. Rom.
Syphax, k. Numid.
Decebalus, k. Dacia

Carausius, e. Brit.

Massinissa, k. Massyl. 208

Clement I. pope


Constantius Chlorus, e. Rom. 292
Nabis, k. Spart.
206 Nerva, e. Rom.

96 Marcellinus, pope

Ptolemy Epiph. k. Egyp. 204 Trajan, e. Rom.

98 Galerius, e. Rom.

Artaxias I. k. Armen. 200 Evaristus, pope

100 Maxentius, e. Rom.

Eumenes II. k. Pergamus 197 Alexander I. pope

109 Maximinus C. Galer, e. Rom. 307
Seleucus IV. k. Syr. 187 Adrian, e. Rom.

117 Marcellus I. pope
Perses, k. Maced.
178 Sixtus I. pope
119 Sapor II, k. Pers.

Antiochus IV. k. Syr.
176 Antoninus Pius, e. Rom. 138 Licinius, e. Rom.

Ptolemy Physcon, k. Egyp. 169 Hyginus, pope

140 Silvester I. pope

Judas Maccab. pr. Jud. 166 Pius I. pope


Constantine I. e. Rom. 324
Antiochus V. k. Syr. 165 Anicetus, pope

157 Mark, pope
Demetrius I. k. Syr.

Antoninus Aurelius, e. Rom. 161 Constantine II. e. Rom.

Ariarathes VI. k. Cappad. 162 Verus, e. Rom.

161 Constans I. e. Rom.

Jonathan Maccabeus, pr. Jud. 161

Soter, pope
168 Julius I. pope

Attalus II. k. Pergam. 159 Commodus, e. Rom. 180 Constantius II. e. Rom.

Alexander Balas, k. Syr. 150 Artabanus IV. k. Parth. 190 Liberius, pope

Demetrius II. k. Syr.

Victor I. pope

Felix II. pope

Antiochus VII. k. Syr. 138 Didius Julianus, e. Rom. 193 Julian, e. Rom.

Attalus III. k. Pergam. 138 Pertinax, e. Rom. .


Arsaces Tiranus, k. Armen. 362
Hyrcan I. pr. Jud.
135 Severus, e. Rom.
193 Jovian, e. Rom.

Ariarathes VII. k. Cappad. 129 Zephyrinus, pope

Valentinian I. e. Rom.

Artabanus I. k. Parth. 128 Caracalla, e. Rom.

Valens, e. Rom.

Antiochus VIII. k. Syr. 123 Geta, e. Rom.


Damasus I. pope
Mithridates, k. Pont.
123 Macrinus, e. Rom.

Valentinian II. e. R.

Ariarathes VIII. k.Cappad. 110 Heliogabalus, e. Rom. 218 Gratian, e. Rom.

Aristobulus I. k. Jud.

Callixtus I. pope
219 Theodosius I. e. Rom.

Alexander Jannæus, k. Jud. 106 Alexander Severus, e. Rom. 222 Siricius, pope

Tigranes the Gr. k. Armen. 93 Ardshir Babegan, k. Pers. 226 Arcadius, e. East

Ariobarzanes I. k. Cappad. 91

Pontianus, pope
230 Honorius, e. West

Hyrcan II. pr. Jud.

Urban I. pope

Alaric I. k. Visig.

Aristobulus II, k. Jud. 69 Maximinus, e. Rom.


Anastasius I. pope
Dejotarus, k. Armen. 61 Balbinus, e. Rom.

Innocent I. pope

Ariovistus, k. Germ. . 60 Gordian I. and II. e. Rom. 237 Theodosius II. e. East
Artavasdes I. k. Armen.
53 Maximus, e. Rom.
237 Zosimus, pope

Ariobarzanes II, k. Cappad. 52 Gordian III. e. Rom. 238 Boniface I. pope
Cleopatra, q. Egypt
51 Sapor I. k. Pers.


Theodoric I. k. Visig. 419
Cæsar, Julius, e. Rom.

Philip, e. Rom.

Celestine I. pope

Herod Gr. k Jud.
40 Decius, e. Rom.
249 Valentinian III. e. Rom.

Artaxias II. k. Armen. 31 Gallus, e. Rom.

251 Genseric, k. Vand.
Augustus, e. Rom.
31 Cornelius, pope

Sixtus III. pope

Herod Antipas, tetr. Gal. 5

Lucius I. pope
252 Attila, k. Hups

Archelaus, k. Jud.
3 Gallienus, e. Rom.

A. D. Valerian, e. Rom.

153 Meroveus, k. Frank.
Artavasdes II, k. Armen. 1 Æmilianus, e. Rom. 253 Marcianus, e. East

Tiberius, e. Rom.
14 Stephen L pope

Maximus Petron, e. Rom.

Artabanus II. k. Parth.

Sixtus II. pope
257 Avitus, e. West

Artaxias III. k. Armee,

Dionysius, pope
258 Childeric I. k. Fr.

Agrippa I. k. Jud.

Odenatus, k. Palmyr. 260 Hengist, k. Kent






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John I. pope
Felix IV. pope



Majorianus, e. West 457 Abubeker, caliph 632 Gregory IV. pope

Leo I. e. East
457 Omar, caliph

634 Egbert, k. Engi.
Hilary, pope
461 Rotharis, k. Lomb. 638 Theophilus e. Constant.

Anthemius, e. West 467 Clovis II. k. Fr.

638 Ethelwolf, k. Engl. 838
Simplicius, pope

467 John IV.

640 Lothaire I. e. West 840
Zeno, e. East
474 Severinus, pope
640 Michael III. e. East

Basiliscus, e. East
475 Constantine III. e. Rom.

641 Sergius II. pope
Theodoric the Gr. k. Ostrog. 475
Constans II. e. East 641 Leo IV. pope

Augustulus, e. West 476 Theodore I. pope

642 Lewis II. e. and k. Ital.

Odoacer, k. Ital.
476 Martin I. pope
648 Benedict IIl. pope

Clovis I. k. Fr.
481 Eugenius I. pope 654 Nicholas I. pope

Felix III. pope
483 Ali, caliph

655 Ethelbert, k. Engl. 860
Alaric II. k. Visig.

484 Childeric II. k. Fr. 660 Alphonso III. k. Asturias 865
Cabades, k. Pers.

486 Moawiyah, cal. Arab. 661 Ethelred I. k. Engl. 866
Gondebaud, k. Burg.
Constantine IV. e. East 668 Adrian II. pope

Anastasius I. e. East 491 Domnus I. pope

6.76 Arnulph, e. Germ.

Gelasius I. pope
492 Agatho, pope

679 Basil I. e. Constant.
Anastasius 11. pope
496 Leo II. pope

682 Alfred, k. Engl.
Symmachus, pope
498 Benedict II. pope

683 John VIII. pope
Childebert I. k. Paris

Abdalmelic, caliph 684 Charles II. the Bald, e. West 875
Clotaire I. k. Fr.


Justinian II. e. East 685 Charles III. e. Germ. 876
Hormisdas, pope
514 John V. pope

685 Carloman, k. Bavar. 876
Arthur, pr. Brit.
516 Conon, pope
686 Lewis II. k. Fr.

Justin I. e. East
518 Sergius I. pope

687 Lewis III, k. Fr.
523 Ina, k. Wessex
689 Martin II. pope

526 Boniface VI. pope 696 Carloman, k. Fr.

Amalaric, k. Visig. 526 John VI. pope

702 Adrian III. pope
Justinian I. e. East

John VII. pope
705 Stephen VI. pope

Boniface II. pope
530 Constantine, pope
708 Leo VI. e. East

Gilimer, k. Vand. 530 Anastasius II. e. East 713 Stephen VII. pope 896
Chosroes I. Nushirvan,

Gregory II. pope 715 Lewis III. e. Germ. 889
k. Pers.

717 Berenger I. k. ltal.

532 Gregory III. pope 731 Formosus, pope

Agapetus I. pope
535 Charles Martel, k. Fr. 737 Romanus, pope

536 Carloman, k. Austras.

John IX. pope

Vigilius, pope
537 Zacharias, pope
741 Theodore II. pope

Totila, k. Ostrog

541 Constantine V. e. East 742 Charles II I. the Simple, k. Fr. 898
Pelagius I. pope
555 Aistulph, k. Lomb. 750 Benedict IV. pope

John III. pope
560 Pepin le Bref. k. Fr.

751 Edward the Elder, k. Engl. 901
Ethelbert, k. Kent 560 Stephen III. pope

752 Leo V. pope

Caribert, k. Paris
562 Almanzor, caliph
753 Sergius III. pope

Chilperic I. k. Par.
562 Offa, k. Mercia

755 Anastasius III, pope 911
Sigebert I. k. Austras. 562 Desiderius, k. Lomb. 756 Conrad I. e. Germ.

Justin II. e. East
565 Paul I. pope
757 Rollo, d. Norm.

Alboin, k. Lomb. 566 Abdalrahman I. k. Cordova 758 Lando, pope

Benedict I. pope
574 Stephen IV. pope 768 John X. pope

Childebert II. k. Austras. 575 Charlemagne, e. West 771 Henry I. e. Germ.

Tiberius Const. e. East 578 Adrian I. pope

Romanus I. East

Pelagius II. pope
578 Leo IV. e. East
775 Athelstan, k. Engl.

Hormisdas, k. Pers. 579 Constantine VI. e. East

780 Leo VI. pope

Maurice, e. East

582 Haroun al Rashid, caliph 786 Stephen VIII. pope 929
Gregory I. pope
590 Leo III. pope
795 John XI. pope

Chosroes II. Parviz, k. Pers. 590 Nicephorus I. e. East 802 Amadeddulat, sult. Pers.

Agilulf, k. Lomb.
591 Amin, caliph

809 Leo VII. pope
Boniface III. pope
607 Michael I. e. East

811 Lewis IV. k. Fr.
Boniface IV. pope
608 Almamon, caliph

813 Otho I. e. Germ.
Heraclius, e. East
610 Leo V. e. East
813 Stephen IX. pope

Clotaire I I. k. Fr.

613 Lewis I. e. and k. Fr. 814 Edmund I. k. Engl. 941
Deusdedit, pope
614 Stephen V. pope
816 Martin III. pope

Boniface V. pope
619 Paschal I. pope
817 Constantine VII. e. East

Honorius I.
626 Michael II. e. East 820 Edred, k. Engl.

Dagobert I. k. Fr. 628 Eugenius II. pope

824 Agapetus II. pope

} 531 .

John II. pope

Silverius, pope

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