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Def. 1. That part of the Science of Language which treats of utterance, is called

Prosody. OBS.-Utterance is modified by Pauses, Accent, and the lawg Versification

PAUSES. Def. 2. Pauses are cessations of the voice in reading or speaking Obs. 1.-Pauses are.

Grammatical. OBS. 2.-Rhetorical Pauses are useful chiefly in arresting attention. They are generally made after, or immediately before emphatic words.

They are not indicated by marks.
EXAMPLES—There is a calm for those who weep.

A rest for weary pilgrims found.
OBS. 3.-Grammatical Pauses are useful in addition to their
Rhetorical effect-in determining the sense.

They are indicated by

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They are
The Comma

The Period
The Semicolon

The Interrogation !
The Colon

The Exclamation

The Dash
OBs. 4.-In its Rhetorical office,
The Comma requires a short pause in reading.

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The Semicolon, a pause longer than the Comma.
The Colon, a pause longer than the Semicolon.
The Period requires a full pause.

The Dash, the marks of Exclamation and Interrogation, re. quire pauses corresponding with either of the other marks.

Rem.—In the use of Marks of Punctuation, good writers differ; and it is exceedingly difficult for the Teacher to give Rules for their use, that can be of general application.

The following Rules are the most important.

COMMA. RULE-Words similar in construction, having a connective understood, are separated by a Comma.

David was a brave, martial, enterprising prince.

" There is such an exactness in definition, such a pertinence in proof. such a perspicuity in his detection of sophisms, as have been arely employed in the Christian cause."-B. B. Edwards.

Obs.—When more than two words of the same constructiun occur consecutively, the Comma should be repeated after each. EXAMPLES—"Fame, wisdom, love, and power, were mine."

“ Unnumbered systems, suns, and worlds, unite to worship


Veracity, justice, and charity, are essential virtues. RULE—The parts of a Complex Sentence should be separated by a Comma, when the Auxiliary precedes the Principal Sentence. EXAMPLES—" Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails.”

If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him

drink." RULE-An Adjunct Phrase or Sentence, used to express an incidental fact, and placed between the parts of the Principal. Sentence, is separated by Commas. EXAMPLES—"The grave, that never spoke before,

Hath found, at length, a tongue to chide.” “But now a wave, high rising o'er the deep,

Lifts its dire crest." OBS. 2.—But when an Adjunct Phrase or Sentence which is indispensable in perfecting the sense immediately follows the word which it qualifies, the Comma should not intervene.

ExAMPI E-Every one that findeih me. shall slay me."

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Rule-Words, Phrases, and Sentences, thrown in between the parts of a Sentence, should be separated by a Comma. 1. As denoting an inference from a foregoing fact. 2. To modify the whole proposition.



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Go, then, where, wrapt in fear and gloom,

Fond hearts and true are sighing."

“Now, therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide.” "It might seem, indeed, in a superficial view, that the preaching of the Gospel requires only ordinary powers of understanding." —B. B. Edwards.

“These questions, too, were carefully studied."

“It is a clear lake, the very picture, ordinarily, of repose.” RULE-A Phrase or Sentence used as the Subject of a Verb, requires a Comma between it and the Verb.


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* To do good to others, constitutes an important object of existence. That we are rivals, does not necessarily make us enemies.

RULE-Words used in direct addresses, and independent Phrases, should be separated by a Comma.


Thou, whose spell can raise the dead,

Bid the prophet's form appear;
Samuel, raise thy buried head!

King, behold the phantom seer?"
“Child, amidst the flowers that play,
While the red light fades away;
Mother, with thy earnest eye
Ever following silently;
Father, by the breeze of eve,
Called thy harvest work to leave;
Pray !-ere yet the dark hours bé,

Lift the heart and bend the knee!” RULE-Adjunct Sentences, Phrases, and sometimes Words, not in their natural position, should be separated by a Comma.


“Into this illustrious society, he whose character I have endeavored feebly to portray, has, without doubt, entered.”

Rem.-The style of composition often determines the pauses, and consequently, the marks of punctuation. Thus a mathematical Propositionor an argumentative and logical discourse requires “close pointing:" Whereas, a narrative, a description, and generally, all compositions in which the style is loose, require fewer pauses, and, by consequence, fewer marks.

SEMICOLON. Rule—The Semicolon is used at the close of a sentence, which, by its terms, promises an additional sentence.


“The Essayists occupy a conspicuous place in the last century; but, somehow, I do not feel disposed to set much store by them.”

- The fruitless showers of worldly wo,

Fall dark to earth and never rise ;
While tears that from repentance flow,

In bright exhalement reach the skies."--Moore. OBs.—By many writers, the Semicolon is used to separate short sentences, which have not a close dependence on each other.


“He was a plain man, without any pretension to pulpit eloquence, or any other accomplishment; he had no gift of imagination; his language was hard and dry; and his illustrations, homely.”

" We are watchers of a beacon,

Whose light must never die;
We are guardians of an altar

Midst the silence of the sky;
The rocks yield founts of courage,

Ștruck forth as by thy rod;
For the strength of the hills we bless thee,

Our God, our fathers' God.”—Mrs. Hemans.
I had a seeming friend;-I gave him gifts and he was gone;
I had an open enemy; Í gave him gifts, and won him ;
The very heart of hate melteth at a good man's love."

COLON. RULE—The Colon is used at the close of a sentence, when another sentence is added as a direct illustration or inference.


"Let me give you a piece of good counsel, my cousin: follow my laudable example: write when you can: take Time's forelock in one hand, and a pen in the other, and so make sure of your opportunity.”—Couper.

“ Among relations, certainly there is always an incitement: we always feel an anxiety for their welfare."--H. K. White.

6. From the last hill that looks on thy onre holy dome,
I beheld thee, O Sion! when rendered to Rome:
'Twas thy last sun went down, and the flames of thy fal.
Flashed back on the last glance I gave in. thy wall.”


Hebrew Melodies. Rem.--The Colon is not much used by late writers—its place being supplied by the Semicolon, the Dash, or the Period.

PERIOD. RULE—The Period is used at the close of a complete or indepenaent proposition.

Obs.—The Period is also used after inicial letters and abbre. viations. EXAMPLE-J. Q. Adams, LL.D.,


DASH. RULE—The Dash is used to indicate, 1 An abrupt transition. 2 An unfinished sentence. 3. A succession of particulars.


" All this dread order break-for whom? for thee?

Vile worm !-O madness! pride! impiety!" “They met to expatiate and confer on state affairs—to read the newspapers—to talk a little scandal—and so forth-and the result was—as we have been told—considerable dissipation.”- Wilson's Burns.

“And is thy soul immortal ?-What remains ?
All, all, Lorenzo !-Make immortal blessed-

Unblest immortals !-- What can shock us more ?" " To me the Night Thoughts is a poem, on the whole, most animating and delightful-amazingly energetic-full of the richest instruction improving to the mind-much of it worthy of being committed to memory-some faults-obscure-extravagant--inged occasionally with flattery.”

OBS. 1.-The Dash is often used instead of the Parenthesis.


As they disperse they look very sad-and, no doubt they are som-but had they been, they would not have taken to digging.”

Obs. 2.-Many modern writers use the Dash in place of the Semicolon and the Colon—and sometimes with them.


" Ye have no need of prayer;

Ye have no sins to be forgiven."-Sprague.
“What is there saddening in the Autumn leaves ?
Have they that green and yellow melancholy'
That the sweet Poet spoke of? Hath he seen
Our variegated woods, when first the frost
Turns into beauty all October's charms-
When the dread fever quits us when the storms
Of the wild Equinox, with all its wet
Has left the land


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