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dred and ninety-eight of these birds, and acknowledges that he fed on them very heartily.

It is observable that the bees of Guadaloupe differ considerably from those of Europe in size and colour, as well as in the structure of their honeycombs, and the quality of their wax and honey: The bees are blacker and rounder than ours, but much smaller; nor do they seem to have any sting, or, if they have, it is too weak to pierce the skin. Their nests are in hollow trees, and their comb's consist of little bladders of wax, of the form and size of pigeons eggs, but more pointed, and almost like the bladder of a carp. They deposit their honey in these bladders, which, though they may be easily separated from one another, are so artfully disposed and ranged, that there seems to be no vacuity between them. Most of the bladders are filled with honey, but in some of them there is a yellow matter, seeded like the eggs of a fish, glutinous, and smelling like honey. The honey is always liquid, of the consistence of olive-oil, and never settles. The wax is black, or at least of a deep purple colour; and Labat says, that all· the art of his countrymen could not make it either white or yellow, so as to be fit for candles; besides that it is too soft for that purpose, and is scarcely used for any thing but to cement the corks of bottles after it is thoroughly purified.

Tertre says, that on the island of Marigalante there is a large grotto with a river in it, which runs a good way under ground, and abounds' with large crabs. He adds, that there are several other large and deep grottoes in this island, which they call by the name of saints; and that for several miles along the coast there are vast high rocks, as even as if they had been cut by art,"

and as full of holes as a pigeon-house, which are much frequented by the tropic-birds already described. Among the fish that are found about this and the neighbouring islands are the lamantins, or sea-cows, which bring forth two young ones at a time, and suckle them with their milk like calves. There is also a fish called recune, about eight feet long, that kills other fishes by its bite, which is said to be as poisonous as that of a mad dog.


HAVANNAH, the chief city on the island of Cuba, was built by Diego de Velasquez, who conquered the island. It was named originally the "port of Carenas," but afterwards, when it began to increase, it was called "St. Christopher of the Havannah." In 1536 it was so inconsiderable, that being taken by a French pirate, he ransomed it for seven hundred dollars. Some time alter, it was taken by the English, and a second time by the French; yet its value was not understood, nor any care taken to put it in a posture of defence, till the reign of Philip II. But since the accession of the house of Bourbon to the Spanish crown, it has been completely fortified.

This town is particularly famous for its harbour, which is, in every respect one of the best in the West Indies, and, perhaps, in the world. It is entered by a narrow passage, upwards of half a mile in length, which afterwards expands into a large bason; and is sufficient, in extent and depth,. to contain a thousand sail of large vessels, having almost six fathom water throughout, and being perfectly sheltered from every wind.

The city stands on the west side of the harbour in a pleasant plain; and is the residence of the governor and other royal officers of Cuba. The Euildings are chiefly of stone, and some of them superbly finished among which are eleven churches and monasteries, and two handsome hos pitals. The churches are remarkably rich and magnificent; the lamps, candlesticks, and orna -ments for the altars being of gold and silver, and some of the lamps weighing near a hundred pounds, The Recollect's church has twelve beautiful chapels in it, and in the monastery are cells for fifty monks. The church of St. Clara has seven altars adorned with a profusion of plate, and the nunnery contains a hundred women and servants clothed in blue. The church of the Augustines has thirteen altars and that of St. Juan de Dios nine, with Hospital for soldiers, of twelve thousand dollars




The city is supplied with water by the Lagida, which runs through it by two streams, The en trance to the harbour is defended on the east side by a strong castle called El Moro, situated on a high rock; and on the walls and bastions are mounted forty pieces of cannon. Under the faces of the south-west bastion of the Moro, and within the entrance of the harbour, is a stone battery called the Twelve Apostles, almost level with the water; and the guns carry each a ball of thirty-six pounds. A little higher, and opposite to the Pointgate, is the Divina Pastora or Shepherd's Battery, of fourteen guns, level with the water. On the west side of the entrance at the Point, is a square fort called the Punta with four bastions well


mounted with cannon. On the bastions of the town, next the harbour, are a number of cannon;

and about the middle of the city is the Fuerte, a square fort with four bastions, mounted with twentytwo pieces of cannon. In this last the governor resides, and his Catholic majesty's treasures are deposited till the arrival of the galleons,

On the land side, from the Punta-gate to the dock-yard, there is a rampart with bastions, faced with stone, and earthen parapets with a ditch, which in several places is fallen in, and is almost filled up, particularly behind the Punta and land gates, near the stone quarries, which, if joined to one another, might be of great detriment to the place in case of a siege, as a lodgement might be made in them. The ground here rises with an easy ascent to the land gate; and is either open pasture or garden ground, well stocked with cab bage trees. Before the land gate is a ravelin, The hill on a rising ground from this gate (which is the highest part of the town) to the dock-yard, is steeper than on the other side.


The fortifications of the Havannah, though strong, have many defects; and from the situation of the town and forts, are commanded by many emi nences of which an enemy might take advantage. On the east side of the harbour, the Cavannas, on a part of which the Moro is built, commands in a great measure that fort, and absolutely commands the Punta, the Fuerte, and the whole north-east part of the city, which is the best fortified. On the west side runs a suburb called Guadaloupe, whose church is situated on an eminence about half a mile from the land gate, with which it is on a level, and higher than any other part of the fortifications. From the north side of this rising. ground, the Punta gate may be flanked; and from the south-east side the dock-yard is commanded.

Along the north side runs an aqueduct, which, falling into the ditch at the land gate, runs down to the dock-yard, both for watering the ships, and turning a saw-mill. About half a mile from the church is a bridge, thrown across a rivulet that -runs into the bay about a hundred yards. From

this bridge to the Lazaretto is about two miles, with a rising ground between them. And if a trench were thrown up betwixt these two places it would cut off the communication with the town by land. From these observations, therefore, it plainly appears that the Havannah is not impreg


The Havannah has greatly contributed to the maritime strength of Spain, many ships having been built here within these few years, from sixty to eighty guns: the island furnishing the finest materials, such as oak, pine, cedar, and mahogany. The only defect of the harbour is the narrowness of its entrance, for, though free from bars and shoals, yet only one ship at a time can enter it; from which circumstance the galleons have sometimes been insulted, and even captured, at the mouth of the harbour, the forts being unable to afford them any assistance.

Upon the rupture with Spain in 1762, the British ministry sent a squadron and army against this place, under Admiral Pocock and lord Albemarle. The Spaniards had in the harbour at that time a fleet of twelve sail of the line, two of them but just launched, two more on the stocks nearly finished, and several merchant ships. The men of war were almost ready for sea; but the governor had received, no intimation of the projected attack. The place, however, was gallantly defended, and sustained a siege of two months and eight days

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