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EXCLAMATION. RULE—The mark of Exclamation is used after a word, phrase or sentence, whose prominent office is to express sudden or in. tense emotion.

"Hark! a strange sound affrights mine ear.”
" To arms !--they come!-the Greek, the Greek !"
1 'Tis done! arise! he bids thee stand.”

INTERROGATION. RULE—The mark of Interrogation is used after a word, phrase, or sentence, by which a question is asked. Example="Why is my sleep disquieted ?

Who is he that calls the dead ?

Is it thou, O king ?” Rein.-When the Interrogation or Exclamation is used, the Comma, Semicolon, Colon, or Period, is omitted,

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Obs. 1.—The signs used in writing are
1. The Apostrophe

9. Measures

Long 2. The Quotation “ "

3. The Hyphen

10. Caret i
4. The Bracket [ ] 11. Diæresis
5. The Parenthesis ( ) 12. Index.
6. References +

13. The Section 7. The Brace

14. The Paragraph I Rising 8. Inflections Falling

Circumflex The Apostrophe (') is used to indicate the omission of a letter -and to change a Noun into a Possessive Specifying Adjective. EXAMPLES—" Hearts, from which 'twas death to sever;'

Eyes, this world can ne'er restore."

4. How lightly mounts the Muse's wing." The Quotation (" ") is used to inclose words taken from some other author or book. EXAMPLES—“Southey, among all our living poets," says Professor Wil

son, "stands aloof and alone in his glory.' A quotation quoted is indicated by single marks. EXAMPLE—[See the latter part of the example above.)

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The Hyphen [-] is used between two elements of a compound word.


Rem.-It is also used at the end of a line, when, the wori s not fin.
ished. [See this remark.]

The Bracket [ ] is used to inclose a letter or mark, given
as an explanatory example; or a word, phrase, or sentence,
thrown in by a reviewer, and not a part of the original sen-
EXAMPLES—"Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour-

[For] England hath need of thee.”
"Mr. Secor found means to have Mr. Butler recommended

to him [Lord Talbot) for his chaplain.”
The Parenthesis ( ) is used to inclose a phrase or sentence, ex-
planatory of, or incidental to the main sentence.

OBS. 2.-Modern writers often use the Dash for the same
EXAMPLE—"The monotony of a calm-for the trade-wind had already

failed us--was agreeably relieved yesterday, by the neigh

borhood of two ships," &c.Malcolm.
References (* + I ) direct attention to notes at the margin
or bottom of the

OBs. 3.—The letters of the Latin or Greek alphabets, and
sometimes figures, are used for the same purpose.

The Brace (3) is used to join three lines in a triplet—and to
include many species in one class.
EXAMPLES—"Four limpid fountains from the cliffs diştill;

And every fountain pours a several rill,
In mazy windings wandering down the hill;
Where blooms with vivid green were crowned,

And glowing violets cast their odors round.”
Inflections (^^,) indicate elevations or depressions of the key
note in reading
EXAMPLES Do you go to Albany' ?” “I go to Uticà.”

(-) indicates the long sound of a syllable,

as late, mēte, nõte.
indicates the short sound of a syllable,
as lět, mět, not.

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The Caret (1) is used between two words, to indicate the place of words omitted, and placed above the line. EXAMPLE—"The proper study is man.”

A Diæresis (-:-) is placed over the second of two vowels, to show that they belong to different syllables. Examples—Preëmption ........ Coëval... Reëducate.

OBs. 4.-The Hyphen is sometimes placed between the vowels, for a similar purpose. EXAMPLE-Co-operate.

The Index (L) is used to point out a word or sentence, considered worthy of special notice.

The Section ($) marks the divisions of a chapter or book.

The Paragraph (T) is used when a new subject of remark is introduced.

Rem.—The sign of the Paragraph is retained in the Holy Scriptures ; but in other composition, the Paragraph is sufficiently indicated by its commencing a new line on the page.

Accent is a stress of voice placed on a particular syllable in pronouncing a word.

Emphasis is a stress of voice placed on a particular word in a sentence. This mark is indicated,

1. In manuscript, by a line drawn under the emphatic word.

2. On a printed page, by the use of Italic letters—CAPITAL letters are used to indicate words still more emphatic.

COMPOSITION. Def. Composition as the word implies is the art of placing together words, so as to communicate ideas. Composition is of two kinds,

PROSE AND VERSE. In Prose Composition, words and phrases are arranged with a primary reference to the sense.

In Verse, the sound and measure of words and syllables determine their position.

Among the various kinds of Prose Composition, may be mentioned the following:

Narrative, Descriptive, Didactic, Historical, Biographical.

VERSE. Verse consists in words arranged in measured lines, constituting a regular succession of accented and unaccented syllables. Verse is used in Poetry. The different kinds of Poetry are, Lyric,




Pastoral. Lyric Poetry is—as its name imports--such as may be set to music.

It includes the “ Ode" and the “Song."

DRAMATIC Poetry is a poem descriptive of scenes, events, or character, and is adapted to the stage.

The Tragic and It includes

{The Comic



Epic Poetry is a historical representation-real or fictitiousof great events.

DIDACTIC POETRY is that style adapted to the inculcation of science or duty.

An EPIGRAM is a witty poem, short, and generally abounds in ludicrous expressions.

AN EPITAPH is a poetic inscription to the memory of some departed person.

A SONNET is an ode of a peculiar structure, and generally of fourteen lines.

PASTORAL POETRY relates to rural life, and is generally a song.

VERSIFICATION. Versification is the art of making verse—i.e., the proper arrangement of a certain number of syllables in a line. There are two prominent distinctions in verse,

1. Blank Verse.
2. Rhyme.

{ ,

Blank Verse consists in- measured lines of ten syllaoles each, and which may or may not end with the same sound.

Rhyme consists in measured lines, of which two or more end with the same sound. A Line in poetry, is properly called


A Verse.
A half verse, is called

A Hemistich.
Two rhyming verses which complete the sense, are called

A Couplet.
Three verses which rhyme together, are

A Triplet. Four or more lines, are called

A Stanza. Verses end with may

Rhyming syllables, or

Rhyming words.
“We come, we come, a little band,

As children of the Nation;
We are joined in heart, we are joined in hand,

To keep the Declaration."
Rem.-In the above stanza, the first and third lines end with rhyming
words—the second and fourth, with rhyming syllables.
A collection of syllables is called

A Foot.

two Syllables or A Foot may consist of

three Syllables. Feet of two syllables are the

Trochee ... first long, second short.
Iambus first short, second long.
Pyrrhic... both short.

Spondee .. both long..
Feet of three syllables are the
*Dactyl one long and two short......
Anapest two short and one long:
Amphibrach ... first short, second long, third short. ..
Tribrach. three short....

Rem.-Most English Poetry is written in zambic, Trochaic, or Anapæstic verse.

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