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chloride, and the sulphuric and antimonial salts The war of Spain against the republics of decomposed to a great extent.
Chili and Pern continued throughout the year. The amalgamation is performed in barrels, The Spanish fleet bombarded the port of Valwhere the powdered copper is mixed with a paraiso, inflicting considerable damage, and quantity of saline water, some more salt, and subsequently the port of Callao, where they for every 1500 lbs. substance about 100 copper were repulsed. Their strength then seems to balls. If much free acid is in the mass, quick- to have been spent, for they refrained from lime is added for nentralization. After some committing any further hostilities. The allirevolutions, quicksilver is added, and then the ance between Chili and Peru was joined by casks revolved for eighteen hours, after which the republics of Bolivia and Ecuador, while the the usual way is to wash the amalgam and treat United States of Colombia, and other states of it further. The amalgamation of the “speiss” South and Central America, declined it. The is performed in nearly the same manner, with allied republics expelled all the Spanish resiadditions of crude lime to the charge.
dents from their territories. (See BOLIVIA, CHILI, AMERICA. The great task which, during ECUADOR, Peru, SPAIN.) the year 1866, occupied the attention of the On the Atlantic side of South America, ParaGovernment and people of the United States, guay bravely defended herself against the united was the work of reconstruction. It soon be- forces of Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and came apparent that the views of the President Uruguay. Toward the close of the year the and the majority of Congress on the subject armies of the Argentine Republic and Uruguay videly differed. The latter embodied its views were withdrawn, and it was believed that the in the Civil Rights and Freedmen's Bureau alliance was at an end. The Presidents of both Bills and in a new Constitutional Amendment. the allied republics were threatened with dangers The President expressed his disagreement with at home, and Paraguay was expecting aid from the amendment, and vetoed the two bills, both Bolivia. (See ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, BOLIVIA, of which were, 'however, passed over his veto Brazil, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY.) by Congress, and declared to be laws. The The successful laying of the Atlantic cable
Thirty-ninth Congress, during its first session, brought North America into telegraphic comadmitted Tennessee, after its Legislature had munication with the Old World. This comratified the Constitutional Amendment. The munication remained free from interruption elections, held during the year, resulted in throughout the year. The rapid progress of every Northern State, and in West Virginia the Russo-American telegraph will soon give and Missouri, in favor of the Republican party, new guaranties for the permanency of this comwhile in Maryland and Kentucky the conserva- munication. tive opposition was triumphant. The late se- The total population of America exceeds at cession States, with the exception of Tennessee, present 80,000,000, of whom about 48,000,000 were unanimous in rejecting the Constitutional belong to North America and Mexico, 2,500,Amendment. (See UNITED STATES.)
000 to Central America, 3,970,000 to the West British America was greatly excited by inva. Indies, and 26,000,000 to South America. sions of the Fenians, which, however, were, ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The general without great difficulty, suppressed. In order statistics of the Protestant Episcopal Church to carry through the Confederation scheme, in the United States in 1866 were, accorddelegates from all the provinces went to Enging to the “Church Almanac” for '1867, as land to confer with the Home Government, and follows: it was understood that a bill concerning the Dioceses projected Confederation would be laid before Bishops.. the Imperial Parliament early in 1867. (See Whole number of Clergy
Priests and Deacons.
2,530 BRITISH AMERICA.)
2,305 France, for purposes of her own, resolved to Ordinations-Deacons
98 withdraw from Mexico the French forces in
86 three detachinents, the first to take place in Candidates for Orders. November, 1866, and the last in November,
Churches consecrated. 1867. The failure of the French Government
6,527 to withdraw the first detachment at the time
Not stated.. caused it to make then the necessary prepara- Confirmations
19,296 tions for recalling all the troops by March, Communicants-Added
Present number. 1867. In consequence of this new turn of the
9,900 war, the Liberals made rapid progress in the Burials.
16,828 repossession of the country. Maximilian, at Sunday-School Teachers.
17,570 first, intended to abdicate, but subsequently
157,813 resolved to fight for his crown at the head of
.$3,051,669.64 the Conservatives and Church party. A new The following table exhibits the number of split arose, however, among the Liberals, Gen. clergymen, parishes, communicants, teachers Ortega disputing the claim of Juarez to the and scholars of Sunday-schools, and the amount presidency after the expiration of his legal term. of missionary and charitable contributions for (See MEXICO.)
each diocese :
The movement for a reunion of the South- bishop of the House of Bishops, the promise of ern dioceses with the General Convention of conformity comprised in the office for the conthe Protestant Episcopal Church of the United secration of bishops; and, secondly, that ho States, which began at the close of the year should also transmit to the said presiding bishop 1865, made rapid progress after the beginning the letters of his consecration, or, in default of of the year 1866. The diocesan convention of the existence of such letters, other sufficient Alabama voted in favor of reunion in January, evidence as to the fact of his consecration, and those of South Carolina and Florida in Feb- the bishops by whom it was done, and the ruary, and those of Virginia, Mississippi, and other persons by whom it was witnessed. The Louisiana in May, thus completing the resto- presiding bishop thereupon officially announced ration of the national unity of the Church. In that the necessary regulations having been fulmost of the diocesan conventions the vote was filled, "the acceptance and recognition of the unanimous in favor of reunion; a notable op- Right Rev. Richard Hooker Wilmer, D.D., as position being made only in that of Virginia, the Bishop of Alabama, is now complete." in which fifty-four clerical and thirty-six lay The annual meeting of the Board of Missions delegates voted in the affirmative, and seven was held in October, in Providence. The reclergymen and eleven laymen in the negative. ceipts of the domestic committee for general The bishops of the dioceses notified the presi- purposes amounted to $54,645, and those of ding bishop of the Church in the United States the foreign committee to $71,000. The "Amerof the fact, and the president bishop in his turn ican and Church Missionary Society" held its officially announced to the Church the consum- seventh anniversary at New York, in October. mation of the reunion. Bishop Wilmer, of The society employed during the past year 38 Alabama, who had been elected and consecrated missionaries, of whom 12 were new appointwhile the Southern dioceses formed a separate ments, and 24 recommissioned ; seven resigned. organization, complied on January 31st with The receipts were $56,412.38, and the expenthe conditions provided for his recognition by ditures $64,227.62. The balance on hand Octothe triennial General Convention of 1865, ber 1, 1866, was $2,184.76. It was resolved at namely: first, that he should transmit in wri- the anniversary meeting that “a committee ting (to be signed by him in the presence of of five be appointed to confer with the Evan. three bishops of the Church) to the presiding gelical Educational Committee, already existing,
with power, in connection with them, to organ- her divine Head and Master, the Lord Jesus Christ. ize a General Educational Society." The nine. And I cannot doubt that it is equally approved by all teenth anniversary of the Evangelical Knowl- my brethren, whose sympathy and confidence in the
firmness and fidelity of your whole course were so edge Society was likewise held in New York in unanimously declared in the resolution passed at October. The annual report set forth that the our last General Convention. new works published by the society amounted With my earnest prayer that the Holy Spirit of to 2,497 pages. The treasurer's report an
grace and consolation may guide and prosper all your nounced that the receipts for the past year and mournful 'defection to the greater glory of the
arduous labors, and mercifully overrule this strange amounted to $40,998.32, and the expenditures Redeemer, and the confirmation of His Church's abto $39,596.31, leaving a balance of $1,402.01. solute faith in the sacred Scriptures as the unerring
The Church of England continued to be Word of God, I remain, my dear Lord Bishop, with greatly agitated by the case of Dr. Colenso, high regard, your friend and brother in Christ,
JOHN H. HOPKINS, who, in the latter months of the year 1865, re
Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal turned to his diocese of Natal. The Bishop of
Church in the United States. Capetown, as Metropolitan of the Anglican At the session of the convocation of CanterChurch in North Africa, had offered to Colenso bury, which began on May 1, 1866, the Archto have the sentence of deposition, which had bishop of Canterbury announced that he had been passed upon him by a synod of the South received letters from the Bishop of Capetown African bishops in 1865, revised either by the and the Dean of Maritzburg, asking in substance Archbishop of Canterbury, or by the bishops of the following questions: 1. Whether the Church the United Church of England and Ireland, or of England hold communion with Dr. Colenso, by such bishops of the Anglican communion and the heretical church which he is seeking to throughout the British empire as could be as establish at Natal, or whether it is in commusembled in London for the hearing of his case. rion with the orthodox bishops who, in synod, As Colenso refused to avail himself of this of- declared him to be ipso facto excommunicated, fer, the metropolitan issued a formal sentence 2. Whether the acceptance of a new bishop on of excommunication, reading as follows: the part of the diocese of Natal, while Bishop
In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, We, Robert, Colenso still retains the letters-patent of the by Divine permission, Metropolitan of the Church in crown, would, in any way, sever the diocese the province of Capetown, in accordance with the from the mother Church of England. 3. Supdecision of the bishops of the province, in synod assembled, do hereby, it being our office and our grief posing the reply to the last question to be that to do so, by the authority of Christ committed unto they would not in any way be severed, what us, pass upon John William Colenso, D. D., the sen are the proper steps for the diocese to take to tence of the greater excommunication, thereby sep. obtain a new bishop? The discussion of theso arating him from the communion of the Church of questions showed that the bishops were any tently persist in his heresy, and claim to exercise thing but agreed. The Bishop of Oxford wished the office of a bishop within the province of Cape. all the three questions to be answered in a town. And we do hereby make known to the faithful manly and hearty manner, while the Bishops in Christ that, being thus excluded from all commu of St. Asaph, Llandaff, St. Davids, Lincoln, Ely, nion with the Church, he is, according to our Lord's and Peterborough, were opposed to immediate the Thirty-third of the Articles of Religion, " to be action. In the session, beginning June 26th, the taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as a discussion of the case was resumed. The Bishop heathen man and publican.” (Matt. xviii. 17, 18.) of Oxford moved to reply, in answer to the
Given under our hand and seal this 16th day of first question submitted to the convocation, December, in the year of our Lord 1865.
that the Church did not hold communion with
Dr. Colenso, and that it did hold communion The Metropolitan of Capetown notified the with the orthodox bishops of South Africa. A Anglican bishops of Great Britain, the British majority of the bishops were, however, opposed colonies, and the United States of this step. In to committing themselves on the first part of the England some of the bishops disapproved of resolution, and by five against four votes adoptthe measure, while, as far as is known, those ed an amendment, declaring that they held of the British colonies and the United States communion with the Bishop of Capetown, and were unanimous in sanctioning it. From the those bishops who with him declared Dr. Colensenior bishop of the Protestant Episcopal so to be ipso facto excommunicated. The lower Church in the United States the following re house gave to this amendment a unanimous ply was received:
consent. In reply to the second question, the BURLINGTON, Vr., May 4, 1966. Bishop of Oxford moved the following declaraTo the Most Reverend Robert Gray, D. D., Lord tion : "That as it has been decided, on appeal Bishop of Capetown, and Metropolitan : My Dear LORD Bishop: Your official statement of
to the highest judicial court in this kingdom, on the greater excommunication formally pronounced by the one liand, that the Church in the province Fou on John William Colenso, D. D., late Bishop of of Natal, in communion with the United Church Natal, and addressed to me as the senior bishop of of England and Ireland, is in the eye of the law the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States,
a mere voluntary association; and, on the other has been received and placed on record.
On my own part, this painful and amicting work hand, as the letters-patent do not profess to of discipline is perfectly approved, as an act of solemn confer spiritual power, and have been declared and imperative duty to the Church of God, and to by the court to convey no episcopal jurisdic.
tion, it is the judgment of this house that the assent, if they so will.” The Bishop of Grahams acceptance of a new bishop does not impair the town wrote to express his general concurconnection or alter the relations existing be- rence in the views as to the election of a bishop tween the members of the Church in the prov. contained in the metropolitan's letter to the ince of Natal and the Church of England, dean.” The discussions extended over two provided : 1. That the bishop be canonically days. The final result was that the clergy consecrated according to the use of the Church present were evenly divided, seven voting for of England. 2. That there be no invasion of the election of the Rev. William Butler, Vicar the title of the Bishop of Natal conveyed by her of Wantage (of the diocese of Oxford), as bishop, majesty's letters-patent."
and seven voting against such election, holding As regards the third question (the proper such a course to be illegal, and opposed to the measures to be taken to secure the election of advice of the convocation. Dean Green gave his a new bishop), the Bishop of Oxford proposed casting vote in favor of the election. Twentythat the House of Bishops should recommend: 1. eight laymen also voted for it. The
dean then That an instrument should be prepared declara- pronounced that the Rev. William Butler had tory of the doctrine and discipline of the Church been duly elected. The congregation of St. of South Africa, which every priest and deacon John's Church, Pinetown, held a meeting, repuappointed to any office should be required to diated this election, ejected their incumbent, the subscribe. 2. That a godly and well-learned Rev. James Walton, for the part he had taken man should be chosen, with the consent of the in it, and then called upon Dr. Colenso to apcommunicants of the Church, to be the bishop. point a new minister. On October 30th, a meet3. That the person so selected should be pre- ing of the supporters of Dr. Colenso was also sented for consecration either to the Archbishop held at the cathedral, to protest against the elecof Canterbury or to the bishops of the Church tion, at which about 200 persons were present. in South Africa, as might be hereafter deemed A protest, the adoption of which was moved by most advisable. The Bishops of London, St. the Colonial Secretary, and seconded by the Davids, and others declared themselves opposed Secretary for Native Affairs, was unanimously to the appointment of a new bishop, but after agreed to. The protest declared that the clergy being submitted to some verbal alterations, the and laity concerned in the election had, by that first resolution of the Bishop of Oxford was act of legislation, renounced the queen's supremcarried by six to four. The second resolution acy, and forfeited their membership of the was also agreed to. The lower house assented Church of England. Dr. Colenso, on bis part, to both resolutions. Notwithstanding these contended that all persons taking part in convenproceedings against him, Colenso continued to ticles or private meetings to consult on any perform his episcopal functions in his diocese. matter or course impeaching the doctrine of Of the seventeen clergymen of the diocese, only the Church of England or of the Book of Comone sided with him; but, on the other hand, mon Prayer, or of any part of the government or the secular authorities of the colony gave him discipline now established in the Church of all the support that was in their power. Colenso England, were ipso facto excommunicated, in also obtained, in October, a decision in his terms of the 75th canon of the Church, and favor by the Master of the Rolls (Lord Romilly), that Dean Green and his supporters were who decided that the trustees of the Colonial therefore excommunicated by their own act Bishopric's Fund were obliged to pay to Dr. Co- in electing a bishop without her majesty's lenso the arrears of his salary which they had authority. The English Government instructed deemed themselves authorized to cut off. But the officers of the crown in the colony to obabout the same time when this decision was serve a strict neutrality in the controversy. rendered, the majority of the clergy and laity Another controversy in the Church of Engof Natal took the last step for a complete sev- land, which, during the past year, obtained a erance of their ecclesiastical connection with great importance, was that of the ritualistic Colenso. On October 25th a meeting was held changes in the worship of the Church. A numof the clergy of the diocese of Natal, to con- ber of clergymen had for some time past introsider the replies sent out by the English con- duced into their churches practices for which vocation to the queries forwarded through the they claimed both the authority of the Anglican metropolitan, in 1865, from the Church in Natal, Church of former centuries and of the ancient and, in accordance with the advice tendered, Christian Church, but which by another party to elect a bishop for the vacant see. Fourteen were viewed as a deviation from law and clergymen and about fifty communicants were long-established usage, and as disturbing the present. The two clerical supporters of Colenso peace and impairing the efficiency of the were present, but not allowed to vote. A letter Church, and as disquieting the minds of many was read from the Bishop of Capetown, urging devout members of the Anglican communion." them to elect a new bishop, and, as regards the Some of the opponents of “ritualism” were mode of election, giving this advice: “The of opinion that the Book of Common Prayer, clergy elect; communicants assent. They alone in its present form, gave some encouragement have to do with the matter. All communicants to the ritualists, and they desired the appointhave a right, I apprehend, according to the cus- ment of a coinmission by the Government for toms of the primitive Church, to express their the revision of the Liturgy," To this scheme
the Archbishop of Canterbury declared his de- were actively pursued. The socicties chiefly termined opposition, and Earl Russell (in reply instrumental in pursuing these efforts on the to Lord Ebury, February 12th) stated that the part of the Anglican churches are the “English Government, “anxious to promote peace and Church Union," the “ Association for the Progood-will
, and not to open the way to discord,” motion of the Unity of Christendom," and the had, after communicating with the Archbishop "Eastern Church Association." The latter of Canterbury, declined to propose the form- confined its efforts to the Eastern Churches, ing of a commission. The friends of "church while the two former have a more general terornaments " had accordingly (February 3d) pre- dency, and in particular keep in view the estabsented a memorial to the Archbishop of Can- lishment of closer relations with the Roman terbury, signed by 36,008 communicants, of Catholic Church. An interesting correspondwhom 24,133 were laymen, and 2,970 clergy of ence between a number of Anglican clergythe Church of England, against any alterations men and Cardinal Patrizi took place in the latbeing made in the Book of Common Prayer ter months of the year 1865, but was only made respecting the “ornaments of the Church, and public in 1866. The letter of the Anglican of the ministers thereof;"! and the mode and clergymen (written in Latin) was signed by 198 manner of performing divine service “accord deans, canons, parish priests, and other ing to the use of the Church of England.” priests,” and addressed to the Most Eminent
The archbishop, in his reply, while repeating and Reverend Father in Christ, the Lord Carhis declaration that he would never consent to dinal Patrizi." As regards the relation of the any alteration in any part of the Book of Com- Anglican Church to that of Rome, the writers mon Prayer without the full concurrence of say: “Whatever may have been less perfect in convocation, at the same time declared his de- the faith of the flock, in Divine worship and in cided opposition to many of the ritualistic in- ecclesiastical discipline, we have improved benovations. The lower house of convocation, yond our hope ; and, not to be forgetful of at its session in February, after a long and other things, we have shown an amount of animated discussion, agreed to the following good-will toward the venerable Church of resolution : "That this house, recognizing the Rome, which has rendered us suspected in the evils which may arise from an excess of ritual- eyes of some.” The cardinal, in his reply, which ism, deprecates, nevertheless, any attempt to is dated November 8, 1865, salutes the writers avert those possible evils by the introduction as “Worthy and Very Dear Sirs," and he asof changes in the prayer book; that in coming sures them that their letter has inspired the to these resolutions the house by no means in “sacred congregation with a most pleasing tends to express approval of any alteration from hope." But he declines to admit their claims church order not included in the expression to the name “Catholic,” and describes their excess of ritualism.' That this resolution (the condition as an "inherited state of separation." first paragraph) be communicated to their lord. He concludes with the hope that they will “no ships of the upper house, with a humble re. longer hesitate to throw themselves into the quest that they take the subject into their con bosom of that Church which, from the Apossideration, and adopt such measures as they tolic See through the succession of its bishops, shall see fit, in conjunetion with the house, for while heretics have barked in vain, has attained clearing the doubts and allaying the anxiety the pinnacle.” The views of Dr. Pusey, conthat exists upon it.” The bishops, in return, cerning a union between the Churches of Eng. desired the lower house to appoint a committee land and Rome (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for of inquiry. The report of this committee was 1865, p. 26), were supported by the “ English made by its chairman, Dr. Goodwin, Dean of Church Union," of which society Dr. Pusey has Ely, in July. The report gives a history of the become a member. At a discussion on the ritualistic usages which the party tries to in- subject, Dr. Pusey stated that as the basis of troduce, and deprecates any attempt at a judi- such a union he proposed “the decrees of the cial settlement of the question of ritualism, Council of Trent and the Thirty-nine Articles, urging moderation on both sides. The report both documents being properly explained.” As of the committee was adopted by a vote of 38 regards the movements for a closer intercomto 9.
munion between the Eastern and the Anglican The monastery of the "English Order of St. Churches, the Convocation of Canterbury was Benedict," at Norwich, was dissolved in conse- requested by the Russo-Greek committee of quence of the long absence of its founder, the the lower house, for an enlargement of their Rev. Mr. Lyne ("Father Ignatius "), and from powers. They were appointed originally " to want of support. Mr. Lyne, toward the close communicate with the committee appointed of the year, received an appointment as a at the general convention of the Protestant curate in the diocese of London. A monastery Episcopal Church in the United States as to inof the “Third Order of St. Benedict” was still tercommunion with the Russo-Greek Church, in existence at the close of the year, at Bristol. and to communicate the result to convocation."
The efforts for bringing on a closer union They now requested permission to consider the between the Anglican churches on the one question of "intercommunion with the Oriental hand, and other religious denominations pos- churches generally;” and the request was sessed of an apostolical succession on the other, granted. The “Eastern Church Assnciation"