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con jure', to entreat;—des/-ert, a wilderness; de sert', merit or
demerit. : Secondly, the place of the accent is sometimes changed by the change of the word from one part of speech to another. The nouns min/ute and com'pact, become mi nute' and compact when employed as adjectives. The nouns ab'stract, com'. pound, con'duct, di'gest, ex'tract, in'sult, ob'ject, rebel, and so forth, change their accent when employed as verbs; thus, ab stract', com pound', con duct', di gest', ex tract', in sult', ob ject', re bel.
Thirdly, accent is sometimes deposed by its rival sister emphasis; as in the following examples, in which the former has to give place to the latter. In these and similar examples, the words in which the accent is transposed, have, it will be notic. 1 ed, a partial similarity of form, and are used antithetically.
There is a difference between giving and forgiving.
In this species of composition, plausibility is much more essential than probability.
Cometh this blessedness, then, upon the circumcision only, * or upon the uncircumcision also?
Some appear to make very little distinction between decency and indecency, morality and immorality, religion and irreligion.
EMPHASIS. By EMPHASIS is meant that still more forcible stress of the voice which is given to syllables, in order to distinguish the words to which they belong from others in the same sentence, than that stress which is denominated accent.
Emphasis, in order to distinguish it from the less forcible stress which falls on single letters or syllables, called accent, is generally defined to be a forcible stress laid on words; but the fol
lowing. ile which goed accent, hone sylab
lowing illustrations will show, that the peculiar percussion of the voice which goes by the name of emphasis, is generally given, like that called accent, not to several successive syllables of the same word, but to only one syllable. Its effect, however, when properly applied, is to render more significant and impressive the words to which such syllables belong, than are the other words of the sentence.
Although every one knows what is meant by emphasis, ac cording to the common acceptation of the term, yet few possess that nice discrimination, that clear conception of an author's meaning, and that sound judgment, which are requisite in order to distinguish emphatical words from others, and to give each just such a degree and quality of force as will convey the meaning of what is uttered, in the most lively and striking manner. A few plain directions, therefore, which are calculated to assist the learner on these important points, will now be given: and first, in order to enable him readily to distinguish emphatical from unemphatical words, the following, general rule, if car. ried out in practice with discrimination, will be found far more serviceable than any other rules that can be formed.
Almost every emphatick word may be known by its being contrasted, that is, used, antithetically, with some other word or phrase, either expressed or implied.
Many persons mistake the love, for the prac-tice, of virtue.
Sir, you were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him.
He that cannot bear a jest, should not make one.
'Tis with our judg-ments, as our watch-es; none
Remarks.—These examples clearly illustrate both the utility and the easy application of the foregoing Rule. The italicised words or portions of words, show, that, when both parts of the antithesis are expressed, it requires but little discrimination to ascertain, for a certainty, to which words the emphatick force should be applied. Very often, however, it happens (as will soon be shown) that one part of the antithesis is understood, in which case it frequently requires no small exercise of judgment to ascertain the emphatick word.
Many mistake the emphatick word or words of a sentence by labouring to distinguish it or them from others, upon the false principle of laying the stress on such words as they conceive to be the most important in regard to meaning. A little examination of the foregoing, or, more especially, of the follow. ing, examples, will convince any one, that any such test of discrimination between emphatical and unemphatical words, will generally prove unavailing; for the emphatick words are often (apparently, or abstractly or separately considered) the least consequential words in the sentence.
One should be careful not to apply and, instead of or.
He had the assurance to tell me that he could do it, when I very well knew he could not.
There is a difference between giv-ing and for-giving.
Jesus saith unto her, Where are thine accusers? Hath no man condemned thee? The woman answered, No man, Lord.
Remarks.—These examples are sufficient to show, that any word may become emphatick, and even take a strong emphasis, when employed antithetically with another word. The reason of this must be obvious to him who considers, that this very circumstance of a word's being employed antithetically, renders it important in the sentence in which it thus appears: and that, therefore, it requires that distinction which emphatick force is designed to give it.
In the following examples, one part of the antithesis is implied.
Exercise and temperance strengthen an indifferent constitution, [as well as a good one.]
I speak in the spirit of British law; [and not merely accord. ing to the dictates of reason.]
In thy sight, O Lord, shall no man be justified; [although, in the sight of men, many may be justified.]
Proclaim it, Westmoreland, throughout my host,
We would not die in that man's company. Remarks.—A corresponding, antithetical member to this last line, may be supplied in the following, or some other, manner: “We would not die in that man's company; much less would we fight in it.” Or, perhaps the antithesis will be rendered stronger, if constructed in the following manner: “We would not only, not fight with a coward, but we would not even die in his company."
And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was charge. able to no man.
On Linden, when the sun was low,
of Iser, rolling rapidly.
When the drum beat at dead of night. Remarks. The first sight, antithetically opposed to another sight,” mentioned in this last couplet, is described in the sec. ond line of the first stanza: “All bloodless lay the untrodden snow."
In the first of the foregoing examples, the word "present"
g his time werality towards himconvey a tacit rebude
is contrasted with the implied idea of St. Paul's being then ab. sent from the Corinthians. His reminding them that he swanted” when with them, seems to convey a tacit rebuke, for their lack of liberality towards him when he was freely devoting his time and labours for the good of their souls. An inferential, antithetical member, therefore, very naturally arises, somewhat in this manner: “I was chargeable to no man when I wanted, although I had a right to be chargeable to many, and to have had my reasonable wants supplied.”
Example.-"They brought to the Phar-isees him that aforetime was blind.”
Remark.—By turning to page 214, of this work, the reader will perceive that the word “Phar-isees,” in the passage here quoted, is contrasted with the word "neigh-bours," which occurs in the preceding paragraph. Again, on the same page, we have the
Example:-“They say unto the blind man a-gain, What sayest thou of him?"
Remark.—The Pharisees had al-read-y expressed their opinion of him.
For numerous examples of emphasis founded on antithesis, the reader is referred to pages 171, 214, and 266, and, indeed, to any of the selections in the latter part of this work in which the emphatical words are distinguished by Italick characters.
It is worthy of remark, that sometimes one part of the an. tithesis is a single word, and the other portion, a phrase, or a member of a sentence, and that sometimes both parts consist of emphatick phrases or members.
There was a singular opposition between his al-lege-d motives and his con-duct. :
Is he hon-est; or will he se-cretly rob his neigh-bour of his good name?
To be, or not to be that is the question-