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guage of Andrew and the woman of Samaria, who spake in Syriac; Christ, the interpretation of St John, who wrote his

παστον,

p. 44. Το του Χριστού όνομα πρώτον drink, but that drink which is received, Μωϋσέα τους χριoμένοις επιθεϊναι, says not quod potat, but quod potabile est : Euseb. Dem. Evang. 1. iv. c. 15. [Com 80 Xplotbv is not that which receiveth pare Euseb. Ηist. 1. 3.] Quoniam oil, but that which is received by inGreci veteres χρίεσθαι dicebant ungi, , unction. So the Scholiast upon Arisquod nunc αλείφεσθαι-ob hanc ratio tophanes, Ρlut. ν. 717. Τών φαρμάκων nem nos eum Christum nuncupamus, τα μέν έστι καταπλαστά, τα δε χριστά, id est, unctum, qui Hebraice Messias

τα δέ ποτά. And the Scholiast of Theodicitur.' Lactan, de ver. Sap. [Div. critus : Ιστέον, ότι των φαρμάκων τα Inst.] 1. iv. c. 7. So the Latins gene μέν εισι χριστά, ήγουν, άπερ χριόμεθα rally Christus a Chrismate : and with

εις θεραπείαν" τα δέ ποτά, ήγουν, άπερ out question Χριστός is from κέχρισται. πίνομεν τα δε επίπαστα, ήγουν, άπερ Yet I conceive the first signification

επιπάττομεν. Idyl. xi. 1. So that of this word among the Greeks hath

χριστόν in his judgment is the same not been hitherto sufficiently dis

with έγχριστον in Theocritus. Idyl. covered. The first of the ancients in

xi, 1. whom I meet with the word Χριστός

Ουδέν ποττον έρωτα πεφύκει φάρμακον άλλο, is Æschylus the tragedian, and in him

Νικία, ούτ' έγχριστον, εμίν δοκεί, ούτ' έπίI find it had another sense than now we take it in; for in his language *Η ται Πιερίδες• that is not χριστόν which is anointed, In the same sense with Æschylus did but that with which it is anointed, Euripides use χριστον φάρμακον τη so that it signifieth not the subject Hippolyto, v. 516. of unction, but the ointment as dif Πότερα δε χριστoν ή ποτόν το φάρμακον; fused in the subject. The place is this and not only those ancient poets, but in his Prometheus Vinctus, v. 499. even the later orators; as Dion ChryΟυκ ήν αλέξημ' ουδέν, ούτε βρώσιμον,

sostomus: Πολύ γαρ χείρον και διεφΟυ χριστόν, ούτε πιστόν, αλλά φαρμάκων θαρμένου σώματος και νοσούντος ψυχή Χρεία κατεσκέλλοντο

διεφθαρμένη, μα Δία, ουχ υπό φαρμάκων Prometheus shews himself to be the χριστών και ποτών.

Οrat. 78. [p. 431.] inventor of the art of physic, that be And the LXX. have used it in this fore him therefore there was no medi sense, as when the Hebrew speaks of cine, neither to be taken internally by Onunn jowoleum unctionis, they transeating or by drinking, nor externally Iate it του επικεχυμένου επί την κεφα. by way of inunction, as the Scholiast λήν του ελαίου του χριστου. Lev. Χxi. very well expounds it: Ουκ ήν ουδέν 10. and again ver. 12. ππο ον ότι το βοήθημα θεραπείας ουδε διά βρώσεως άγιον έλαιον το χριστον του Θεού επ' προσφερόμενον (which is ούτε βρώσιμον αυτώ. Oleum unctionis then is έλαιον in Eschylus) ούτε δε δι επιχρίσεως Xplotóv, which in Exodus xxix. 7, and έξωθεν, (which is oύ χριστον) ουδε διά xxxv. 15, and xl. 9. the same transπόσεως (τούτο δε δηλοί το πιστόν). So lators, correspondent to the Hebrew Eustathius: Τρείς φαρμάκωνίδέαι παρ' phrase, call έλαιον χρίσματος, and more Ομήρω· επίπαστα, ως νύν επί Μενελάου, frequently έλαιον χρίσεως. The place υπερ ήπια φάρμακα ειδώς πάσσεν ο of Sophocles is something doubtful, Μαχάων και χριστά, οίον ιους χρίεσθαι: Trachin. V. 660. και πιστά κατά τον Αισχύλον, τουτέστι,

"Οθεν μόλοι πανίμερος ποτά ή πότιμα. Αd ΙΙ. Δ. 218. As

Τας πειθούς παγχρίστω therefore from πίω πίσω, πιστον, SO

Συγκραθείς, επί προφάνσει θηρός: from χρίω χρίσω, χριστόν. And as for though the Scholiast take it in the πιστόν is not that which receiveth ordinary sense, παγχρίστα] λείπει το

Gospel in the Greek, as the most general language in those days; and the signification of them both is, the Anointed. St Paul and the rest of the apostles, writing in that language, used the Greek name, which the Latins did retain, calling him constantly Christus; and we in English have retained

the same, as universally naming him Christ. 8ο Nor is this yet the full interpretation of the word, which

is to be understood not simply according to the action only, but as it involveth the design in the custom of anointing. For in the Law whatsoever was anointed was thereby set apart, as ordained to some special use or office : and therefore under the notion of unction we must understand that promotion and ordination, Jacob poured oil upon the top of a pillar, Gen. xxviil and that anointing was the consecration of it. Moses anointed 18. the tabernacle and all the vessels, and this anointing was their dedication. Hence the priest that is anointed signifieth, Lev. 1v. 8.

πέπλο, ήγουν τω χρισθέντι πέπλο, μένοι. And although Athenous hath συγκεκραμένος και αρμοσθείς τη πειθοι , observed, 1. XV. C. 39. των μύρων & του θηρός: yet both τας πειθούς before μέν έστι χρίσματα, αδ' αλείμματα: yet it, and ovykpabels after, seem to incline in the vulgar use of the words there to the former sense, and in the next is no difference, as he himself speaks page αρτίχριστον is clearly attributed a little after: Το δε χρίσασθαι τα τοιto the ointment, v. 685.

ούτω αλείμματι μυρίσασθαι είρηκεν. [ο. Το φάρμακον τούτ' άπυρον, ακτινός τ' αει

43.] And Plutarch. Sympos. l. iii. Θέρμης άθικτον, έν μυχούς σώζειν εμέ, [prob. 4.8 3. Vol. III. par. 2. p. 651 .] Έως νιν αρτίχριστον αρμόσαιμί που, Πύθου παρά τών έτι συναναπαυομένων from whence Deianira says presently, γυναιξίν ή μύρον αληλιμμέναις ή έλαιον ν. 691. έχρισα-μαλλώ. But though αναπίμπλανται γάρ αυτού του χρίσit appear from hence that the first use

ματος εν τω συγκαθεύδειν. So Ηesych. of the word χριστός among the Greeks 'Αλείψαι, ελαίω χρίσια Κεχρισμένα, was to signify the act or matter used

ήλειμμένα. 'Αλοιφή, χρίσις. ['Αλοιφή, in inunction, not the subject or person πιμελή. Ηesychius.] Schol. Ηom. Χριanointed: yet in the vulgar acception σάμεναι, άλειψάμεναι. Οd. Ζ. 96. And of the LXX, it was most constantly Suidas, 'Ήληλίμμην, έχριόμην. Hence received for the person anointed, of Eustathius : 'Ιστέον και ότι ισοδυναthe same validity with Xplodels or ke μούντων κατά νουν του τε χρίω, και του χρισμένος (Suidas, χριστός, ο κεχρισμέ αλείφω το μεν χρίω παρά τον χρούν νος εν ελαίω*), as also with ηλειμμένος. ερρέθη ος χρίεται, το δε αλείφω παρά For though Lactantius in the place το αλέω. Οd. Ζ. 227. So Eusebius : fore-cited seem to think that word an

Τρίτη τάξει Χριστόν αυτόν γεγονότα improper version to the Hebrew /*vn

ελαίω, ου τω εξ ύλης σωμάτων, αλλά • Undein quibusdam Græcis scripturis,

το ενθέα της αγαλλιάσεως ήλειμμένον quæ male de Hebraicis interpretatæ παρίστησι. Ηist. Eccl. 1.1. ο. 3. Χριστός sunt, neljévos, id est, unguento cura then in the vulgar sense of the LXX. tus, scriptum invenitur, από του αλεί

is a person anointed, and in that φεσθαι : yet the LXX. have so trans

sense is our Saviour called Christ. lated it, Numb. iii. 3. οι ιερείς οι ηλειμ

* This clause is onlitted by Gaisford.

in the phrase of Moses, the high-priest, because he was invested in that office at and by his unction. When therefore Jesus is called the Messias or Christ, and that so long after the anointing oil had ceased, it signified no less than a person set apart by God, anointed with most sacred oil, advanced to the highest office, of which all those employments under the Law, in the obtaining of which oil was used, were but types and sha

dows. And this may suffice for the signification of the word. Location to That there was among the Jews an expectation of such a 81 Chriel: Christ to come, is most evident. The woman of Samaria John iv. 25. could speak with confidence, I know that Messias cometh.

And the unbelieving Jews, who will not acknowledge that he Luke til 15. is already come, expect him still. Thus we find all men

musing in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ or

not. When Jesus taught in the Temple, those which doubted John vil 27. said, When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is; those Johin vii. 81 which believed said, When Christ cometh, will he do more

miracles than these which this man hath done? Whether therefore they doubted, or whether they believed in Jesus, they all

expected a Christ to come; and the greater their opinion was John vi 40, of him, the more they believed he was that Messias. Many

of the people said, Of a truth this is the prophet : others said, This is the Christ. As soon as John began to baptize, the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem, to ask him, Who

art thou? that is, whether he were the Christ or no, as apJohn i 20. peareth out of his answer, And he confessed and denied not,

but confessed, I am not the Christ. For as they asked him John L 21 after, What then, art thou Elias ? and he said, I am not: Art

thou that prophet? and he answered, No: so without question
their first demand was, Art thou the Christ'? and he answer-
ed, I am not: from whence it clearly appeareth that there was
a general expectation among the Jews of a Messias to come;
nor only so, but it was always counted amongst them an
article of their faith', which all were obliged to believe who
professed the Law of Moses, and whosoever denied that, was
1 So Nonnus hath expressed, what

Auctor Sepher Ikkarim (Joseph
in the evangelist is to be understood: Albo] 1. iv. c. ult. Maimon, Tract.
Μυστιπόλοι δ' έρέεινον ομήλυδες οξεί μύθω, de Regibus. c. 11.*
Τίς συ πέλεις; μη Χριστός έφυς;

Joh. c. i. v. 65.
* This is simply the 14th book of the pinn7" : with Maimonides the belief in a Messiah is
one of the 13 essential articles of faith (Ikkarim), but Joseph Albo, though urging the doctrine,
will not include it in his three Ikkarim. See 1 iv. c. 42, and cf. IL C. 23. non tox)

John i 19.

ביאת המשיח עיקר).

vii. 37.

thereby interpreted to deny the Law and the Prophets. Wherefore it will be worth our inquiry to look into the grounds upon which they built that expectation.

It is most certain that the Messias was promised by God both before and under the law. God said unto Abraham, In Gen. xxi 12 Isaac shall thy seed be called; and we know that was a promise of a Messias to come, because St Paul hath taught us, Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. Gal. l. 16. He saith not, unto seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ. The Lord said unto Moses, I will raise Deut. xvii. them up a prophet from among their brethren like unto thee. Acts iii. 22; And St Peter hath sufficiently satisfied us, that this prophet promised to Moses is Jesus the Christ. Many are the prophe- Acts il. 20. cies which concern him, many the promises which are made of him: but yet some of them very obscure; others, though plainer, yet have relation only to the person, not to the notion or the word Messias. Wheresoever he is spoken of as the Anointed, it may well be first understood of some other person; except one place in Daniel, where Messiah is foretold to Dan. ix. 26. be cut off : and yet even there the Greek translation hath not the Messiah, but the Unction. It may therefore seem something strange, how so universal an expectation of a Redeemer under the name of the Messias should be spread through the church of the Jews.

But if we consider that in the space of seventy years of the Babylonish captivity the ordinary Jews had lost the exact understanding of the old Hebrew language before spoken in Judæa, and therefore when the Scriptures were read unto them, they found it necessary to interpret them to the people in the Chaldee language, which they had lately learned : as when Ezra the Scribe brought the book of the law of Moses before the congregation, the Levites are said to have caused the people to understand the Law, because they read in the Neh. viil. & book, in the Law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Which constant interpretation begat at last a Chaldee translation of the Old Testament to be read every sabbath in the synagogues: and that being not exactly made word for word with the Hebrew, but with a liberty of a brief exposition by the way, took in, to

gether with the text, the general opinion of the learned Jews. 82 By which means it came to pass that not only the doctrine,

but the name also, of the Messias was very frequent and familiar with them. Insomuch that even in the Chaldee paraphrase now extant, there is express mention of the Messias in above seventy places, beside that of Daniel. The Jews then, informed by the plain words of Daniel', instructed by a constant interpretation of the Law and the Prophets read in their synagogues every sabbath-day, relying upon the infallible predictions and promises of God, did all unanimously expect out of their own nation, of the tribe of Judah, of the family of David, a Messias or a Christ, to come.

Now this being granted, as it cannot be denied, our next consideration is of the time in which this promise was to be fulfilled : which we shall demonstrate out of the Scriptures to be passed, and consequently that the promised Messias is

already come. The prediction of Jacob on his death-bed is Gen. xlix. 10. clear and pregnant, The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,

nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. But the sceptre is departed from Judah, neither is there one lawgiver left between his feet. Therefore Shiloh, that is, the Messias, is already come. That the Jewish government hath totally failed, is not without the greatest folly to be denied : and therefore that Shiloh is already come, except we should deny the truth of divine predictions, must be granted. There remains then nothing to be proved, but that by Shiloh is to be understood the Messias : which is sufficiently manifest both from the consent of the ancient Jews, and from the description immediately added to the name. For all the old para

phrasts call him expressly the Messias”, and the words which Gen. xlix. 10. follow, unto him shall the gathering of the people be, speak no

עד דייתי מלכא משיחא Onkelos renders it

Besides .עד זמן דייתי מלכא משיחא ,gum

i Celsus the Epicurean acknowledgeth that both the Jews and Chris [the word xshna is not in Onkelos,] tians did confess that the prophets did and Jonathan and the Jerusalem Tarforetoll a Saviour of the world. Oietal , . μηδέν σεμνόν είναι εν τη Ιουδαίων και the Cabalists did generally so interXplotlar@ apòs XVýlovs ŠNITÝCEL• pret it, because asuv xa' according to πιστευόντων μεν αμφοτέρων, ότι από their computation, make the same θείου Πνεύματος προεφητεύθη τις επι

number with the letters of n'vn and δημήσων Σωτήρ τω γένει των ανθρώ in the Talmud, cod. Sanhedrin [fol.

Orig. cont. Celsum, 1. iii. & 1. 98 b]. Rabbi Johanan asking what was (Vol. 1. p. 448 A.] And this Saviour, the name of the Messias, they of the saith Origen, was to be called, katà school of R. Shila answer, yov obuv Ιουδαίων πάτρια, Χριστός.

his name is Shiloh, according to that ' which is written, until Shiloh come.

των.

עד כי יבא שילה For instead of :

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