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veritable storehouse of Johnsonian lore, and then longed to the Company of Jesus. He writes with because it conforms to the best standards of ex- intimate knowledge of the Mission affairs, and haustive and scholarly research.

with great insight and admiration and

siderable charm of the character of Samuel Journal of the Travels of Father Samuel Fritz. Fritz.

Translated from the Evora MS. and edited by Fritz was by birth a Bohemian. As a youth the Rev. Dr. George Edmundson. (The Hakluyt his brilliance 'in study aroused the greatest Society.)

hopes of him. At the age of 32-having been a ON a July day of the year 1692 there entered Jesuit for some thirteen years—he was sent to the city of Lima a tall, spare, ruddy man, with Quito, and thence after a short time, alone, to a curly beard. He wore a short cassock of palm preach the Gospel in a vast tract of country fibre reaching to the middle of his leg, and hempen which no missionary had yet entered. He died shoes ; in his hand he carried a cross. The people in the spring of 1724, within a few weeks of comof Lima flocked to gaze upon him with astonish- pleting his 70th year, still labouring as a missionment, thinking they saw St. Pachomius come ary though he had seen the greater part of his from the Thebaid to visit them, so venerable work destroyed by the Portuguese in their atwas his aspect. This remarkable person was tempts to establish themselves on the Upper Father Samuel Fritz, a member of the Company | Amazon. of Jesus, who, at that date, had spent some six Dr. Edmundson summarizes and explains the years on the Amazon, principally in going up and contents of the MS. in his Introduction and supplies down among the islands in the upper reaches of a good deal of illustrative matter in the appenthe river between the mouths of the Napo and the dixes. We are given an excellent reproduction Putumayo, teaching the Christian religion to of the map as published in 1707. The translaOmaguas, Jurimaguas and other Indian tribes ; tion runs easily, and apart from its value to the but having been also constrained by a grievous historian and the geographer this volume, both sickness to make his way down to the Portuguese from its manner and its matter, should attract city of Parà at the river's mouth and journey also those who read chiefly for imaginative back again. The courage and endurance of pleasure. Father Samuel, his force of character, which caused the Indians to believe him to be divine, The Oxford University Press, 1468-1921. (Oxford, his endless compassion towards his people in their

Clarendon Press. 58. net.) numerous afflictions, and his statesmanlike grasp This beautifully printed and illustrated book of the conditions of the country make him a truly should certainly find a place on the shelves of apostolic figure ; but he was even more than one a lover of Oxford. There is a strong touch of of the best of missionaries. He had the eye and réclame about it: but, for once, this admission hand of a master craftsman, a markedly scientific need not be derogatory, for both in its history turn of mind, and such alertness of intellect that and in its services the Oxford Press possesses in the midst of hard toil and bodily suffering the right to speak well of itself. The first book he could make careful observations of the then printed at Oxford bears the date MCCCCLXVIII., little-known and scarcely surveyed country which but this is agreed to be an error, and it is supposed he traversed. His most important work is his that an has dropped out from the true figure, map founded upon the observations, reckonings which should be 1478. The book is a comand inquiries of his journey down the Amazon mentary on the Apostles' Creed attributed to St. and up again ; but his Journals contain a great Jerome. For sixty years or so in the sixteenth number of interesting particulars of the super-century the history of the Oxford Press is blank. stitions and customs of the Indians, of the Then Leicester revived it; followed in time by treatment of the Indians by the Portuguese, and Laud, Fell, and Clarendon. It is needless to of the methods and progress of trading and remind lovers of books of the beauty and interest other intercourse both between different tribes of the Fell types, of which specimens are given and between the tribes and white men.

The here.

There also excellent reproductions Indians of the Amazon, as he depicts them, are of early title pages, wood-cuts, oriental types, simple and ingenious people having considerable headpieces and initials, and imprints with, to ability in handicrafts, and easily amenable to conclude, a very curious cut of a supposed suggestion. Portuguese exploitation of them ford ” with Osney in the distance, taken from makes one of the most shameful of the tales of Hearne's edition of Roper's Life of More old oppressions. Forbidden directly to make (1716). The historical sketch is followed by the Indians slaves, the settlers compelled them sections--full of good detail-on the Press to go to war with one another, then ransomed it is to-day, both in England and abroad, and on the captives from the victor.

Oxford books. Father Samuel's map had been published in a reduced form in 1707. His Journal had long been lost, and its discovery in 1903 is due to the per

CORRIGENDA. sistence and acumen of Dr. Edmundson. He * AN EARLY ROYAL CHARTER':-At ante, p. 242, found it in a codex in the Biblioteca Publica at col. 1, line 19, for “ castum” read castrum ; ibid.. Evora a document entitled Mission de los last line, for “suggestion” read conjecture; p. 243. Omaguas, Jurimaguas, &c.' This turned out to last line but two of the article, for “ Somerset be a history of the life and labours of Samuel read Wilts. On pp. 242-3, omit Testa de Nevil. Fritz, incorporating long passages from Fritz's Precise reference mislaid. Journals-and, in particular, the Journal of the At ante, p. 228, col. 1, last line, for“ 1864"res descent of the Amazon. The writer never reveals 1684; col. 2, line 3, for “ Byland's” read Ryland his name; but there can be no doubt that he be- | ibid., line 27, for “Holbeache" read Holbeech.




It was


in Sussex, upon an appointed fixed day, where LONDON, APRIL 15, 1922.

they were promised to be received and supported by five hundred foot at the first landing and two thousand horse within one day after.

likewise determined by this cabinet council that CONTENTS.-No. 209.

Sir Richard himself should contrive and manage

these letters of invitation, in which the matter NOTES :-Sir Samuel Morland and Cromwell, 281– Gloucester

was to be urged to his Majesty as the most hope. Journal.' 1722-1922, 283-Whitefoord of that Ilk or of ful, if not certain, plot for his Restoration ; though, Miltoun. 285~Judge Jeffreys and Shakespeare: Lady Ivy

at the same tin the real design and resolution Early Fire-engines-Racing Stable Terms, 286—Method of Signalling, 287.

was to shoot all the three brothers dead at their

first landing. QUERIES :- Carlings, 287—Byron Query--The Cloptons of

The whole matter, being thus formed by this Suffolk --William Prodhome-" Old Nick"-John Hoppner's triumvirate in Thurloe's own office, was Grave Sprusen's Island-Temple Fortune, 288--Murders in expectedly overheard by Mr. Samuel Morland, Italy -- Franklin-- Peter Simple': Naval Slang-Loftus— the present under-secretary to Thurloe, who all James Atkinson, M.D., 289—Robert Burdett-Peter Ducasse the while counterfeited himself to be fast asleep --Buriai Wine--McWhea--The Width of CheapsideStevenson's Virginibus Puerisque' -Lance Calkin Captain upon a desk, not far off in that office. Skinner, 290.

Eachard goes on to add that Morland's

French wife (Suzanne de Boissay) had REPLIES -General Nicholson's Birthplace. 290—Mothering sunday -“ Once aboard the lugger." 292—The “ Hand and brought over her husband to Charles II.'s Pu"--" Southam Cyder," 293— The Stepney Manor Lord interest, and that Morland at once repaired strip - The Montfort Families--Sermon at Paul's Cross, 294– The "Woe Waters" of Wharram---General Cyrus Trapand to the Tower, in order to see Major Thomas The “Chalybeate" Brighton-Pilate's Wife-Bretel -Sir Henshaw, imprisoned there ; and, finally, Thomas Phillipps, 295-Oldmixon-' La Santa Parentela '

adds the incredible tale that Desenlants of Richard Penderell-The Rev. George Sackville Chatter-Watts Phillips, Dramatist, Novelist and Artist,

Mr. Morland being in a publick station and 206 - The Countess Guiccioli's' Recollections of Lord Byron altogether unsuspected to the Keepers of the -- Rhyme History of England-Henry Ellis Boates---Henry Tower, and likewise pretending to perform some Purname (Furnese), 297--Story by E. A. Poe wanted service for his master, Cromwell, found an easy Authors wanted, 298.

opportunity for Mr. Henshaw, in company with XOTES ON BOOKS:- The Problem of Style - Place. the warder himself (of all things in the world) to Dames of the Orange Free State - Acts of the Privy Council go over and give the King such an account of of Englant' (1613-1614)-- Bacon and Shakespeare.'

the matter, as might secure him from future

danger. And, to defray their expenses, he gave Polices to Correspondents.

each of them a hundred broad pieces of gold. All this was managed with the utmost privacy by Henshaw, without the least suspicion by the warder, and at such a nice juncture of time, that

the King and his brothers had a very narrow Aotes.


Of course this tale reduces all to utter SIR SAMUEL MORLAND AND

nonsense, and it only remains to add that CROMWELL.

Eachard also sets out a letter, purporting I THINK it will be as well to complete to be by Samuel Morland, retracting all the story of the Westenhanger plot against his charges against Sir Richard Willys. Charles II. by explaining a muddled account This letter was obviously a forgery. What even by the eighteenth-century historian can be said of the eighteenth-century Farhard. Eachard's version has misled historians who printed such contradictory yny writers and has had the effect of dis- stories as this ? mediting what, after all, is a very simple

Fortunately, there are two other writers birrative. Eachard says:

who clear the matter up. There is an ('pornwell was not unacquainted with the account of this incident in the ‘Memoirs' *m and inotion of the King and his friends and of Dr. James Welwood (ed. 1700, pp. md means to counterplot them in all their Dufets, and, from the time that the three Royal 110-111), physician to William III., who

****** had settled themselves at Bruges, he knew Morland. The passage is equally well tuleted upon darker designs than ever.

known, but I will repeat it before giving Particularly with the joint conspiracy of his an explanation of it by Welwood, which friend Secretary Thurloe and Sir Richard has not hitherto been known. In his * was formed an execrable contrivance that blow should ruin and in a manner extirpate

Memoirs 'Welwood says :W Royal family. This was to send over proper At another time, the protector coming late at

were to Flanders with plausible letters, night to Thurloe's office and beginning to give *.te his Majesty to come over in a single him directions about something of great im*** with only the Dukes of York and Gloucester, portance and secrecy, he took notice that Mr. Suthers, and a very few more, to a certain port Morland, one of the clerks, afterwards Sir Samuel

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" That

Morland, was in the room, which he had not incident described in the two passages I observed before and, fearing he might have have

quoted from

his Memoirs, overheard their discourse, though he pretended

follows: to be asleep upon his desk, he drew a ponyard, which he always carried under his coat, and There was a gentleman employed by Cromwell was going to despatch Morland upon the spot ; as a spy about the King, who had the wit and if Thurloe had not, with great entreaties, pre- dexterity to get into his most secret transactions vailed with him to desist, assuring him that and (as he was wont afterwards to say himself) Morland had sat up two nights together and was into his very heart. In this unsuspected and unnow certainly asleep.

limited intimacy did he continue some years There was not the smallest accident that befell about the King; and might have done it longer, King Charles the Second in his exile, but he knew if an unexpected accident joined to a piece of it perfectly well; insomuch that having given inadvertency in Cromwell had not occasioned leave to an English nobleman to travel, upon the period of his intrigue and life together. condition he should not see Charles Stuart, he which was thus. asked him at his return, if he had punctually The late Duke of Richmond, having for a con. obeyed his commands. Which the other affirming siderable time preserved himself in the good that he had, Cromwell replied : " It's true you opinion of the protector, begg'd leave at length did not see him ; for, to keep your word with me, to make a step over sea, for his health and you agreed to meet in the dark, the candles being diversion, as he pretended. Cromwell agreed put out to that end." And, withall, told him all to his request, but with this condition, the particulars that passed in conversation be- he should not see his cousin, Charles Stuart, twixt the King and him at their meeting.

as he was pleased to call the King. The Duke On the face of it, it would not seem that coming to Brussels, and being resolved to wait these two paragraphs relate to one and the upon his Prince, and withall, to save his credit same matter, yet we have another account manner several times to the King, in the dark.

with Cromwell, was introduced in the most secret from Welwood which clears up the whole At his return Cromwell pretended to ask the story and proves that they did.

Duke, only in jest, if he had been with Charles No writer has hitherto drawn attention Stuart. Who, answering him, that he had to the fact that James Welwood, M.D.,

never seen him, the other replied, in a passion,

“ It was no wonder, for the candles were put out.' physician to William III., and, of course, This unexpected answer put the Duke of Rich: a pronounced Whig, was also a journalist, mond to write to the King that he must needs and therefore I must give the proofs of this be betrayed by some in the greatest intimacy fact. On May 15, 1689, the first number about him; and, at last, the traytor was acciof Mercurius Reformatus ; or, The New 06- dentally discovered in the very moment he was servator, was

writing to Cromwell an account of the Duke of issued. There


Richmond's letter to the King, and was thereupon volumes of this periodical published by shot to death upon the place. Dorman Newman, and the last, the fifth

Thus for the first part of Welwood's volume, was published in 1691 by Richard story, and before continuing it I should Baldwin, and contained an Appendix

draw attention to the corroboration given (see · The Times Tercentenary Handlist of by the regicide Ludlow in his “Memoirs' English and Welsh Newspapers '). There

(ed. 1894, ii., pp. 41-42). Ludlow does are the following references to this perio: not give the name of the nobleman in dical in the Journals of the House of question, but states that the spy was ManCommons under the dates cited :9 Nov., 1691.

ning, who was shot by permission of the Mercurius Reformatus com- Duke of Neuberg. This event happened plained of and Baldwin the printer and the

in 1655, four years beforethe Westenhanger author sent for. The complaint was that the periodical reflected

on the proceedings of the incident. House, in breach of the privileges thereof."

Welwood goes on to complete his story 21 Nov., 1691. Baldwin appeared, confessed that Dr. Welwood was the author and was repri- and yet I know not but the reader may forgive me

It's more than time to shut up this subject, manded and discharged.

27 Nov., 1691. Petition of James Welwood to mention further, a remarkable passage that read.

hapn'd upon this reply of Cromwell's to the Duhe 30 Nov., 1691. Dr. Welwood reprimanded of Richmond; which as it was never yet comand discharged.

mitted to print, for anything I know, so it carries

with it one of the truest ideas we can ever attain The actual matter of complaint does not of that great man's character. Scarce was the appear, and the point to which I wish to discourse I mentioned betwixt Cromwell and the draw attention is that the Appendix Duke of Richmond ended, but the first found he to vol. v. is stated to be “By the same had made a dangerous mistake, in letting the author,” and was published in 1692. It,

Duke know how much he was acquainted with therefore, was the work of Welwood, and spy to the narrowest enquiry could be made upon

King Charles's secrets, and thereby exposing his on pp. 3 and 4 he therein amplifies the it. The fear of this, obliged him to go strait to


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Secretary Thurlo's chamber, tho' then very late ; designation. At a proper time of life he was where, with the greatest concern of mind, he told initiated into the employment of his father, which him what a wrong step he had made, in his was not limited to the business of a journalist, discourse with Richmond, and how much he but extended itself to other branches of typofeared the person he employed as his spy about the graphy : and, though I will not compliment my King (naming him at the same time) might run hero by comparing his literary attainments with the hazard of being discovered through so un- those of a Bowyer or a Franklin, yet I can venture lucky a piece of inadvertence. When Cromwell to pronounce, that he entered on his line of busifirst came in, he had both enquired and was told ness with acquirements superior to the nature of by Thurlo, there was nobody but them two in bis employment; which, however, has always the room. But while Cromwell was walking up been considered, when conducted by men of and down in the chamber, in the restlessness science and education, as very respectable ; and of mind this affair had put him in, he espies one of in which he is not less remarkable for his accuracy, Thurlo's clerks sitting in a sleeping posture at a than he is for his fidelity and integrity in every writing desk in a little closet off the end of the part of his conduct. room; who, indeed, Thurlo had forgot was there. Cromwell , fearing this young man might have

In August, 1758, the offices had been re. heard what had passed betwixt him and Thurlo moved to Southgate Street, where the paper and thereby have come to know the name of his was published until 1802. In 1762 (April spy in Brussels

, instantly pulls out a dagger 12) the publishing day was changed from doublet)

with a design to kill him dead on the for over sixty years. By 1763 the type(which he wore, for the most part, under his Tuesday to Monday, which was continued spot, had not Thurlo, with great importunity, dissuaded him from it, by assuring him it was measure had been increased to 15} by 10, next to an impossibility that the young man could and on April 4 the page was divided into hear what he had spoke, by reason of the lowness four columns instead of three, a change of his voice and, withall

, that having sat up late announced by the editor in verse, which some four days before, all of them together, without rest, it was to be supposed he was then begins : fast asleep all the time of their discourse. Thus It is agreed—the question's o'er, did that person escape and lives in England to From columns three, I'm changed to four. this day, who confesses he heard all that passed betwixt Cromwell and Thurlo at that time, but

At this time the revenue derived from the used that artifice to deceive so jealous a master advertisements and sale of “quack and save his own life.

medicines must have been considerable, and Sir Samuel Morland died in London in supplements were issued entitled 1695, so that it is fairly evident that Wel. CATALOGUE of MEDICINES SOLD, Wholesale and wood was very much better informed than Retail, At the Printing-Office in Glocester, with Eachard, who was a country clergyman authentic Certificates of the great Cures by them and did not publish the volume in question

performed. of his history until 1718.

This contains cures for many ills, among J. G. M.

which are “ The so-much-famed Hypo

Drops, For Lowness of Spirits.” Other “GLOUCESTER JOURNAL,' 1722-1922.

supplements were frequently printed giving

dispatches from the London Gazette, and in (See 12 S. x. 261.)

1773 there was a series entitled 'The SHORTLY before the death of Robert Raikes Miscellany'- "given gratis occasionally the elder, his son had assumed the manage

-in which Raikes's enterprise is shown by ment, as his name is appended to a notice reports of performances at Covent Garden and July 4, 1757) intimating a change in price Drury Lane theatres. Important debates in from 24. to 21d., in consequence of an in. Parliament on such matters as the Thirtycrease in the duties on papers and advertise nine Articles (two issues were devoted to

this), extracts from political pamphlets, The first exact knowledge we have of the articles on “ The means of procuring Plenty earlier days of Robert Raikes the younger of Provisions ”-in which it is interesting is the entry in the school register of the to see that small holdings were advocated King's School

(the Cathedral School), -- and other subjects of public moment Gloucester, where he is described under the were discussed. year 1750, old style (i.e., 1751) as

The editorship of Robert Raikes is dis. Robertus Raikes Annorum 144 Feb : 16.

tinguished by his efforts to introduce Dom : Roberti Raikes de Civitate Glouc: ffilius. better conditions in the life of those less

Dr. Glasse (Gentleman's Magazine, 1788, fortunately placed. In 1761 he supported Ivi., Pt. 1., p. 12) says that

an appeal made for marriage portions for The education which this excellent man re- girls of good character, in 1768 he took ceived was liberal, and well adapted to his future up the cause of the prisoners in Gloucester

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Gaol, and in 1783 began his campaign for cost of paper, as well as in the materials the promotion of Sunday schools in the of printing,” to increase the price of the country. Attention was attracted to each Journal (June 12) from 6d. to 6d. David of these by means of his notices in the Walker soon began to improve the appear. Gloucester Journal and the influence which ance of the paper, and on Dec. 31, 1810, gave thus resulted.

notice that the following week's paper In 1776 (July 8), the price of the paper would be printed “with beautiful New Types, was raised to 3d., in 1789 (Aug. 3) to from the celebrated Foundery of Messrs. 3fd. For the first time for more than 60 Wilson of Glasgow," and the issue of Jan. years the price was again printed, appearing 7, 1811, was also embellished with a new after the imprint on the back page. In heading, the first real change since 1754. 1793 (April 15) the number of columns At this date the paper was made up of was increased from four to five and the 12 columns of advertisements and 7 of type-measure of the page to 18% by 13, general news. On Jan. 30, 1814, the price and in consequence the editor raised the was printed for the first time in Arabic price (April 22) to 4d. and this was printed figures instead of in words. The year of on the date-line below the title for the first Waterloo saw the climax in the price of the time. In 1797 the Stamp Duty was again paper, for on Sept. 4, 1815, it was raised increased and the harassed editor was to 7d., which continued for twenty-one years. obliged to charge (July 10) 6d. On April In 1816 David Walker took into partner. 12, 1802, Raikes, being then 67, issued his ship his two sons, Alexander and David farewell notice to his customers in the form Mowbray Walker, the latter of whom was of an address, where, curiously enough, he destined to do much for the reputation of speaks of the paper having been established the Journal. in 1721. The first paragraph, as an example The fourth, and last, change in the day of the expression of the time, is worth of issue took place in 1826, and on July 1 printing :

the paper was issued on Saturday. David THE Property of the GLOUCESTER JOURNAL Walker died Feb. 15, 1831, aged 71, his sons being immediately to be transferred to another succeeding him as owners. Person, R. RAIKES, with the deepest Sense of grateful Respect, begs Leave to make his Acknow

In 1835 (April 11), the next chief enlargeledgements for the distinguished Favour by which, ment of the Journal took place, the columns from its commencement, in One Thousand Seven being increased to six and the type-measure Hundred and Twenty-One, it has been uniformly to 24in. by 181, which was necessitated honoured. The candid Interpretation of his Conduct which he has all Occasions ex- owing to the success of the paper, and, in perienced, must ever inspire Feelings of peculiar the editor's words, “to that thirst for inObligation ; can he cease to cherish the formation which seems now to be daily flattering Remembrance of the Support he owes increasing." Early in the year may be to Characters of the first Consideration, no less noticed a new development in expressions than to the Community in general. It is said that Raikes received an annuity and the short comments which were at

of editorial opinion on political affairs, of £500 on the joint lives of himself and his

first printed quickly grew into our recognized wife (d. 1828), the value of the business

· leaders." being placed at £1,500 a year. The annuity is also said to have been £300. Raikes

The first reduction in price made for over died suddenly on April 5, 1811, leaving 114 years was announced on Sept. 10, 1836, two sons, neither of whom had entered the the next week's issue being 5d. instead of 70. business. With his retirement the first The senior partner, Alexander Walker period of ownership of 80 years terminated. died May 26, 1838, and his brother, Davis Part II. THE WALKER FAMILY (1802-1871). At this time the circulation of the Journa

Mowbray Walker, became sole proprietor The Gloucester Journal was sold to David was stated to be an average of just ove Walker, who had for many years printed 2,000 a week. In 1845 (Oct. 4), the papt the Hereford Journal, and his name appears was printed on a sheet measuring for the first time on the issue of April 19, by 214, with seven columns to the page 1802. Shortly after the office was removed an awkward size. The repeal of the Stan to Westgate Street, and for over 90 years Act in 1855 enabled the copies not sent i the paper was published from that address. post to be sold at 4d., and in 1861 (Oct. 19% In 1809 the new owner was obliged, in con- this was reduced to 3d. In 1870 stamp. sequence of “a prodigious increase in the copies were charged 31d. On Oct.



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