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“ Summer's dim cloud that, slowly rising, holds
The sweeping tempest in its rising folds,
Though o'er the ridges of its thundering breast
The King of Terrors lifts his lightning crest,
Pleased we behold, when those dark folds we find
Fringed with the golden light that glows behind.”—Pierpont.
“ Ye once were justly famed for bringing forth

Undoubted scholarship and genuine worth.” “For this surrendering the manuscripts, I received the warm thanks of we ti ustees for the family."— Wilson's Burns, p. 21.

“It is impossible to form a just estimate of any individual character, without having divested ourselves of all those passions or prejudices which may tend to pervert our judgment.”

“ Had a stranger, at this time, gone into the province, ignorant of all that had happened in the short interval, and observing the wide and general derastation, and all the horrors of the scene; of plains unclothed and brown; of vegetables burnt up and extinguished; of villages depopulated and in ruin; of temples unroofed and perishing; of reservoirs broken down and dry; he would naturally inquire, that war has thus laid waste the fertile fields of this once beautiful and opulent country ?"

" No youth could rein the horse, hurl the javelin, chase the lion, or delight the social circle like this son."Todd.

“For a time he stormed about the Moorish halls, and vapored about the bastions, and looked down fire and sword upon the palace of the Captain-General.”—Irving.


B Let the pupil in answering these questions, give a reason for his answer, by repeating the appropriate Rule, Note, or Observation.

Earth keeps me here awhile. Why is "keeps" put in the form of the Singular Number fo- Third Person?

Philip or Edward HAS GONE to the Post Office. Why is “has gone” put in the Singular Number?

His being a scholar, entitles him to respect.
Why is “entitles " put in the Singular Number?

Congress has adjourned.
Why is “has adjourned" put in the Singular Number?

They live-Birds fly.
Why are “live” and “fly," not written lives and flies ?

The committee are divided in opinion.
Why may we not say—is divided ?

Jane and Lucy have returned. Why may we not say—has returned ?

A part of the books have been misprinted. Why may we not say-has been misprinted ?

The wages of sin is death. Why may we not say—are death?

I purposed to write many days ago. Why may we not say--1 purposed to have written ?

We ought to have gone there yesterday. Why may we not say--ought to go there yesterday? Why may we not say—ought to have went ?

I did that business according to orders.
Why may we not say—I done that business ?

I came yesterday and am TO RETURN to-day.
What equivalent assertion may be made by a change of Mode

I saw him to rise and heard him to speak.
What words in this Sentence are unnecessary and improper ?

Much learning doth make thee to be mad.
What words in this Sentence are unnecessary ?
The reasoning of a savage is not presumed to be philosophical.
What is the Subject of this sentence ?

I doubted his having been a soldier.
What is the object of “doubted ?"

The Superintendent exhibited his method of parsing.
What is the object of “ of ?"

We could not avoid giving offence.
What is the object of “avoid ?"
What is the object of "giving ?"

We have hcard of his going to the falls.
Why may we not sayof him going to the falls ?

William was censured for joining the society.
Why may we not say-for joining of the society?
Why may we not say—for the joining the society ?
Why may we not say--for the joining of the society ?

Henry is reciting his lesson.
Why may we not say–Henry is recited his lesson ?
Why may we not say-Henry's lesson is iling?

That is an example worthy to be followed. Why may we not say worthy to follow ?

7 The Teacher will extend this exercise at his pleasure, by giving cxamples from a reading lesson, or by calling the attention of the class to some of the most common errors in the use of Predicates.


Rule 5. The Object of an action or relation must be in the Objective case.




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We are writing LETTERS.
Wishing them much joy, we departed."
The book is on the TABLE.
Edward loves to study MATHEMATICS.

Scaling yonder PEAK,
I saw an EAGLE wheeling near its BROW."Knowles.
Rem.-A few exceptions to this rule are noticed at page 104.

Obs. 1. Action is expressed by Verbs or by Participles, Relation is expressed by Prepositions. [See the above examples.]

Obs. 2.—The Object of an action or relation may be a Noun, 9 Pronoun, a Phrase, or a Sentence.

1. A Noun... “I gave the book to Charles.
2. A Pronoun “He received it from me.
3. A Phrase.... Avoid wounding the feelings of others."
4. A Sentence.." He said, I go, sir."

OBs. 3.-An Auxiliary Sentence is often the logical Object of a Verb. [See Diagram 24.] EXAMPLES— And show mankind that truth has yet a friend.Pope.

“As foplings grin to show their teeth are white." Obs. 4.-Sometimes a Principal Sentence is thrown in between the parts of an Objective Sentence. Examples—1. “Whose charms, me thought, could never fade."

2. “This explanation, I doubt not, will satisfy him."
3." But confidence, he added, is a plant of slow growth.”
4. “Lucy's economical education, as you call it, sir, has

been going on all this time." Rem.—The scholar often finds it difficult to decide as to the proper construction of some Sentences thus placed.

Sentences of this class change by imperceptible gradations from a Principal Sentence to an unimportant Auxiliary, so that no rude can be given which will apply in all cases. Generally, however, it may be decided that when a Sentence, thus thrown in, is in its nature, as well as in its form, Principal (as Example 3 above), it should be so construed. But when it is obviously equivalent to an Adverb (as Example 2), it should be parsed as an Adjunct. “This e zplanation will doubtless satisfy him."


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Ous. 5.—In position, the Objective case is commonly after the word of which it is the Object. EXAMPLES—Dennis assists JAMES

We love to study GRAMMAR.
By the poets, it is often placed before its Verb or Preposition,
EXAMPLES—" Him, from my childhood, I have known.

" He wanders EARTH around.
“New ills that latter stage await."--Southey.

“And all the air a solemn stillness holds.Gray. OBs. 6.-A Relative Pronoun in the Objective case precedes the Verb of which it is the Object. EXAMPLE_The evil which he feared has come upon him.”

Obs. 7.—Where a Relative is the Object of a Phrase it precedes the Verb which the Phrase qualifies.

EXAMPLE-I know in whom I have believed.

Rem.-"In whom,” modifies " have believed" -and relates to person, understood.

NOTE I. A Verb may have two or more Objects,

(1.) When they are connected by Conjunctions expressed or understood. EXAMPLE—God created the heaven and the earth." (2.) When they are the names of distinct titles

or attributes of the same person or thing. EXAMPLE-By this dispensation we have lost a neighbor, a friend, a brother.

(3.) When one object is the name of a person or thing, and the other a title, acquired by the action of the verb.

EXAMPLE—They named him John.

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NOTE II. When a verb in the Active Voice is followed by two Objects, it retains the latter in the Passive. EXAMPLE_He shall be named John.

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NOTE III. But two or more Nouns or Pronouns, not in a similar construction, cannot be objects of the same verb.

OBs. 1.—Custom has rendered the omission of Prepositions proper after certain verbs; but in parsing their Objects, the ellipsis should be supplied.

EXAMPLE—"They carried the child HOME.”

Rem.—“Child” is the name of a young being, and, in this connection, is the proper object of “carried.". But“home” is a name applied to a habitation, a building, and “ they" probably did not "carry” that. They carried the child to some place—and that place was its home.

“He told me his history." He related to ME his history. I asked him his OPINION. “Our dear Joachim has asked me for my opinion.”-Michelet's Inuther He gave me a book. " To whom I gave the ring."

Obs. 2.-The verbs make, esteem, regard, consider, elect, bid, dare, feel, hear, see, and some others, are often followed by an Infinitive Phrase, having its Preposition (and sometimes its Subsequent) understood. EXAMPLES--"Lorenzo, these are thoughts that make* man man.”— Young.

..these are thoughts that make man (TO BE] MAN. Teach them OBEDIENCE to the laws.

Teach them [TO YIELD OBEDIENCE) to the laws. Rem.-In examples like these the second Noun or Pronoun is the Ob. ject of the Verb understood or used in predication with it. Thus "man' is used in predication with “to be” or “to become” understood; and "obedience” is the object of “yield.” EXAMPLES—Intemperance makes a man (to become) a fool. He maketh the storm [

] a calm. The people elected Harrison [to be, or for] President. NOTE IV. Intransitive Verbs have no object. EXAMPLES—1 sit-Thou art-He sleeps. . Obs. 1.-—But some Verbs commonly used Intransitively sometimes have objects of their own signification. EXAMPLES-I have fought a good fight.

We ran a race.
" Luther * * * * blew a blast."
[They) shout their raptures to the cloudless skies."

* The word make is generally thus used, when it signifies " to cause to be,”

;"" to cause to become.”

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