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Library ? The true story is that Nicholson was He further relates, on the authority of Guillaume an officer of the library all his life. He was the de Nangy [+ 1302], that the Normans, who, under porter, or beadle, whose duty it was to carry books the reign of Charles the Simple, desired to be adto those Masters of Arts who wanted them. He mitted into the Christian church, ran about crywas very illiterate, and thought that all large folios ing bigot! bigot! bigot! that is, “ for the love of were books of maps ; whence the cry which he God” baptise us. raised at the doors of those to whom he had to The strongest argument in favour of the derideliver books. He was also a bookseller, at first, vation of this word (which is common to the no doubt, with a stall; but he afterwards ori- French, German, and English languages) from the ginated the plan of supplying undergraduates name of the Belgian pietists, may be found in the with their class-books by subscription. In this wide-spread celebrity of that sect. way he got a good business, which was augmented The austerity of their manners, and their claims by his son. But he was dead long before the time to greater spirituality than their neighbours, were indicated; for he died many years before 1823, and sure to provoke the misrepresentation and sarcasm the screen was not built till about 1830. His son's of a somewhat licentious age; and it would be shop was, in 1823, opposite the Senatehouse. Dr. almost matter of surprise if so important a moveRichard Farmer, who placed his portrait in the ment as that of the Beghurds, Beguines, or library, died in 1797.

Beguttæ had not left its mark on the language of Neither was his name lost during his life, as the countries in which its influence was so powerMr. Gunning seems to intimate. The under- fully felt. graduates knew it well by the line —

It is interesting, in connection with this derivaΜαψ αυτον καλεουσι θεοι, άνδρες δε Νιχολσον.

tion, to notice the difficulties which were found in One of your correspondents has spoiled this line attempting to determine the source of the word by proposing veo for Jeon which he says he always beguina or begutta, occasioning a pretty smart heard. Surely the reader of Homer should see controversy in Antwerp, anno 1628. No less than that the joke turns wholly on the parody of those ten etymologies were suggested, which are fully cases in which gods and men are described as

treated of by Mosheim De Beghardis et Beguiusing different names. I never heard anything

nabus.) but seoL.

1. Bonus-garten, good cultivators. There was not, in my time, any tradition of his

2. St. Begga, founder of a cloister in Belgium. supplying themes, declamations, &c. Some of

3. Lambut le Begue, or the Stammerer, foun

der of a sect in the twelfth century. your readers may be able to say whether he was in this line of business, or whether Mr. Gunning's Also (Florio), a kind of coarse grey cloth that

4. Beguin (Cotgr. a child's biggin), a skull-cap. memory has confounded him with Jemmy Gordon, of whom he gives a sufficient account.

poor religious men wore.
A. DE MORGAN.

5. Benignum.
6. Bono igne ignitum.

7. Beginnen, because the begutta were on the ORIGIN OF THE WORD “BIGOT."

threshold of a monastic life. (1st S. v. 277, 331 ; 3rd S. iv. 39, &c.)

8. Began, biggan, to worship.

9. Beggan, to beg, either as the mendicant With the greatest deference for the opinions of orders, or perhaps from their earnest prayers to MR. TRENCH, and those of your correspondents God. This reminds one of the derivation of the who are inclined to endorse his theory of the deri- terms Euchites and Bogomiles. Conf. French argot, vation of the word bigot, I venture to think that bigotter” = prier. the old-fashioned derivation from the Low Latin

10. Bey gott, as used by Rollo. begutta is far more likely to be the true one.

John Eliot HODGKIN. In the first place, the whole point of the Spanish derivation lies in the idea that from and after the fifteenth century the mustachio was almost pecu- The common derivations from Bei Gott and Visiliar to the Spaniard. Are not the facts, at any goth are not satisfactory. May not the word be rate as regards France and Germany, at variance from bigote, with this suggestion ?

bourse qu'on portoit à la ceinture;

étui dans lequel on serroit pendant la nuit sa barbe The word bigot, in its modern sense, is alluded

et ses moustaches"; or from bigote, “la bourse to by Etienne Pasquier (Rech. viii. 2), who died que les bigotes de ce temps-là portaient à leur in 1615, as being in his day in common use in ceinture pour faire leur aumônes."* The French France, so that we must conceive its origin word bigote is also applied to two pieces of wood (which he explains as arising from the old Ger- of elin, which form part of the panel of a sailman or old French oath, bey-got) to be at least as ancient as the middle of the sixteenth century. * Bescherelle derives the former from the latter,

yard (partie du racage d'une vergue de hune); The other was as follows:from the Med. Lat. bigus, a piece of wood. (Cf. “ That it would please Thee to grant us the grace of Dufresne under Bigus.) But the word bigot may improving such restraints and temporal disadvantages as have also been derived from the surname Bigot we fall under into an occasion of retiredness and Chrisor Bigod, which would seem to be the same as

tian severity, supplying our want of publick assemblies. Pigot, Pigott, Piggott, Picot, which again are

by a greater diligence in private devotions.” doubtless diminutives formed from the Celtic

It is most probable that this litany occurred in pig, Aquitanian pech, puech, puich; Old French, still earlier editions of the Manual, which was the pug, puig, pec, pié, pech, piech, pioch, piei, pio, piu, which it finally superseded. The first edition of

usual prayer-book of Catholics, with the Primer, poet, poy, poya, py; a mountain, hill, elevation; the Manual seems to have been the following: modern French, puy; whence probably the English and French surnames Peach, Peak, Peake, and good Authors. Printed at Calice, 1599.”

“ A Manual of Prayers gathered out of many famous Pech, Peek, Pick, Pigg, Pique; and as diminutives, Pechin, Pechon, Péchon, Pichon, Pidgeon,

The author of this Litany is not known. It is Pigeon, Poyen, Pechell, Poyal, Pechaut, Pechot, very likely to have been the composition of the Pichot, Peckett, Poett, Poyett; and as patro- pious and learned Mr. Gother ; but in that case nymics, Pechard, Pechart, Poyard, Poyart. llence it could not have appeared in very early editions also the French surnames, Puybusque, Puyfer- of the Manual, as he did not come over on the rand, Puynode, Puységur.

English mission from Lisbon till towards the end R. S. CHARNOCK.

of the reign of Charles II.

This and similar compositions have been generally approved by the Catholic authorities in

England, and are occasionally recited in public, ROMAN USES.

especially in those chapels where no singing can (3rd S. iv. 129.)

be had, and more English prayers are conseI proceed to answer the several queries of quently in use. The Litany for England has been L.J.:

probably used more extensively than any other 1. A religious of a discalceated or barefooted such compositions. Order does wear shoes when celebrating Mass, 4. Blue collars are worn by the Cistercian or officiating as deacon or subdeacon.

monks of Ebrach in Franconia, as part of their 2. A cope is never worn by the celebrant at choral habit, and by the members of the ConfraMass. The assistant priest alone wears it at the ternity of Somascha in Vienna. But they cannot High Mass, sung by a bishop. It has no connec- be considered as distinctive of religious Orders, tion with the Holy Sacrifice; but is worn occa- since they are commonly worn by the secular sionally, even by laymen, such as cantors, and clergy in some countries, as in Spain and Gerthose who serve at solemn benediction when given many.

F. C. H. by a bishop, and are styled copemen. Though now become an ecclesiastical ornamental vesture, BUNBURY'S ENGRAVINGS (3rd S. iv. 48.)–Agreeit was originally a cloak for protection from the ing with your correspondent C. in his estimate of weather in out-of-door processions, as indicated the interest of this and other old engravings, in by the name pluviale, which it still retains. It is which portraits of celebrities are preserved, I am never worn by priest or bishop when celebrating happy to be able to contribute a little, though it is Mass. In small churches, so far from being worn but a little, towards identifying the personages at Mass, it is rarely worn at all, being chiefly used represented in Bunbury's “Conversazione,” and in the more solemn ceremonials.

“Gardens of Carlton House.” In a copy of the 3. The Litany of Intercession for England was former, which I have seen, the figure on Dr. written most probably in the seventeenth century. Johnson's right is stated to be Dr. Parr, and the The earliest copy I have seen of it occurs in an cauliflower wig sufficiently identifies him. And edition of the Manual in my possession, printed at in a copy of the latter, the lady on the Prince's London by H. Hills, in 1688. It is inserted there right hand is described as the Duchess of among the prayers for Sunday, and in later edi- | Devonshire; and the lady on his left, the Duchess tions of the Manual among the prayers for Wed- of Rutland. I think C. is wrong in his opinion nesday, on which day indeed it is directed to be that the fair dame, or, as I should be inclined said likewise in the above edition. It contains, from the costume to say, fair widow, on the right, however, two petitions, which were afterwards in shade, has loved not wisely but too well. I omitted. One was in these terms:

think that impression is simply owing to the pe“ That it would please Thee to incline the hearts of all culiar three-quarter position of the figure. our magistrates rightly to understand our Religion, and

B. E. impartially consider our sufferings; and, how hardly soever they may deal with us, make us still with exactest

WILLIAM BILLYNG (1st S. viii. 110; 3rd S. iv. fidelity to perform our duties to them.”

113.)- We venture to suggest that the author of The Five Wounds of Christ was William Billyng ; by the Edmund Bray, Esq., to whom he refers. who, in 1474, became Rector of Toft Monks, in This inscription, beside being a perfect model for Norfolk, on the presentation of the Provost and genealogical epitaphs, is curious also as a record Scholars of King's College, Cambridge ; and who of the extraordinary fatality of smallpox in this appears to have held that benefice till 1506. family, no matter whether in or out of England. (Blomefield's Norfolk, viii. 63.)

John A. C. VINCENT. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. Cambridge.

"MENDING THE PIGGENS ” (3rd S. iv. 104.) – The “piggens

would be vessels of wood. LEGACY DUTY (3rd S. iv. 128).-By the Act Piggin, a small wooden cylindrical vessel, made of 36 Geo. III. c. 52, a legacy which was given with staves, and bound with hoops like a pail." by the will of a person, who should die after the (Brockett's Glossary.). Piggin, a milking-pail, passing of the Act, to a brother or sister, or any à small vessel of wood.” (Jamieson's Dictionary.) descendant of a brother or sister of the deceased, A miniature pail or tub, with an erect handle, is was made subject to a duty of two per cent. a“ piggin” in Scotland; while an earthen vessel As these were the only relations who were made is a " pig." A " pig-wife” deals in earthenware ; liable by the Act to pay duty at that rate, the and one of Jamieson's illustrations is the old prolegatee referred to by your correspondent must verb, founded on the frailty of crockery, " to have been a brother or sister, or a descendant of gang to pigs and whistles” (to go to wreck, to be a brother or sister of the testatrix. There is now ruined in one's circumstances); a proverb in no rate of duty between one and three per cent. which the ingenious reader, poring over the sign The Act of 55 Geo. III. c. 184, which now regu- of “ The Pig and Whistle," and endeavouring to lates the legacy duties, charges one per cent, on a fathom its meaning, may possibly find a ray of legacy given to a child or a descendant of a child

light.

C. of the deceased, or to the father or mother, or any lineal ancestor of the deceased; and three per MEANING OF BOUMAN (3rd S. iii. 512 ; iv. 37,95.) cent. on a legacy given to a brother or sister, or May not the 'following, from Sir John Skene's any descendant of a brother or sister of the de- treatise, De Verborum Significatione (1579), assist ceased.

W. J. TILL your correspondent to the derivation and meaning Croydon.

of this word ? QUOTATION WANTED: “THE DUNCIAD" (3rd S. “ Bothna, Buthna, Bothena, 1. iv. c. Si quis namos 30,

appearis to be ane Parke, quhair cattel are fed and in

clused. “On applaudit, car chez le Peuple sot,

• Ut in Libro M. Alexandri Skene, fratris L'injure plait, et tient lieu de bon mot.”

mei Germani, quondam in supremo Senatu Advocati.'

Quhilk is confirmed be Hector Boetius, l. vii. c. 123, Palissot, La Dunciade, ch. v., ad Londres, 1781.

Nu. 35: Cum scribit maritimam Thessaliæ partem a I do not think that Palissot's Dunciad has been pendi solitum erat, cum gregum multitudine abundarent;

vectigali, quod Regiis procuratoribus ab incolis in annos translated into English, and those who take the Buthquhaniam appellata, est enim, quhain, ide quod opinions of French critics are not likely to read vectigal, prisca Scotorum lingua: et Buth, ovium collectio; it. I recommend a trial. Though not a great the zowes are inclosed quhen they are milked, is com

hæc ille. And it is manifest, that the place in the quhilk poem, it is generally amusing, and sometimes monly called an Bucht. Siklike Aulus Gellius, lib. ii. c. 1, very clever.

FITZHOPKINS.

writis, that Italy is so called a Bubus, because Italot Rouen.

in the auld Greek language signifies Oxen, of the quhilk BUCKINGHAM WATER GATE (3rd S. iv. 108.) quhilk is confirmed be Paulus Vanefridus, lib. ii. c. 24:

there was great aboundance and multitude in Italy, I think your readers have already been warned

* Italia (inquit) ab Italo, Siculorum duce, qui eam antithat this gate is not by Inigo Jones, but a work quitus invasit; sive ob hoc Italia dicitur, quia magpi in of the sculptor Nicholas Stone, Sen. For this ea boves, b, é. Itali habentur, ab eo namque quod est statement, see The Builder for 1854, p. 252. Italus, per diminutionem, una litera addita, altera immuHowever, I quite agree with Mr. Husk in the

tata, vitulus appellatur.' Item. Bothena, * Stat. Wilh. hope that this fine gate will not be destroyed. is manifest, Ex. Libro Sconens, c. 99, Assis. Regis

c. ii. signifies ane Barronie, Lordship, or Schireffedome, as No doubt, an appropriate place will be found for David.' 'Et Dominus Bothenæ,' is the Lord of the it. The only fear I have, is, that if re-erected in a Barronie, land, or ground. Leg Port. c. i. in Libro M. large area, its small size will cause it to be com

Willielmi Skene, fratris mei, Commissarii Sancti Andrea, pletely lost and its suitableness destroyed.

p. 149, c. 79. • Item, it is statute and ordained, that the W. P.

Kingis Mute, that is, the Kingis Court of ilk Bothene,

that is, of ilk Schireffedome, sall be halden within fourtie FAMILY OF BRAY (3rd S. iv. 28, 98.)—W.P. daies. Ass. Reg. Da. c. 6, in Libr. quondam M. Roberti

Carbraith, I. C. Doctissimi.' should also look at Bigland's Collections relating

D. M. STEVENS. to the County of Gloucester. Under the head of “ Great Barrington” he will find the copy of an PRINCE CHRISTIERN (3rd S. iv. 96.) - Your inscription on a monument, erected in the church correspondent, T. J. Buckton, instead of giving

ü. 9.)

me the genealogy of Prince Christiern of Den- “ Two ravens supporters! Oh! sage, mark, father of the Princess of Wales, has given

Hast thou ancestry Israelite sported ?

Art sprung from Elijah? In history's page, me that of Prince Christiern of Holstein-Augus

None but he was by ravens supported. tenbourg: I shall be much obliged, too, if you To exhibit the birds none will question thy right, could refer me to Koch's genealogical tables, For none of thy pedigree can tell; either for inspection or purchase.* G. W. M. But the world would have laughed, had the heralds, in

spite, St. DIGGLE (3rd S. iv. 111.)-St. Diggle appears Emblazoned thy shield with the mantle." to be no other than St. Deicolus.

The name

I find in the same collection a riddle on the Deicolus, in process of time, assumed the various letter W, resembling the celebrated one on H. forms of Deicola, Dicullus, and Dicul. This last Has it been given in print ? A. DE MORGAN. was probably the immediate source of Diggle ; Deicolus becoming first Dicul in Irish, and then “BLOOD IS THICKER THAN WATER” (3rd S. iii. Diggle in the Doric of East Kent. Besides these, 367.) — There is another quotation of this prothe name experienced other changes. In France verb in Guy Mannering, in the scene after reading it became Deel; and accordingly we are assured the will : by Father Butler (Jan. 18) that in Franchecomté the name Deel is frequently given in bap- had digested the shock, contained a magnanimous de

“ The first words he (Dandie Dinmont) said, when he tism to males, and Deele to females. This may claration, which he probably was not conscious of having be

very well in France, but would not be quite uttered aloud - Weel, blude's thicker than water! she's the thing in Scotland.

welcome to the cheeses and the hams just the same.'” Among the saintly luminaries of times now

W. D. BAGENDON. past, there were several natives of Ireland who

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON'S LIBRARY AT DUNbore the name of Deicolus, or one of its modifications. See Butler as cited above; Zedler on

BLANE (3rd S. iv. 63.) – The following is a list of Deicolus; Britannia Sanctu, i. 52; Acta Sancto- the first and some of the subsequent editions of rum among the “Prætermissi,” June 1, p. 5; Bede, the Stimulus Pastorum: Rome, 1564, 1572, and Hist. Eccles. iv. xiii. $ 289, ad fin., &c. 'Bede's 1582; Lisbon, 1565; Paris, 1583, 1586, 1644, and Dicul comes the nearest to Dover; for though we

1667. The author's life was written by Ludovicannot trace him into Kent, he had in the seventh

cus Granatensis, Ludov. Cacegas, Ludov. Sousa, century a small monastery at “ Bosanhamm” (since and Rodericus de Cunna. Bosham) in Sussex.

Schin. Bayle says that it has been found impossible to

discover the author of Moyens sûrs et honnêtes EPIGRAM (3rd S. iv. 129.) – I find this epigram pour la Conversion de tous les Hérétiques. See in the album of a friend who died long ago, a his (Euvres Diverses, t. ii. p. 780. book containing many things of his own, and many Pierre Thomas Du Fossé was born at Rouen in of other people, undistinguished. It is not given 1634 of one of the principal families there, and at as a satire upon Lord John Russell, but upon nine years of age became an inmate of the celeN-nF- -s, whom I conjecture to be New- brated abbey of Port-Royal, with two elder ton Fellowes. Whoever it was, it was — says the brothers, to receive a Christian education, and to heading some person who had said in a public be instructed in letters. He continued to belong speech that he would not be “priest-ridden"; on all his life to the Port-Royalists, and followed them which the satirist sings as follows:

in their various wanderings and persecutions. He “ Thou ridden! No-no fear of that,

in his studies by Lemaitre de Sacy, By prophet or by priest; For Balaam's dead; and no one else

who asked for his assistance in writing the Life of Would mount so dull a beast!”

Dom Barthélémi des Martyrs, Archbishop of Civil, and not well pointed: but anything does at this life. He also assisted De Sacy in his com

Braga. Du Fossé had the chief share in writing election time. Balaam's ass was not a dull beast: mentary on the Bible, and wrote several mémoires and the whole ought to have run thus

that throw much light on the history and sufferings “ Thou ridden! No of that no fear, By prophet or by priest;

of the pious recluses of Port-Royal. See Biog. For Balaam's dead: and were he here,

Univ. t. xv.

J. MACRAY. He'd scorn so dull a beast !”

Oxford. I do not think the friend I allude to wrote this: but he certainly wrote the following upon a per. Besides these references, it might be useful to

RULE AND Rod (2nd S. xi. 328; xii. 427.) son whom he held no conjuror, and who had taken two ravens as his supporters :

quote the following lines from Martial's Epigrams,

showing the early use of the five foot rod. I [* Mr. Quaritch, Piccadilly, would probably supply a

quote from Elphinston's edition, 8vo, London, copy. It may also be consulted in the British Museum. 1783; and his translation, 8vo, London, 1782, Ev.]

book xi. cxlvi. :

was dired

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Quincupedal,

this : “Unde sufficiam ad enarrandum felicitatem Puncta notus * ilex, et acutâ cuspide clausa, ejus matrimonii, quod Ecclesia conciliat et conSæpe redemptoris prodere furta solet.

firmat oblatio." About the year 1700 we find the “ The Five Foot Rod.

authors of the Life of Kettlewell, when stating The punctur'd holm, with taper ferrel bound, that he received the Blessed Sacrament at his Will oft the wily jobber's craft confound.” marriage, lamenting that the practice was then

W. P.

“so much neglected,” — a lament re-echoed in a CROMWELL'S BURIAL Place (1st S. v.598; 3rd S. more recent sketch of Kettlewell published 1850. iii. 311.)– The following bas been mentioned in- Hooker also, in the well-known passage where he cidentally, but the date of the work may be suffi- treats of this matter, seems to imply that this cient to establish the early burial of the body :- "religious and holy custom” was then in some “ He dyed on Friday, the 3 of September, at 3 of the

measure disused. Previous to the Savoy ConClock in the afternoon, though divers rumors were spread ference, the rubric made it imperative that the that he was carried away in the Tempest the day before: new married persons, the same day of their his body being opened and Embalmed, his milt

was found marriage, must receive the Holy Communion.” full of corruption and filth; which was so strong and To please the Dissenters it was afterwards made with Aromaticke odours, and wrapt in Cere cloth six optional; they objected against it as Popish!! double, in an inner sheet of lead, and a strong wooden Bucer appears to have approved the custom. coffin, yet the filth broke through them all, and raised Indeed it is difficult to conceive Christians obsuch a noisome stink, that they were forced to bury him jecting to it. The most solemn form of marriage The Corps (presently after his

expiration being buryed among the Romans was the confarreatio, in which for the aforesaid reason, a Coffin was, on the 26 of Sep- the farreum libum" and a sheep were offered in tember, about 10 at night, privatly removed from White sacrifice to the gods : so that, ratifying this sacred hall in a Mourning Herse, attended by his Domestick tie by the most solemn act of religion seems to Servants, none of whom shed one Tear, to Somerset- have been in some sort a dictate of nature. house; where it remained in private for some Dayes, till

W. Bowen ROWLANDS. all things were in readiness for publick view

(The public burial in Westminster Abbey is then described.] – Ja. Heath, Flagellum ; or, The Life and Death, Birth and

ARMS OF GRESHAM AT ILFORD (3rd S. iv. 87.)Burial of Oliver Cromwell, The Late Usurper, 2nd edition I know not whether the Gresham arms generally enlarged, 8vo, London, 1663, pp. 198, 199.

have hitherto received any verbal elucidation ;

W.P. and yet the grasshopper on the highest pinnacle MR. JOHN COLLET (3rd S. iv. 47, 94.) – Mr. the world — the Royal Exchange of London

of the most remarkable commercial building in Collet, in his Common-Place Book, alluded to by Mr. Hazlitt, states that he was born on the

4th might have been deemed worthy of some attempt June, 1633 ; and that he was the son of Thomas mit of the building is nothing more than a rebus

at explanation. This gilded emblem on the sumCollet, and the father of Thomas, William, and of the name of its original founder, Sir Thomas John, all of whom he survived. Can you inform me whom he married ? He was descended from a

Gresham. Humphrey Collet of London (see HeraldsVisit. all mean in German“ grasshopper." The last is

Grassheim, Heim, in its diminutive Heimchen, 1664, pedigree of Collet of Highgate). Is this beautifully introduced by Mathison in the finest Humphrey identical with the Humphrey Collet of his poems, Elegie in den Ruinen eines Bergwho was Member for Southwark in 1553? And can the connection, if any, be traced between him

schlosses geschrieben : and the family of Colet of Wendover, co. Bucks,

" Schweigend in der Abend-dam'rung Schleier, ancestors of Dean Colet.

St. Liz.

Ruht die Flur; das Lied der Haine stirbt ;

Nur dass hier im älternden Gemäuer, HOLY COMMUNION AT WEDDINGS (3rd S. iv.

Melancholisch noch ein Heimchen zirbt." 104.) – The Decrees of Pope Siricius, A.D. 385, “Silent beneath the twilight veil of night, can. ix., speaks of marriage as regularly con- The landscape sinks; the groves are tuneless all; tracted “by the benediction of the priest;" and

Save that here on mould'ring turret's height,

The Grassheim chirps its doleful lonely call.” the Canonical Answers of Timothy, who succeeded his brother Peter in the bishopric of Alexandria,

There are much wider discrepancies in our A.D. 380, mention also, Qu. xi., the “performing canting heraldry than between Grassheim and of the oblation." The question propounded is, Gresham.

WILLIAM BELL, Ph. D. "If a clergyman be called to celebrate a mar- 2, Burton Street, Euston Square. riage, and have heard that it is incestuous, ought VENNER OF BOSENDEN (3rd S. iv. 130.)– The he to comply and perform the oblation ?” This

surname of Venner or Venour is of ancient stand. is answered in the negative. The hackneyed ing in the south-east of England. The name is quotation from Tertullian coincides well with merely a slight modification of the Norman Notis, in some editions.

Veneur,” a huntsman.

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