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of our tent, was a fine cool fountain, from which we characters of the Messiah was, to judge the poor, (Psalm obtained our supply; it is sunk in the ground and arched 72. 2,4,) and to preach the Gospel to them. (Isai. 11.4; over, with a flight of steps by which to descend to it. | Matt. 11. 5.) Our Lord chose disciples that were poor. Just north of the town, too, by the side of the road and most of the early believers were poor men, as we along the bed of the valley, is another small fountain ; may see in their history. (Acts 6. 1.) Solomon says, which seemed to serve chiefly at this season for watering “The rich and poor meet together, the Lord is the animals.

maker of them all," (Prov. 22. 2.) that is, God created : "The pools above described are doubtless of high anti them both; and both riches and poverty are of his quity; and one of these is probably to be regarded as bestowing. Hence the rich should not be proud and the pool of Hebron,' over which David hanged up the supercilious, nor the poor desponding; both are equal in assassins of Ishbosheth. (2Sam. 4. 12.)”

the eyes of God. (Prov. 29. 13.) The oppression of the poor is particularly hateful to the Lord: thus the Prophet

Amos reproaches the Israelites with having sold the POOR. This word, in the Scriptures, often denotes poor for a contemptible price; as for a pair of shoes. not so much a man destitute of the good things of this | (ch. 8. 6.) A Christian is never permitted to prefer a world, as a man sensible of his spiritual wants. In this rich before a poor man, only because he is rich, and to sense the greatest and richest men of the world are on a think better of him, and to judge him more worthy of level with the poorest in the eyes of God.

esteem and consideration, merely on account of his Under the Mosaic law, for those whom misfortune wealth, rather than he who has not the same advantages or other circumstances had reduced to poverty, various of the goods of fortune. (James 2. 1-10.) humane regulations were made. Notwithstanding ! From some special instances, poverty was sometimes Moses had, by his statutes relative to the division of the considered by the Jews as a punishment from God, land, studied to prevent any Israelites from being born (1 Sam. 2. 36,) and Job also speaks of it as of a prison poor, yet he nowhere asserts that there would actually and a state of bondage, (ch. 36. 8,) but a more consobe no poor. On the contrary he expressly affirms, (Deut. latory view is taken by the Prophet Isaiah, (48.10,) who 15.11,) “The poor shall never cease out of thy land;" and compares it to a furnace or crucible wherein metals are he enjoins the Hebrews to open wide their hands to | purified. their brethren, to the poor and the needy in their land. He exhorts the opulent to assist a reduced Israelite with POPLAR, 235 libneh, (Gen. 30. 37; Hosea á loan, and not to refuse even though the sabbatical | 4. 13;) Sept. in Hosea, Neukn. This is very probably year draw nigb, (Deut. 15. 7-10,) and no pledge was to the Populus alba, or white poplar, which corresponds be detained for the loan of money that served for the pre- with the etymology; but the Arabic version in both servation of the debtor's life or health, (Deut. 24.12,13,) places, and the Septuagint in the former passage, interor was necessary to enable him to procure bread. for pret libneh as the styrax, or storax shrub, out of wbich himself and family, as the upper and nether mill-stones. flows a well-known odoriferous milky gum. During harvest the owner of a field was prohibited from Theophrastus mentions the white poplar as growing reaping the corn that grew in its corners, or the after | in Egypt and Syria, beside which the black poplar, the growth; and the scattered ears or sheaves carelessly left | aspen, and the Lombardy poplar grow in Palestine. The on the ground equally belonged to the poor. After a aspen, whose long leaf-stalks cause the leaves to tremble man had once shaken or beaten his olive-trees, he was with every breath of wind, unites with the willow and not permitted to gather the olives that still hung on the oak to overshadow the water courses of the Lower them; so that the fruit which did not ripen until after Lebanon, and with the oleander and the acacia to adorn the season of gathering, belonged to the poor. (Levit. the deep ravines of Southern Palestine. Lord Lindsay 19. 9,10; Deut. 24. 19,20,21; Ruth 2. 2-19.) Also describes the Lombardy poplar, so common in England, whatever grew during the sabbatical year, in the fields, as growing with the walnut-tree and weeping-willow gardens, or vineyards, the poor might take at pleasure. beside the deep torrents of the Upper Lebanon. Poplars Another privilege enjoyed by the poor was, what were are also abundant in the groves which extend for many called second tenths and second firstlings. “Besides the | miles around Damascus. tenth received by the Levites, the Israelites were obliged to set apart another tenth of their field and garden produce; and in a similar manner of their cattle, a

POPULATION OF THE HOLY LAND. See second set of offerings, for the purpose of presenting as

SYRIA. thank-offerings at the high festivals.” (Michaëlis.) Of PORCH. See DWELLING-HOUSE. these thank-offerings only certain fat pieces were consumed on the altar; the remainder, after deducting the

PORCH OF SOLOMON. See TEMPLE. priest's portion, was appropriated to the sacrifice feasts, PORTER, wyivi shoir, (2Kings 7.10,11; 2Chron. to which the Israelites were bound to invite the stranger, 31.14,) a gate-keeper, a porter. The Levites discharged the widow, and the orphan. “When any part of these the office of porters of the Temple both day and night, tenths remained, which they had not been able to bring and had the care of the treasure and offerings. Properly to the altar or to consume as offerings, they were obliged speaking the office of these porters was in some respects every three years to make a conscientious estimate of the military, and they were the soldiers of the Lord, and amount, and without presenting it as an offering to God, the guards of his house, to whose charge the several employ it in benevolent entertainments in their native gates of the courts of the sanctuary were appointed by cities.” (Deut. 12. 5-12,17-19; 14. 22-29; 16. 10,11; lot. (1 Chron. 26. 1,13,19.) They waited at every 26. 12,13.) Those who participated in these enter- / gate; and were not permitted to depart from their sertainments were evidently not regarded as beggars, as vice, (2Chron. 35. 15,) and they attended by turns in Moses does not mention the term, but we read of beg their courses, as the other Levites did. (2Chron. 8. 14.) gars in the time of the Judges, (1 Sam. 2. 8,) and the Their proper business was to open and shut the gates, Kings. (Psalm 109. 10.)

and to attend at them by day, as a kind of peace-officers, To those who suffer from lack of the world's goods, in order to prevent any tumult among the people; to the Scriptures offer abundant consolation. One of the keep strangers, and the excommunicated and unclean

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persons from entering into the holy court, and to prevent or persons subject to melancholy; and they make their whatever might be prejudicial to the safety, peace, and appeal in behalf of their opinions to physicians. They purity of the holy place and service. They also kept accordingly, in their interpretation of those expressions guard by night about the Temple and its courts. They which are employed in reference to demoniacs, proceed are said to have been twenty-four in number, including on the principle that the sacred writers meant by them three priests, and to have stood sentry at so many dif- the same, and nothing more, than would be naturally ferent places. There was an officer over the whole meant in case the possessed persons were merely the subguard, called by Maimonides, “the man of the mountain jects of these diseases. But the great majority of theoof the house," who frequently walked round to see that logians take a more literal and a sounder view of the all were at their posts, and attentive; when he passed a subject; they justly consider the expressions in the New sentinel that was standing, he said, “Peace be unto Testament as clearly implying that the demoniacs were you;" but if he found one asleep, he struck him, and he possessed by an evil spirit, and they see in this state of bad liberty to set fire to his garment. This may, per things the providence of God, which thus made even haps, be alluded to in the following passage: “Behold devils bear witness to the divinity of Our blessed Lord. I come as a thief," that is, unawares; "blessed is he | We draw principally from Professor Jahn the followthat watcheth, and keepeth his garments.” (Rev. 16.15.) ing summary of the chief considerations which are

The 134th Psalm appears to be addressed to these ordinarily employed to prove that the demoniacs were watchmen of the Temple, “who by night stand in the really possessed with a devil, and which must appear house of the Lord," and in which they are exhorted to quite conclusive to any unprejudiced mind. employ their waking hours in acts of praise and devo I. These demoniacs expressed themselves in a way tion. See WATCHMAN.

which is not done by epileptic, melancholy, or insane persons, as in Matthew 8. 28; Luke 8. 27; Mark 5. 7;

they requested Jesus not to torment them, and they PORTION, ph hhalak. (Gen. 14. 24.) In addi- answered with propriety questions which were proposed tion to the sense of dividing or allotting, this word is used

to them. In one instance the demons departed from in reference to a custom still prevalent among princes them and entered into swine, and in this particular case and rich people in the East, not only to invite their

it surely cannot be said that madness or melancholy, the friends to feasts, but to send a portion of the banquet to

mere phrensy or wanderings of the brain, went out of those that cannot well come to it, especially their rela

the possessed persons into the herd. The supposition tions and those in a state of mourning. This sending

which some make, that the swine were driven into the of portions to those for whom nothing was prepared, is sea by the demoniacs, i

sea by the demoniacs, is destitute of all probability, for alluded to in Nehemiah 8. 10, where it is said, “Go | they would have been more likely to have been driven your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send

in many more directions than one, by persons of such portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared, for

an undisciplined and irrational character; especially as this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye sorry; for

they were two thousand in number. the joy of the Lord is your strength.” The historian is

II. No symptoms of disease are mentioned in the here describing a national festival where every one was

case of the dumb demoniac, introduced in Matthew supposed to be equally concerned; those then for whom

9. 32 and Luke 11. 14, nor in that of the dumb and nothing was prepared, it should seem, means those that

blind demoniac, spoken of in Matthew 12. 22. The were in a state of mourning; mourning for private cala

possessed persons, therefore, in both of these instances, mities being here supposed to take place of rejoicing for

were in a sound state of body and health, with this public concerns. But it is not only to those that are in

exception merely, that the devil (for this certainly could a state of mourning that provisions are sometimes sent;

not have been done by epilepsy, melancholy, or madothers are honoured by princes in the same manner who

ness,) obstructed their organs of speech and vision. could not conveniently attend the royal table, or to whom

III. It is admitted that the circumstances attendit was supposed not to be convenient. M. D'Arvieux ing the case of the lunatic in Matthew 17. 15, are such mentions that in Syria, when the grand emir of the as might be expected in the case of a person aftlicted Druses, with whom he resided, found it incommoded

with the epilepsy; but then it should be particularly him to eat with him, he politely desired him to take his

noticed that the effects, in this instance, as well as in own time for eating, sending him what he liked from others, are attributed to the agency of the devil. his kitchen and at the time he chose. Thus David it

Thus David it! IV. We are informed that the damsel at Philippi may be presumed did to Uriah, for it is recorded,

(Acts 16. 16,) practised divination, which evidently " there followed him a mess of meat from the king” |

could not have been done by a mad or deranged person. (2Sam. 11. 8,10.) We likewise read in the Book of

We must conclude, therefore, that she was under the Esther 9. 19, “ Therefore the Jews of the villages, that

influence of an evil spirit. dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of

V. The demoniacs themselves say, that they are the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a

possessed with a devil; the Jews of the New Testament good day, and of sending portions to one another.”

who happened to be concerned on account of their relaRoberts says, “On the first of the Hindoo month of

tionship to the person, or in any other way, in a case of July, also on the first day of the new moon of their

demoniacal possession, assert the same thing; the October, the people send portions of cakes, preserves,

Apostles and Evangelists likewise allege that persons fruits, oil, and clothes, one to another.” See INHERIT

possessed with demons were brought to Jesus, and that AKCE; TESTAMENT.

the demons departed at his command. (Matt. 4. 24; 7. 22; 9. 33; 12. 28; Mark 1. 32,39; 9. 25; Luke

4. 41; 8. 2,30,38; 9. 49.) Our Lord himself also POSSESSION. The inquiry respecting demonia- | asserts that he casts out devils. (Luke 11. 19; Matt. cal possession, so often mentioned in the New Testa- | 12. 27,28.). ment, and likewise in the writings of profane authors of VI. The sacred writers make an express distinction antiquity, is a very intricate and a difficult one. The between demoniacs and the sick; and likewise between neological school contend that the demoniacs of the the exorcism of demons, and the healing of the sick. Scriptures were all of them either madmen, epileptics, (Mark 1. 32; Luke 6. 17,18; 7. 21; 13. 32.) Demo

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niacs, therefore, were not persons afflicted with diseases correct, for this very satisfactory reason, that the diffin the way that has been supposed.

culties of the new interpretation are always greater. On VII. Demoniacs knew, what madmen, insane per- one side we have the wonderful doctrine that it pleased sons, epileptics, and melancholy men could not of them the Almighty to permit invisible and evil beings to pos, selves know; that Jesus was the Son of God, the Mes sess themselves in some incomprehensible manner of the siah, the son of David. (Mark 1. 24; 5. 27; Matt. bodies and souls of men; on the other we have the 8. 29; Luke 4. 34.)

Evangelists inconsistent with themselves, and a narraVIII. Jesus speaks to the demons, and asks them tive which is acknowledged to be inspired, and to be their names; and we find that they answer him. He intended for the unlearned-unintelligible and false. also threatens them, commands them to be silent, to Between such difficulties we prefer the former; and if depart, and not to return. (Mark 1. 25; 5. 8; 9. 25; we cannot comprehend how such things could be, we Matt. 8. 29-31; Luke 4. 35; 8. 30-32.)

submit to the infinite wisdom and power of the Supreme, IX. When the seventy disciples returned from their and surrender our imperfect reason to the guidance of labours, one prominent cause of their joy was that Divine revelation. The difference between Christianity the devils, when the name of Christ was pronounced, and philosophy, or the mode of speculating which obeyed them. Our Lord answered them as follows. assumes that title, may be said to consist in this: in “I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. Behold, matters of philosophy the vulgar may be in error, and I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, the speculatists may be right; but in Christianity the and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall popular opinion is generally right, and the philosopher by any means hurt you. Notwithstanding, in this rejoice who would fashion the statements of Scripture according not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather to his own notions of truth and falsehood, is sure to conrejoice, because your names are written in heaven.” clude with error, probably in infidelity. (Luke 10. 18-20.)

The doctrine of demoniacal possession is consistent X, When Our Saviour was accused by the Phari. with the whole tenor of Scripture. Evil is there represees of casting out devils by the aid of Beelzebub, he sented as having been introduced by a being of this replied that the kingdom, the city, or the family, in description, who in some wonderful manner influenced which were dissensions and discords, would of itself the immaterial principle in man; and the continuance perish; and that consequently, if there were such dis- of evil in the world is frequently imputed to the conticords in the kingdom of Satan, as to induce one devil nued agency of the same being. His delight is in every to exert his power in the expulsion of another, it could possible way to harass and injure mankind, both as to not long exist. To these things he immediately adds, mind and outward estate. The doctrine also is consistent “If I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your with the dictates of reason. If one man may cause eril sons cast them out? Therefore they shall be your to another, a thing which is done in thousands of judges. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, instances every day, is it not possible that evils of a difthen the kingdom of God is come unto you. Or else ferent kind might be produced by means of other beings, how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil while the moral government of God remained unimhis goods, except he first bind the strong man? And peached? then he will spoil his house." (Matt. 12. 25,28; Mark The supposition that the demoniacs spoken of in 3. 23-25; Luke 11. 17-19.)

Scripture were lunatics, is fraught with numerous and XI. Our Lord also makes the following remarks in insuperable difficulties. The facts recorded of them respect to the demons or evil spirits in Matthew 12. 43; demonstrate that they were not merely such. Insane and in Luke 11. 24: “When the unclean spirit is gone persons either reason rightly on wrong grounds, of out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking wrongly on right grounds, or blend right and wrong rest, but finding none. He saith, I will return to my together. But these demoniacs reasoned rightly on right house, whence I came out. And when he cometh, he grounds; they uttered propositions undeniably true, and findeth it swept and garnished; then goeth he and such as were always perfectly adapted to the occasions. taketh seven other spirits more wicked than himself; | They excelled in the accuracy of their knowledge the and they enter in and dwell there, and the last state of disciples themselves; at least we never find any of these that man is worse than the first.” It is very clear that applying to Our Lord the epithet of “the Holy One of a person would not naturally understand expressions of God." They were alike consistent in their knowledge this kind in respect to a disease.

and their language. Their bodies were agitated and XII. The woman in Luke 13. 11, who was bowed convulsed; the powers of their minds were controlled in down with the spirit of infirmity, is said by Our Saviour, such a manner that their actions were unreasonable; Fet in the sixteenth verse, to have been bound by Satan. they addressed Our Lord in a consistent and rational, The Apostle Peter, in like manner, asserts in Acts though in an appalling and mysterious manner. Our 10. 38, that all who had been oppressed by the devil | Lord answered them, not by appealing to the individuals were healed by “ Jesus of Nazareth, the anointed of whose actions had been so irrational, but to something God."

distinct from them, which he requires and commands to XIII. What are now regarded as the wonderful leave them: that is, to evil spirits, whose mode of conmiracles of Our Lord, would appear of but comparatively tinuing evil in such instances had been so fearfully dislittle importance and little worth, if it should be admit- played. These evil spirits answer him by an intimate ted that he did not actually cast out devils, but merely knowledge of his person and character, which was hidhealed diseases. The Church Fathers accordingly em- den from the wise and prudent of the nation. Before braced, without any dissenting voice, the opinion, that Him, as their future Judge, they believed and trembleu, the persons of whom we have been speaking were really saying, “ Art thou come to torment us before the time possessed with demons, and the Church itself, in accord- | It is no reasonable objection that we do not read of ance with this opinion, instituted an order of persons such frequent possessions before or since the appearance called exorcists.

of Our Redeemer on earth. It seems, indeed, to have Whatever difficulties may seem to attach to the com- been ordered by a special providence, that they should mon, simple, and ancient interpretation of the different have been permitted to be then more than usually com: cases of possession, it must be regarded as most probably | mon; in order that He, who came to destroy the works

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of the devil, might the more remarkably and visibly slow. In the country of Job a camel would travel at triumph over him; and that the machinations and de- little more than two miles an hour; but those who carvices of Satan might be more openly defeated, at a time ried messages in haste moved very differently, and their when their power was at its highest both in the souls and haste appeared the greater by contrast. The runners, bodies of men; and also that plain facts might be a sen- or "posts” as we translate the word, sometimes ride sible confutation of the Sadducean error, which denied dromedaries, a remarkably swift sort of camel which the existence of angels or spirits, (Acts 23. 8,) and pre- can outrun the swiftest horses. With what energy then railed among the principal men both for rank and learn- might Job say, “My days are swifter than a post;" ing in those days. The cases of the demoniacs expelled instead of moving slowly like a caravan, they have disby the Apostles were cases of real possession; and it is a appeared with the swiftness of a messenger mounted on well known fact, that in the second century of the Chris | a dromedary. tian era, the apologists for the persecuted professors of Some writers have thought that the use of posts as a the faith of Christ appealed to the ejection of evil spirits system originated with the Persians. Diodorus Siculus as a proof of the Divine origin of their religion. Hence observes that the kings of Persia, in order to have intelit is evident that the demoniacs were not merely insane ligence of what was passing through all the provinces of or epileptic patients, but persons really and truly vexed their vast dominions, placed sentinels at eminences, at and convulsed by unclean demons.

convenient distances, where towers were built. These Jortin remarks, that “where any circumstances are sentinels gave notice of public occurrences from one to added concerning the demoniacs, they are generally such another, with a very loud and shrill voice, by which as show that there was something preternatural in the news was transmitted from one extremity of the kingdom case; for these afflicted persons unanimously joined in to another with great expedition. But as this could not doing homage to Christ and his Apostles; they all knew be practised except in the case of general news, which it him and unite in confessing his divinity. If, on the was expedient that the whole nation should be acquainted contrary, they had been lunatics, some would have wor- with, Cyrus, as Xenophon relates, appoint couriers and shipped, and some would have reviled him, according to places for post-horses, building on purpose on all the the various ways in which the disease had affected their high roads, houses for the reception of the couriers, minds."

where they were to deliver their packets to the next, At the present day, as Roberts informs us, “The uni- and so on. This they did night and day, so that no versal opinion in the East is, that devils have the power inclemency of weather was to stop them; and they are to enter into and take possession of men, in the same represented as moving with astonishing speed. Herosense as we understand it to have been the case, as dotus owns that nothing swifter was known for a journey described by the sacred writers. I have often seen the by land. Xerxes, in his famous expedition against poor objects who were believed to be under demoniacal Greece, planted posts from the Ægean Sea to Shushan influence, and certainly, in some instances, I found it no or Susa, to send notice thither of what might happen to easy matter to account for their conduct on natural his army; he placed also messengers from station to principles; I have seen them writhe and tear themselves station, to convey his packets, at such distances from in the most frantic manner; they burst asunder the each other as a horse might easily travel. cords with which they were bound, and fell on the The regularity and swiftness of the Roman posts were ground as if dead. At one time they are silent, and likewise admirable. Gibbon observes, “The advantage again most vociferous; they dash with fury among the of receiving the earliest intelligence, and of conveying people, and loudly pronounce their imprecations. But their orders with celerity, induced the emperors to no sooner does the exorcist come forward, than the establish throughout their extensive dominions the victim becomes the subject of new emotions; he stares, regular institution of posts. Houses were everywhere talks incoherently, sighs and falls on the ground; and erected at the distance only of five or six miles; each of in the course of an hour, is as calm as any who are them was constantly provided with forty horses; and by around him. Those men who profess toʻeject devils are the help of these relays, it was easy to travel a hundred frightful-looking creatures, and are seldom associated miles a day along the Roman roads.” In the time of with, except in the discharge of their official duties. It Theodosius, Cesarius, a magistrate of high rank, went is a fact, that they affect to eject the evil spirits by their post from Antioch to Constantinople. He began his prince of devils. Females are much more subject to journey at night, was in Cappadocia (one hundred and these affections than men; and Friday is the day of all sixty-five miles from Antioch) the ensuing evening, and others on which they are most liable to be attacked. I arrived at Constantinople the sixth day about noon. am fully of opinion that nearly all their possessions | The whole distance was seven hundred and twenty-five would be removed by medicine, or by arguments of a Roman, or six hundred and sixty-five English miles. more tangible nature. Not long ago a young female The institution of posts disappeared from Europe was said to be under the influence of an evil spirit, but with the breaking up of the Roman empire, and its the father, being an unbeliever, took a large broom and re-establishment is generally attributed to Louis XI. of began to beat his daughter in the most unmerciful France, in the middle of the fifteenth century. manner. After some time the spirit cried aloud, ‘Do not beat me! do not beat me!' and took its departure. There is a fiend called Poothani, which is said to POSTURE. The posture of persons acting, detertake great delight in entering little children; but the mines, in some measure, the nature or kind of their herb called pa-maruta is then administered with great actions. Thus, in the language of Scripture, Standing success."

signifies resisting, defending, struggling, and contending

for victory, giving assistance to friends. In Acts 7. 55, POST. The words 77 minni rats, occurring Christ is said to be standing when he appeared to in Job 9. 25, signify a courier or messenger appointed Stephen, as ready to assist him in his agony. To stand to carry with expedition the despatches of princes. The before another is a posture of service. (Deut. 10.8; patriarch says, “My days are swifter than a post.” To 1 Kings 10. 8; 1Sam. 16. 22; Luke 1. 19.) appreciate the force of this expression we must remember Walking among or in the midst, is a posture of dignity that the common pace of travelling in the East is very and authority, of one that is busy, and watching and

1070

POSTURE

POTTER, POTTERY.

defending those whom he walks about or amongst. | every other kind, or their fabricators, and hence artisans Thus God, to represent himself as protecting and govern- | in general, whether in brass, iron, wood, or stone. The ing the Israelites, says, in Leviticus 26. 12, “And I will same word also, when used in the signification of a walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be potsherd, a fragment of pottery, was also employed to my people;" and the protecting angel in Daniel 4. | import a sharp instrument in general, as a rasp, scraper, 13,23, is called a watchman or patroller, one that goes or scalpel, a sense in which it has to this day deabout to defend from any surprise. Sitting signifies scended to the Arabs; for the Arabic word, (identically, ruling, reigning, judging, and enjoying peace. Thus in | as to letters, the same as the Hebrew VIN hheres,), as a Judges 5. 10, “ Ye that sit in judgment,” are the ma- verb, implies to scrape or rasp with an edged tool, the gistrates or judges. In 2Samuel 19. 8, « The king purpose to which the vin hheres, or sherd, was directed sitteth in the gate,” that is, he is ready to execute any in the text, and as a substantive, a scab, or sharp and duty belonging to the kingly office. To sit on the morbid incrustation of the skin: the object to which it throne is always synonymous to reigning, a seat or was applied.” See POTTERY. throne being the symbol of government. Sitting with other adjuncts has a different signification. To sit upon the earth, or on a dunghill, signifies to be in

POTTAGE, T12 nazid. (Gen. 25. 29,34.) The red extreme misery. To sit in darkness, is to be in prison

pottage for which Esau profanely bartered his birthright and slavery. To sit as a widow, is to mourn as a

was prepared as we learn from this chapter by seething widow. To fall down or prostrate oneself before ano

lentiles in water; but the common pottage in the East, ther, is the symbol of submission and homage. (Gen.

at the present day, is made by cutting their meat into 37. 7,8; Isai. 45. 14.).

little pieces, and boiling them with flour, rice, and

parsley, all which is afterwards poured into a proper POT. The word "52 kili, employed in Leviticus vessel. Professor Robinson when at Akabah says, “We 6. 28, signifies a brazen pot; but it likewise in other bought little except a supply of lentiles or small beans, places denotes any kind of vessel or utensil. (Gen. which are common in Egypt and Syria under the name 31. 37.) The word n sy tsinslsineth, (Exod. 16.33,) of 'adas; the same from which the pottage was made is also rendered “pot” in our version, but it means for which Esau sold his birthright. We found them rather a basket to keep things in.

very palatable, and could well conceive that to a weary The forms of the pots and other vessels used by the hunter faint with hunger they might be quite a dainty." Egyptians may be ascertained by reference to the paint Roberts says, “The people of the East are exceedingly ings in the tombs of Egypt copied in this work, and fond of pottage, which they call kool. It is something likewise to various specimens preserved in the British like gruel, and is made of various kinds of grain, which Museum. It is highly probable that those of the Jews are first beaten in a mortar. The red pottage is made of were very much of the same sort. See POTTERY. kurakon, and other grains, but is not superior to the i l'OTIPIIAR, D'U19 Sept. IIeteppns, (Gen. 37.

other. For such a mess, then, did Esau sell his birth

right. When a man has sold his fields or gardens for an 36,) an officer of the court of Pharaoh, king of Egypt,

insignificant sum, the people say, 'The fellow has sold and captain of the guard, who purchased Joseph of some Midianitish merchants, and made him super

| his land for pottage.' Does a father give his daughter

in marriage to a low caste man, it is observed, 'He has intendent of his house. Listening, however, afterwards

given her for pottage. Does a person by base ineans to the false charges of his wife, he threw Joseph into prison, where he was rigorously confined; but this does

seek for some paltry enjoyment, it is said, ' For one leaf not seem to have been of long continuance, for we find

of pottage, he will do nine days' work. Has a learned

man stooped to anything which was not expected from that Joseph was afterwards entrusted with the management of the prison. (Gen. 39. 19-23.) Some expositors

him, it is said, “The learned one has fallen into the

pottage-pot.' Of a man in great poverty it is remarked, have made a distinction between the master of Joseph and the keeper of the prison into which he was thrown;

‘Alas! he cannot get pottage. A beggar asks, 'Sir, will while others with more probability have conjectured

you give me a little pottage? Does a man seek to that Potiphar, after having punished Joseph in a trans

acquire great things by small means, 'He is trying to proport of wrath and jealousy, acknowledged his inno

cure rubies by pottage.' When a person greatly flatters cence; but that in order to avoid disgracing his wife,

another, it is common to say, 'He praises him only for instead of restoring Joseph to his former office, he

his pottage.' Has an individual lost much money by confided to him the command of the state prison. See

trade, “The speculation has broken hís pottage-pot.'

Does a rich man threaten to ruin a poor man, the latter JOSEPH.

will ask, “Will the lightning strike my pottage-pot??” POTIPHERAH, Y2012 (Gen. 41. 45,) the See LENTILES. priest of On, is known only from the circumstance of his having given his daughter in marriage to Joseph.

POTTER, POTTERY, 7810 yotsir. (Psalm 2. 9.) (Gen. 46. 20.) Jablonski conjectured the name to be the same as the Coptic IIHONT-DPH, priest of the

A potter is a maker of earthen vessels, of whose art there is frequent mention made in Scripture.

. sun, which from the recent discoveries among the Egyptian monuments appears to be well founded. See On.

Among the remains of the manufactures of ancient nations, none are more conspicuous or more generally

distributed than vessels in the form of urns. Although POTSHERD, VIN hheres, (Job 2. 8; Isai. 45. 9,) the materials of these are in many instances merely a fragment of broken pottery. Dr. Mason Good ob- | baked clay, the makers appear to have exercised the serves on the passage in Job 2. 8, “ When the art of greatest skill and ingenuity in their formation; and the metallurgy was but in its infancy, almost all the domestic result is, that in no instance is the taste of the ancients utensils employed for every purpose were of pottery displayed to greater advantage than in the efforts of the alone. Pottery may hence be fairly supposed the oldest potter. Even the rudest nations exhibit traces of genius of the mechanical inventions; and on this account the in the formation of their earthen utensils. Perhaps the Hebrew term i hheres, a potter, pottery, or pot- | perfection of these specimens of ancient art may incon. sherd, became afterwards extended to signify wares of siderable degree be attributed to the nature of the mate

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