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animal, commited a greater violence to his own nature than the most beautyful and delicate female, accustom'd to animal food, would feel in fheding the blood of her fellow-creatures for sustenance ; possess'd as they are of exquisite feelings, a confiderable degree of intelligence, and even, according to her own religious system, of a liveing soul.* That this is a principlein the social disposition of mankind is evident from the deli. berate coolness with which feamen, when their ordinary provifions are exhausted, sit down to devour fuch of their comrades as chance or contriveance renders the victim of the moment : a fact of which there are but too many, and those too wel-authenticateëd, instanceës. † Such a

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Geness, I, 20, in the margin. + See Tbe melancholy narrative of captain Harrison of the floop Peggy, p. 21, &c.; Narrative of the shipwreck of the Nottingbam galley, p. 19; Shipwreck and adventures of Pierre Viaud, p. 165; Account of the loss of the brig Mary and Ann of London, in Tbe morning chronicle of Decem. 22, 1791; Voyages and travels of an Indian interpreter (J. Long), p. 126. See allso an account of some Usipians in Tacituses Life of Agricola. In the old testament, and in the history of Jofephus, at different fiegeës of Jerusalem the Jewish women ate their own children. (See II Kings, vi, 26, and Whistons Fosepbus, p. 931.) The soldiers of Cambyses, in his frantick expedition against the Aethiopians, fed upon herbs so long as they found any in the way; but when they arrive'd in the

crime, which no necessity can justify, would never enter the mind of a starving Gentoo, nor, indeed, of any one that had not been previously accustom'd to animal food. Even among the Bedouins, or wandering Arabs of the desert, according to the observation of the enlighten'd Volney, though they fo often experience the extremity of hunger, the practice of devouring human flesh was never hear'd of. Content with his milk and his dates, the Bedouin has not defire'd flesh; he has shed no blood ; his hands are not accustom’d to slaughter, nor his ears to the crys of suffering creatures; he has preferve'd

sandy deserts, some of them were guilty of a horrid action : for they cast lots among themselves, and ate every tenth man. (Herodotus, T balia.) The Numantines, according to Valerius Maximus, being besiege'd by Scipio, were constrain'd to feed upon mans flesh. But necessity, says that authour, was no excuse for this ; for there was no necessity for them to live, to whom it was so lawful to dye. The horrid impiety, however, of the Calagurritans, it seems, exceeded the obfti. nacy of the former : who, being besiege'd by Pompey, and haveing devour'd all other creatures in the city, fel to feast upon their wives and children ; and, to the end the armed youth might nourish their bowels with their own bowels the longer, they were not afray'd to falt up the unfortunate remains of the dead bodys. In comparison of these, he exclaims, serpents and wild beasts are gentle and merciful creatures! (B. 7, c. 6.)

a humane and sensible heart. The habit of fhed. ing blood, he says, and tearing his prey, has familiarise'd the favage to the fight of death and sufferings. Tormented by hunger he has defire'd flesh; and finding it easy to obtain that of his fellow-creature, he could not long hesitate to kil him, to satisfy the craveings of his appetite. The first experiment made, this cruelty degenerates into a habit; he becomes a cannibal, fanguinary and atrocious, and his mind acquires all the insensibility of his body.

The Cyclops and Laestrigons, in the Odyssey, are devourers of human flesh, as are, likewise, Scylla and the Syrens.

The Scythian drank the blood of the first prifoner he took; and made the skin of his head serve him for a handkerchief; and, fometimes, the skins of the entire bodys, for a coat. The Melanchlaenians, allso, a Scythian nation, fed upon human flesh.t

The Callatii, a nation of India, when asked by Darius, for what fum they would consent to

* Travels, I, 409, 410.

+ Herodotus, Melpomene. The Scythians, according to Pliny, were anthropopbagi, or eaters of mans flesh; they use’d to drink out of mens sculs, and to wear the scalps, hair and all, inftead of ftomachers. (B.6, C, 17; B. 7, c. 1.)


burn the dead bodys of their parents, were ftruck with horror at the proposal ;--they onely ate them.* The Padaeans, another Indian nation, ate raw flesh; and, when any one of the community was sick (or rather, it may be, found, plump, and in good plight), his best friends presently dispatch'd him; saying, he was in a wasteing condition, and the disease would corrupt his body. If he deny'd he was sick, they had no regard to his words, but kild him, and feafted upon his flesh. A woman in the same circumstanceës was treated in the same manner, by other women.t

The Isfedons, whose country adjoined to Scythia, prefer'd the flesh of a sheep hafh'd with that of a parent. [ The Massagetae, a Scythian nation, had a similar taste. The relations of an in- . firm person used to assemble, and haveing sacrifice'd him, along with an ox, or some other animal, had all the flesh boild together, and fat down to it as to a feast. * This method is admire'd by fome as a hapy thought of at once giveing a man burial, and celebrateing his funeral rites. They did not, however, observe the -fame honours toward those who dye'd a natural death: a distinction which, in some degree, is preserve'd among pious Christians,—with refpect, that is, to the attendant animal. Juvenal fays of the Tentyrites,

* Idem, Thalia. The Greek foldiers in the Persian army sustained not a shock when the above monarch, to show the force of custom, demanded for how much they would devour the dead bodys of their parents, which they were accustom'd to burn. Idem, ibi. † Herodotus, Tbalia.

Herodotus, Melpomene. This ceremony was observe'd to a late period by the Samojedes, a word synonymous with Anthropopbagi, or man-eaters, and who were probablely of Scythian descent, who used to eat the bodys of their dead friends with venison. See A relation of three embassies perform'd by the E. of Carlisle, p. 83.

Afpicimus populos, &c."
" An impious crew we have beheld,


rage Their enemys very life cou'd not asswage,

* Herodotus, Clio.

1 The Brasilians, according to Dellon, “ don't even inter their dead friends, but devour them, even sometimes bea fore the breath is out of their bodys. For, if they judge their friends past all hopes of recovery, they kil them for fear they should grow lean before they dye; and, because they would husband their dead friends to the best advantage, they dry their bones, which they beat to powder, and make up in a kind of pap, and so eat it. When the Europeans upbraid them with their crueltys, they return us for answer, that we are a company of impious wretches, who suffer our friends and parents to be consumed in the earth by the vermin, when we might, with more reason, afford them our belly for their buryingplace.” (Voyage to tbe E. Indies, p, 200.)


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