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The only son :—

Mary's, Dublin, June 18, 1730, the Rev. William Smyth, M.A., Dean of Ardfert and RALPH LAMBERT, Second Examiner in Archdeacon of Meath, eldest son of the Right Chancery, ent. T.C.D. Jan. 25, 1753, aged Rev. Thomas Smyth, Bishop of Limerick. | 17, m. at Lisburn Cathedral, Sept. 22, 1760, He died 1732, and she m., secondly, Harriett, eldest dau. of the Very Rev. Prerog. marr. lic., 1738, Sheffield Austin. John Welsh, Dean of Connor and Rector Her will, dated Oct. 23, 1778, was proved of Lisburn, by Mary, dau. of Edward Peers, as that of Dame Susanna Austin in the by Jane, sister of the Rev. Samuel Close, Prerogative Court, March 14, 1780, leaving Rector of Donaghenry, diocese of Armagh, her property to her nephew, John Dillon and dau. of Richard Close. Ralph Lambert of Lismullen. There seems to be no record died Dec., 1761, or Jan., 1762, will dated of a baronet or knight named Sheffield April 5, 1761, proved Prerog., Feb. 8, 1762, Austin. and his widow m., secondly, the Very Rev. Richard Dobbs, M.A., Dean of Connor, eldest son of the Rev. Richard Dobbs, D.D., Rector of Lisburn, by Mary, dau. of James Young, of Lismany, Co. Tyrone.* She died March 25, 1784, aged 45. H. B. SWANZY.

III. Elizabeth Lambert, m. at St. Mary's, Dublin, June 11, 1730, Arthur Dillon, of Lismullen, Co. Meath (son of Sir John Dillon, Knt., M.P., of Lismullen), and had a son, Sir John Dillon, first baronet, of Lismullen; M.P. Wicklow 1771-76, and Blessington 1776-83.

The son

MONTAGUE LAMBERT of Dublin, Cornet 1st Carabiniers (6th Dragoon Guards),* Feb. 20, 1721-2, commission renewed by George II. 1727, serving in 1730, Lieut., 1st Carabiniers, in 1737, m.† Sarah, dau. of Samuel Waring of Waringstown, Co. Down, High Sheriff Co. Down 1690, M.P. for Hillsborough 1703-15, and died 1740, will dated Feb. 16, 1739-40, proved Prerogative, Apri 9, 1740, having had by her, who m., secondly, the Rev. Francis Hamilton, D.D., Treasurer of Armagh and Vicar of Dundalk, and died May 7, 1780, aged 77, buried at Dundalk, one son and four

daus. :

I. RALPH, of whom presently.
I. Grace Lambert.

II. Susanna Lambert.

III. Sarah Lambert, m., first, Bayly, and, secondly, at St. Mary's, Dublin, June 11, 1767, Robert Howard, Capt. 14th Light Dragoons, M.P. for St. Johnstown, 177683, LL.D., honoris causa, T.C.D., brother of Ralph, first Viscount Wicklow, and youngest son of the Right Rev. Robert Howard, Bishop of Elphin. She was heiress of her brother, and had a son, Robert Howard of Castle Howard, Co. Wicklow.

IV. Georgina Lambert, b. Feb. 26, 1737-8, bapt. at St. Peter's, Dublin, March 31, 1738.

* Dalton's Army Lists, and his son's matriculation entry, where he is called Dux.

† Burke's Landed Gentry,' under Waring, erroneously calls him Ralph Lambert.

Burke, as above, erroneously calls him Rev. James Hami.ton.

GLASS-PAINTERS OF YORK.
(Se 12 S. viii. and ix. passim ; x. 45.)
CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF YORK

GLASS-PAINTERS.

I HAVE extracted this list chiefly from the
Freemen's Roll (Surtees Soc.), with addi-
tional names from other available sources.
The date, unless shown in brackets, is that
of the year in which the freedom was taken
up, generally at 21 years of age, excepting
during times like that of the Black Death of
1349 or subsequent visitations, such as that
of 1362; or in the case of a man coming to
the city from elsewhere, as, for example.
John Thornton of Coventry (vide 12 S. vii.
482).

1313. Walterus le verrour.
1324.

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Robertus Ketelbarn, verrour. He was probably one Robert "who in 1338 contracted to fill the Great West window of the Minster with stained glass at a cost of sixpence a foot for white (.e. grisaille) and twelve pence a foot for coloured glass (i.e., figure work) (Torre MS. in York Minster Library, fol. 3, from Reg. L y, fol. 69, now lost). The window was paid for by Archbishop Melton, who the same year gave 100 marks The two windows towards the cost of the work. at the west end of the aisles, contracted for at the same time at a cost of eleven marks each, were probably also Robert Ketelbarn's work.

1329. Johannes de Holtby, verrour. Holtby is the name of a village a few miles from York The names of the on the road to Scarborough. places from which these glass-painters came show towns and villages in the surrounding district, ... that they all, with few exceptions, came from small Burton Agnes, Bishop Auckland, Selby, Kirkby

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1345. Will le ferrour de Bouthum. name Bootham, now applied to a street, was that of a vill or burgh belonging to the Abbot and Convent of St. Mary's, just outside the walls of the city, and the cause of frequent disputes, between the Abbot and Mayor as to their respective rights therein.

1349. Robertus de Burton Aunays, ferrour. Burton Agnes, a village about four miles from Bridlington.

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viii. 127).

1400.

1400.

1402.

Joh. de la Chaumbre, glasyer (vide 12 S.

Thomas de Byngfeld, glasier (ibid.).
Robertus de Wakeffeld, glasyer (ibid.).
Johannes Danyell, glasyer. Probably

1351. Henricus del Mure, verrour. noticed that in this year three glass-painters were enrolled, no doubt in order to make up for losses amongst the craft by death during the Black Death. The average number of freemen enrolled son of the Johannes Danyell, free in 1387. annually at York between the years 1339 and 1348 was 60. In 1349, however, 208 new freemen were entered, and in 1363, 218.

1351. Willelmus de Aukland, verrour. He was doing work for the Minster in 1371 and was Bailiff of the city in 1380 (Skaife MS., Lord Mayors and Sheriffs; York Public Library). 1351. Will de Preston, ouerour (vide 12 S. vül. 485).

1353. Edmund Mott, ferrour. 1339. Johannes de Selby, verrour. 1360, Johannes Archer, verrour. 1361. John de Preston, glasenwreght (vide 12 S. viii. 485). It will be noticed that glasspainters who have hitherto been styled " verrours are from now until 1385 termed "glasenwrights and after that "glasyers."

1407. Willelmus Fournour, glacier. 1409. Robertus Bedford, glacier. His son, "Johannes Bedford, clericus, fil. Roberti Bedford, glasier," was free of the city in 1437.

1410. Johannes Thornton, glacyer (vide 12 S. vii. 481).

1412. Robertus Fournays, glacier. Probably an ancestor of Thomas Fourneys, glasyer, free 1520, whose son, William Fornes, glasyer, was free in 1551,

1414. Joh. Chambre, junior, glasier (vide 12 S. viii. 127).

[1417]. Robert Quarendon, working at the Minster in that year (vide Fabric Rolls, Surtees

"Soc.).

1368. Joh. de Kyrkeby, glasenwright. 1371. Will de Brotton, glasenwright. 1375. Joh. de Broghton, glasenwright. There is a village of Broughton in the parish of Kirkby, near Stokesley, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, It is probable that John and Will de Broghton, who were no doubt brothers, and John de Kyrkeby free in 1368,) all came from the same district. John de Brighton died in 1384, when administration of has goods was granted to John de Pynchbek, John de Karth and Adam Sommoneur," being within the jurisdiction of the Chapter of York (Reg. I. D. and C. Ebor., i. 78), so that they evidently within the cathedral close and not in the city. an de Knayth, like the deceased, was a glasspanter, being free of the city as a "glasenwright

a

One

1418. Thomas Roos, glasyer. Very little is known about him. He made his will (Reg. Test. Ebor., iii. 374) on Feb. 8, 1433, desiring to be buried in St. Helen's Church, Stonegate. To his sister Margaret, 20d., and the whole of the rest of his property to his wife Katherine. He either died without issue or his son had taken over his business some time previous to his father's death. Henry Ros is mentioned in the Rot. Kemp as follows: "To Henry Ros, glasier, working about the palace in glazing panels with a figure of St. John, and other panels with (a representation of) the sun's rays and in mending the windows of the same at the west end of the same hall, 168. 8d." (Fabric Rolls of York Minster, Glossary, p. 349). He was probably also the "Rose glasyer who, in 1433-4, was paid seven shillings for glazing in the Chapel or Hall of the York Merchant Adventurers Company (York Merchant Adventurers,' Surtees Soc.).

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1418. Johannes Neusom, glasyer. One of a family of at least three generations of journeymen glass-painters, none of whom seem to have risen to have a shop of his own. In 1437, John Newsom was one of the witnesses to the will of John Chamber the elder, who was probably his master. His son, John Newsom, was free in 1442 and worked for Thomas Shirley (vide 12 S. viii. 365), and his grandson, Thomas Newsom, was free in 1470, and worked for Thomas Shirwyn (vide 12 S. viii. 407).

1378. Adam Sommoneur was evidently ner up and down, With mandements for fornicaun," and one of a class of whom, according to Chaucer," may no good be said." The York Minster Fabric Roll for the year 1421 shows that through the activities of these gentry and "by the various Penitentiaries" their employers, no asum than £64 58. 74d. (equal to £1,000 present vale, was raised in one year (Browne, Hist. York Minster, p. 221). A window in the nave represents the Penancers at work, in one light flagellating a man, and in another chastising a woman, whilst figures in the border pour money out of bags 1419. Johannes Berford, ferrour. Probably and masons carve stonework, showing to what one of the same family as Robertus Bedford,

glacier, free 1409, and his son, Johannes Bedford, workmen, whó at his death in 1451 left him 18. 8d. clericus, free 1437.

1421. Willelmus Gent, glasyer.

1425. Johannes Coverham, glasyer. He was evidently the "John, servant of John Burgh," who is mentioned in the Fabric Roll for the year 1414, and later, in 1419, under his full name, which is coupled with that of John Burgh, who was presumably, therefore, his master. John Coverham's son Thomas was free in 1448.

1426. Thomas Husthwayt, ferrour. Husthwaite is a village near Easingwold, in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

1427. Ricardus Penbrygge, glasyer. He probably came from Pembridge in Herefordshire.

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[1431]. William Bownas, glasyer. The only information we have of him is that contained in his will (Reg. Test. Ebor., ii. 648), where he described himself as a citizen and glazier of York, dwelling in the parish of St. Wilfrid," in the churchyard of which he was buried. All his goods he bequeathed to his wife Cecilia. Will proved April 22, 1431.

1436. Willelmus Thwaytes, glasyer.

1438. Willelmus Cartmell, glasier. William Cartmell and William Bownas (vide s.a. 1431, above) or their ancestors evidently came from the Lake District, Cartmel being the name of a village and Priory in Lancashire, and there are two villages named Bowness, one in Cumberland and the other on Lake Windermere. The work of the York glass-painters was as well known on the west as on the east coast, and many churches and abbeys in the Lake District sent to York to have their windows painted. Robert Preston, the glasspainter, who died in 1503, left a sum of money to Wedrall Abbey, near Carlisle; and Sir John Petty (d. 1508) bequeathed 13s. 4d. to Furness Abbey in Lancashire be cause, as he said, I have wroght mych wark there." In the little village church of Cartmel Fell, some few miles from the Priory of Cartmel, is some typical York canopy work. William Cartmell was probably the mentioned in the Fabric Roll of 1443, and under his full name in those of 1444-1447, and again (or a son of the same name) in 1471. It is presumed he was one of Thomas Shirley's workmen (vide 12 S. viii. 365). 1439.

364).

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William

Thomas Shirlay, glasyer (vide 12 S. viii.

1442. Johannes Neusom, glasier, fil. Johannis Neusom. Free of the city by patrimony. His father, John Newsom, was free in 1418. He evidently learnt his business or was in the employ of Thomas Shirley, who in his will, made in 1456, bequeathed "to John Newsom, if he be in my service at the time of my decease, 3s. 4d." (Reg. Test. Ebor., ii. 380 d). John Newsom's son

Thomas was free in 1442.

1443. John Ley, glasier's son William Ley, parchemyner, was free of the city. 1446.

Thomas Mylet. Probably a partner of Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). In 1463-4, he one of the glass-painters to whom new ordinances were granted.

was

1447. Ricardus Chambre, glasier, fil Johannis

Chaumbre, glasier (vide 12 S. viii. 128).

[1447]. Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). 1448. Thomas Coverham, glasier, fil Johannis Coverham, glasier. Son of John Coverham, free 1425, and one of John Chamber the younger's

(vide 12 S. viii. 128). In 1463-4, he was evidently a master, as his name appears amongst those to whom new ordinances were granted in that year. In 1471 he was doing work for the Minster (Fabric Rolls, 8.a. 1471).

1450. Will Inglysshe, als Richardson, glasyer (vide 12 S. viii. 323). JOHN A. KNOWLES. (To be concluded.)

ANCIENT BRASS ENGRAVING. SEEING that my note on the Stoke d'Abernon enamelled shield (12 S. viii. 428) has been received with considerable interest, it occurs to me that a few remarks upon the ancient method of engraving, and the kind of tools used for the purpose, may also be acceptable.

I have a photograph of the British Museum MS. from which Haines illustrated his comments on the subject, and am inclined to think that the sketch may refer to the engraving of a brass quite as much as to the incising of stone, for at least one of the artificers is apparently cutting lengthwise with the lines of the effigy. This method of cutting can only be employed in the case of metal. Incisions in stone, whether long or short, must be cut by laying a wide flat tool along one edge of the line and driving the tool, by means of a mallet, into the stone towards the other edge of the line, and then repeating the process from the opposite side, so as to produce a V-shaped incision as long as the width of the tool. To attempt to make the chisel travel along a line in stone would break away both edges of the incision in flakes of various sizes. Thus the so-called V-cut letters are peculiar to stone and never found in ancient brass, save perhaps in the case of a fine stroke for which a single lengthwise cut will serve without any thickening up. There is little doubt that the earliest brass engraving was conducted in exactly the same manner as in the present day, and with tools the points of which were like those of to-day. The only difference appears to be that, in olden times, the larger sunken such spaces, those between the legs and sword of a knight (in late brasses such spaces not being perforated) or as in the field of a coat of arms, were cross-hatched with a V-pointed tool alone, whereas now & flat chisel may also be introduced.

as

A very small fragment of brass in th stroke of a letter, the cutting away of whic was accidentally omitted, has provided certain proof that lettering was engrave

then as now. In the Acworth brass (1513) in Luton Church, recently raised from the floor and set up against the wall, there occurs in the marginal inscription the word Timor, of which the accompanying print is a faithful copy. In the letter "i" there will be seen the fragment of brass referred to. It has been suggested that this is but a scrap of pitch or dirt collected in the incision, but I have personally handled and examined it on two or three occasions, and can unhesitatingly assert that it is a piece of brass not cut away as it should have been. The importance of this discovery lies in the fact that it clearly demonstrates that in engraving the broad stroke of a letter, as, for instance, the "i" in question, the craftsman cut an incision with a V-pointed tool

Im

Danish ships, being of greater displacement, swifter, and steadier.

Some time during 897, six Danish ships raided the south, doing great damage all along the coast, especially in Devonshire and the Isle of Wight. Alfred ordered nine of his ships to go and attack them, and the English fleet discovered the Danish ships in a harbour, and, by sealing up the entrance, blockaded them. Three of the Danish ships were drawn up on the shore, the crews being inland, and the other three ships attacked the English. In the ensuing fight two of the Danes were sunk, the third escaping with only five men left alive.

in a most inconvenient position. Three of At this time the English ships ran aground them were stranded on the same side as the three Danish ships, the other six being aground on the opposite side of the channel. As the tide ebbed many furlongs from the ships, the crews of the Danish ships attacked the three English ships on the same side, with the result that seventy-two of the allied English and Frisians and a hundred and twenty Danes were slain.

When the tide again reached the ships, the Danes rowed away first, because the flood tide floated them before the English could push off (ascufan), the greater size and consequent heavier displacement of down one side of the stroke and then another the English ships requiring more water to down the opposite side, thus producing float them than the smaller and lighter two clean outside edges, but, owing to the Danish ships. The Danes were not able to narrow width of the graver, failing to clear row round the coast of Sussex owing to away the slip of brass between, in the centre their damaged condition. Two of them of the stroke. This had afterwards to be were driven on the shore, the crews being cut away with a third cut down the centre, taken to the King at Winchester and which is the precise process employed to-day. hanged, while the remaining ship's crew, A general examination of lettering in many severely wounded, reached East Anglia. old brasses that have passed through my hands has confirmed my view of the early existence of this method of engraving. WALTER E. GAWTHORP.

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16, Long Acre, W.C.2.

A NOTE ON THE ANGLO-SAXON

A certain amount of doubt has hitherto

existed as to the exact location of this

naval battle. Poole Harbour in Dorset and a haven in the Isle of Wight have been put forward. It is suggested here that the battle took place in Southampton Water. The Chronicle states that the ships were stranded on opposite sides of the channel. CHRONICLE, ANN. 897. This could not be the case in an open harPREDATORY bands of Danes from East bour. Southampton Water is approximately Anglia and Northumbria had been harassing one and a half miles broad at full tide, and Wessex and the south coast in their war- three-quarters of a mile broad at low water, ships which they had built some years the statement that the tide ebbed_many before. To counteract these attacks, King furlongs being strictly true. The Danish Alfred ordered the construction of long ships must have been beached on the west ships, of a type which he himself considered side of the Water, because on this side the most useful. They had sixty or more the tide recedes fela furlanga. oars and were nearly twice the size of the

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It must be remembered that there are

four tides daily at Southampton. The English fleet seems to have arrived about the time of high water, and their attention was so diverted owing to the fight in the mouth of the Water that the rapid ebb of the tide left them stranded on either side of the channel. While stranded, the Danes attacked the ships on their side, with the result that they were beaten. When the tide again reached the ships, at the most six hours later, the Danes were able to float their ships first, owing to their less displacement, and so make their escape.

Hatfield College, Durham.

J. R. SPAUL.

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(Mar. 25, 1823), he is described as of the Lower Terrace, Lower Street, Islington, Surveyor." He is also called a surveyor in The Builder (Sept. 4, 1884; obituary of Charles Lee). On March 11, 1794, William Williams married Rachel, daughter of John Lee of Islington (and sister of Joseph Lee, painter in enamels to the Princess Charlotte and the Duke of Sussex), but ob.s.p. June 10, 1833, and was buried at St. Mary's Church. A curious anecdote concerning him will be found in The Connoisseur, No. 170, vol. xliii., p. 94, while some account of his wife's relatives, more especially the enamel painter, was published in the same periodical, No. 197, vol. 1., p. 29 et seq. Mrs. Rachel Williams lived at. Cloudesley Terrace, Liverpool Road, Islington. She was born on Oct. 29, 1775; was named as executrix of her maternal aunt's, "Betty" (Elizabeth) Oldroyd's, will (dated Aug. 20, 1820; proved which are quoted in Abraham Fraunce's May 20, 1823), and died June 7, 1840. 'Victoria,' Îl. 2226-7 in the Professor's Her body was buried in the churchyard of edition. The same couplet, with quem, St. Mary's, Islington, but the headstone not quam in the second line (Fraunce's disappeared when the site was cleared for context required the feminine), is given laying out as a recreation ground. I have on p. 74 of Jakob Werner's Lateinische been told that the tombstones were then Sprichwörter und Sinnsprüche des Mittelalters mainly stacked in the vaults of the church. aus Handschriften gesammelt' (Heidelberg, Having no children of her own, Mrs. 1912). It is there taken from a collection Williams was responsible for the upbringing of sayings in a MS. of the University Library at Basle, assigned by the editor to the first quarter of the fifteenth century.

A LATIN SAYING. At 10 S. v. 88, PROF. MOORE SMITH asked for the source of the lines,

Quamvis cuncta notes, quae lustrat regna Bootes,
Vix reperire potes quam sine labe notes,

EDWARD BENSLY.

A "LONDON WELSH "FAMILY: WILLIAMS OF ISLINGTON.-The following notes, compiled from documents and memoranda in my possession, may interest Welsh genealogists:

of her nephew, Charles Lee (1804-1880), the well-known architect and surveyor, son of James Lee (1772-1816), of Islington. Two of Charles's sons bore the name of WilliamsCharles Williams Lee (1840-1901) and my grandfather, Sydney Williams Lee (1841-1917). F. GORDON ROE.

Arts Club, Dover Street, W.1.

Queries.

Benjamin Williams, born at Haverfordwest (date unascertained), was a churchwarden of St Mary's, Islington, in 1797 and WE must request correspondents desiring in1798. He died Nov. 4, 1804, and was formation on family matters of only private interest buried at the same church, leaving by his to affix their names and addresses to their queries wife Sarah (née Brindley; died Sept. 22, in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 1800, aged 56), a son, William. Whether Mrs. Benjamin Williams was a connexion of James Brindley, the engineer, I cannot but my maternal grandfather was in the habit of keeping an old newspaper cutting concerning him, with certain other matter relating to the family.

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STROUD GREEN.-What justification is there for Sir Laurence Gomme's equation, Stanestaple Stroud Green," stated but unexplained in his Governance of London," p. 411? If there be no justification for this identity, where indeed was the DomesWilliam Williams (son of Benjamin) was day Estate, held by the Canons of St. Paul's? born on April 27, 1770, at the house situate When does the present name of "Stroud at the south-east corner of Britannia Row Green first occur? What evidence existe and Lower Road," Islington. In a lease in support of Lysons's statement, given with dated Dec. 25, 1804, his vocation is given out reference of any sort and in a as "Timber Dealer," but, in a later lease, in which he dismisses the

passag

"hamlet

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