Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness

Framsida
Thomas C. Bruneau, Steven C. Boraz
University of Texas Press, 20 apr. 2009 - 407 sidor
These days, it’s rare to pick up a newspaper and not see a story related to intelligence. From the investigations of the 9/11 commission, to accusations of illegal wiretapping, to debates on whether it’s acceptable to torture prisoners for information, intelligence—both accurate and not—is driving domestic and foreign policy. And yet, in part because of its inherently secretive nature, intelligence has received very little scholarly study. Into this void comes Reforming Intelligence, a timely collection of case studies written by intelligence experts, and sponsored by the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) at the Naval Postgraduate School, that collectively outline the best practices for intelligence services in the United States and other democratic states. Reforming Intelligence suggests that intelligence is best conceptualized as a subfield of civil-military relations, and is best compared through institutions. The authors examine intelligence practices in the United States, United Kingdom, and France, as well as such developing democracies as Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, and Russia. While there is much more data related to established democracies, there are lessons to be learned from states that have created (or re-created) intelligence institutions in the contemporary political climate. In the end, reading about the successes of Brazil and Taiwan, the failures of Argentina and Russia, and the ongoing reforms in the United States yields a handful of hard truths. In the murky world of intelligence, that’s an unqualified achievement.

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Intelligence Reform Balancing Democracy and Effectiveness Thomas C Bruneau and Steven C Boraz
1
Challenges to Effective Intelligence in Modern Democracies
25
Democratic Control of Intelligence in New Democracies
147
Best Practices Balancing Democracy and Effectiveness Steven C Boraz and Thomas C Bruneau
331
Selected Bibliography
345
About the Contributors
357
Index
363
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Sida 60 - President by an exertion of legislative power; but with such an authority plus the very delicate, plenary and exclusive power of the President as the sole organ of the federal government in the field of international relations — a power which does not require as a basis for its exercise an act of Congress, but which, of course, like every other governmental power, must be exercised in subordination to the applicable provisions of the Constitution.
Sida 70 - Prominent on the surface of any case held to involve a political question is found a textually demonstrable constitutional commitment of the issue to a coordinate political department; or a lack of judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving it; or the impossibility of deciding without an initial policy determination of a kind clearly for nonjudicial discretion...
Sida 59 - By the constitution of the United States the president is invested with certain important political powers, in the exercise of which he is to use his own discretion, and is accountable only to his country in his political character, and to his own conscience.
Sida 60 - Moreover, he, not Congress, has the better opportunity of knowing the conditions which prevail in foreign countries, and especially is this true in time of war. He has his confidential sources of information. He has his agents in the form of diplomatic, consular and other officials.
Sida 64 - Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA Patriot Act) was enacted on October 26, 2001.
Sida 59 - ... discretion, and is accountable only to his country in his political character, and to his own conscience. To aid him in the performance of these duties, he is authorized to appoint certain officers, who act by his authority and in conformity with his orders. In such cases their acts are his acts ; and whatever opinion may be entertained of the manner in which executive discretion may be used, still there exists and can exist no power to control that discretion.
Sida 60 - It is quite apparent that if, in the maintenance of our international relations, embarrassment— perhaps serious embarrassment— is to be avoided and success for our aims achieved, congressional legislation which is to be made effective through negotiation and inquiry within the international field must often accord to the President a degree of discretion and freedom from statutory restriction which would not...
Sida 71 - ... the impossibility of deciding without an initial policy determination of a kind clearly for nonjudicial discretion; or the impossibility of a court's undertaking independent resolution without expressing lack of the respect due coordinate branches of government; or an unusual need for unquestioning adherence to a political decision already made...
Sida 354 - Inquiry of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, 1 7 Oct.
Sida 33 - Intelligence shall make every effort to assure that the appropriate departments and agencies of the United States provide informed and timely intelligence necessary for the executive and legislative branches to make sound decisions affecting the security and vital interests of the Nation. It is further the purpose of this resolution to provide vigilant legislative oversight over the intelligence activities of the United States to assure that such activities are in conformity with the Constitution...

Om författaren (2009)

THOMAS BRUNEAU is a Professor of National Security Affairs, and the Program Manager for Latin America at the Center for Civil-Military Relations, at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.STEVEN C. BORAZ is an Intelligence Surveillance an

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