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being distinguish'd by any thing but his violent speeches. He live'd in a Imall hut, a short distance from Paris, and dureing his obscurity he was driveën to such distress, that it is say’d, being truely reduced to fans-culottes in their clotheing, he turn'd'out both his fons to feed on what they could pick up in the neighbouring gardens and forests, for they possess’d'an equal antipathy with the father to animal food.

“ Soon after this, Fortune smile'd on him. He propose'd to the convention to introduce the use of the pike, not onely in the army,

but among the people. This proposal being accepted, he had under tuition an immense concourse of both sexes, to instruct in the use of that inftrument. He was appointed colonel-commandant; and thus he was suddenly advanced from the greatest poverty to a state of affluence.

“ In 1793 he is say’d to have met his fate, for he was kil'd, together with both his sons, in an action with the advocates of royalty in La Ven

The name of 66 colonel Oswald" occuring in the campaign of 1796, this fa& has been disputeëd; but the officer intended


be colonel Ebenezer Oswald, of America.


* Secret bistory of the green-room, London, 1795, II, 222 (a note).

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The active and benevolent Howard utterly discarded animal foods, as wel as fermented and spirituous drinks, from his diet: water and the plainest vegetables sufficeing him.*

In the village of West-Harlsey, near North Allerton, lives a farmer, who is say'd not to have tafteëd any kind of animal food from his cradle. He is a very lusty, good-looking man, wel known in Allerton-market.

Mister Richard Phillips, the publisher of this compilation, a lusty, healthy, active and wel. looking man, has defifted from animal food for upward of twenty years: and the compileër himself, induce'd to serious reflection, by the perufal of Mandevilles Fable of the bees, in the year 1772, being the 19th year of his age, has ever fince, to the reviseal of this sheet, firmly adhere'd to a milk and vegetable diet, haveing, at least, never tasteëd, dureing the whole course of those thirty years, a morsel of flesh, fish, or fowl, or any thing, to his knowlege, prepare'd in or with

those substanceës or any extract thereof, unless, I on one occasion, when tempted, by wer, cold

and hunger, in the south of Scotland, he venture'd to eat a few potatos, dress’d under the roast ; nothing, less repugnant to his feelings,

# Aikins View of bis character, &c. p. 222.

being to be had; or except by ignorance or imposition; unless, it may be, in eating egs, which, however, deprives no animal of life, though it may prevent some from 'comeing into the world to be murder'd and devour'd by others.

It is the less to be wonder'd at that Christians should addict themselves to animal food, as they cat blood and things strangle'd in direct opposition to their own religion, and the express prohibition of god himself. After the flood, when he declares to Noah and his sons, " Every moveing thing that liveëth shal be meat for you ; even as the green herb have i giveën you all things ;"* the gift is upon this immediate condition: “ But flesh, with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat.” Again, in the law dictateëd by god to Mofes, he says, “ It shal be a perpetual statute for your generations, throughout all your dwelings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood.”+ Again; “Moreover


shal eat no manner of blood, wbether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwelings. I “I wil even,” he declares, “ set my face against that foul thateateth blood; and wil cut him off from among his people: for the life of the flesh,” he ads, is

Genesis, 1X, 3. t Leviticus, III, 17. Ibi; VII, 26.

in the blood, and i have giveën it to you' upon the altar, to make an atonement for your souls."* This prohibition, it is wel known, the Jews themselves have all along obey'd and observe'd down to the present time. That such allfo was the practice of the primitive or early Christians we learn from The aets; where they are told, in a letter from the apostles, - For it seem d good to the holy ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; THAT YE ABSTAIN from meats offer'd to idols, and FROM BLOOD." +

“ We Christians,” says Octavius, in Minucius Felix, dread the thoughts of murder, and cannot bear to look upon a carcase; and we so abhor human blood, that we abstain from that of beasts.” “ We are so cautious,” says Tertullian, “ of tasteing blood, that we abstain from things strangle'd, and even fuffocateëd beasts; and, therefor, when you have a mind to try whether we be Christians, you offer us puddings fuf'd

* Ibi, XVII, 10, 11, (The original

(The original is lices (as above, the life of the fleth) pot fouls, for the Jews of that period did not know they had fouls, nor believe'd in their iinmortality.) This injunction is repeated in two other verseës of the same chapter ; and, again, in Dente onomy, XII, 16, 23 ; and XV, 23.

# XV, 28, 29.

with blood.”* That this practice continue’d in the western church, to, at least, the middle of the eleventh century (for it is stil observe'd in the eastern) is manifest from the words of car. dinal Humbert: “for retaining,” says he," the ancient useage or tradition of our ancestors, we, in, like manner, do abominate these things : insomuch that a severe penance is impose'd on those, who, without extreme peril of life, do at any time feed on blood, or any animal dead of itsself.”f The reverend doctor Grabe, an eminent Engleish divine, acknowlegeës certain « abuseës and defects” to have crept into our church, particularly baptism by bare sprinkleing, not mixing water with wine in the lords supper, and the eating of things strangle’d: all which

Apology. These, it is presume’d, were what we now call black-puddings : a great luxury of modern Christians, at least in this country, at the anniversary of the birth of Christ, who, by the way, would not have touch'd one himfelf.

| Tolands Nazarenus, p. 44. N'eft-il pas bien fingulier," says M. Boulanger, que les Chrétiens l'abstiennent de viande (on fast-days], abstinence qui n'est ordonnée nulle part dans le nouveau testament, tandis qu'ils ne s'abstiennent point du fang, de boudin, et de la chair des animaux étouffés, qui font ahsolument défendus par les apôtres, & aussi sévérement que la fornication ?" Christianisme devoilé, p. 176.

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