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command thee shall be in thy heart, and thou shalt teach them diligently to thy children." Now you know, your Reverence, the clargy have no children, for the Church forbids to marry; they must be for us so, and not for the clargy.'

"I'll make you sorry for your conduct, Paddy,' said the priest, shaking his whip: he then rode off in high dudgeon."

We earnestly recommend this little book to the perusal of our readers. Russia and its People. BY COUNT A. DE GUROWSKI. T. Nelson and Sons, London, Edinburgh, and New York. 1854. WEARIED with the endless swarms of ephemeral books and pamphlets-historical, prophetical, didactic, and descriptive-on Russia and the Czar, Turkey and the Sultan, "showing their colours" in every variety of artistic drapery, it is refreshing to meet with a work of such excellence as the one before us. It is no mere catchpenny," but a book that will stand a good many "stock-takings," and secure for itself a permanent place in respectable libraries. The Count has evidently not required to "read up" for the preparation of his book, for he seems to possess a thorough acquaintance with the inner and outer life of Russia, from the Czar to the serf. Her external condition is exhibited in a series of chapters on-Czarism, its historical origin-the Czar Nicholas-the organization of the Government-the army and navy-the nobilitythe gentry-the clergy-the Bourgeoisethe Cossacks-the real people, &c., &c. The writer considers that despotism and Czar

ism have reached their height, and are rapidly approaching their doom :

"The social upheaving will come from below. The real people will rise, stirred up, awakened by the consciousness of their imprescriptible rights. They will act for themselves. The revolution will be at once social, and not merely political. There will be no class to turn the common efforts to its own especial benefit, and there will not appear those locust-like swarms of old respectabilities, political speculators, that curse of European revolutions. The people, the mass, will find and give its sacramental word; it will find the solution for all emergencies. In Russia, neither the people, nor any class now above it, are entangled in, or encumbered with, any social or political formulas. This is one of the barriers for the future, derived from the destroying despotism. now all-crushing, all-levelling, all-stifling, and This social commotion will crush to atoms the artificial structure now pressing upon the people; despotism, privilege, Czar, and nobility, will be overrun by the same destructive lava; and with them will disappear their accessories. Nothing will be done by halves, that mode being repulsive to the national character, and nowhere known in the history of Russia."

Although we do not subscribe to the author's extreme democratic views, nor to some of his opinions on the destiny of Russia (which include the ultimate annexation of Turkey), yet we have no hesitation in pronouncing this work by far the best we have seen on the subject. It is elegantly got up, and embellished with beautifullycoloured views of Moscow and St. Petersburgh.

Presbyterian Church in England.


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London Works, Birmingham,
August 20, 1854.

Presbyteries' Proceedings.


THIS Presbytery met at Liverpool on the 5th of July. The Rev. D. Blelloch being next in rotation, was appointed Moderator for the next six months.

Mr. James Middlemas, and Mr. George Johnstone, Probationers of the Free Church of Scotland, labouring at present within the bounds, laid on the table their Certificates of License.

A letter was read from the Rev. Jos. Sloan, of Chester, tendering the resignation of his charge. The Presbytery resolved to take the usual steps.

Mr. Lundie then laid on the table a printed copy of the Trust Deed of Birkenhead Church, a considerable portion of which having been read, and after remarks made thereon, two Motions were submitted, one to refer the Deed to a Committee to consider; the other, to pass it at once as satisfactory. The latter carried. Whereupon, Mr. Forster dissented and protested leave to complain to the Synod, chiefly on the ground that the deed contained a clause or clauses which had not received the sanction of the Synod.

The Presbytery adjourned to meet at Manchester on the 6th of September, at eleven, A.M.


THIS Presbytery met at 51, Great Ormondstreet, London, on Tuesday, 8th of August, 1854; the Rev. G. J. C. Duncan, of Greenwich, Moderator. The Rev. James Smith, late of Greenock, was associated.

It was reported, that owing to the serious illness of Mr. Richard Smyth, the Ordination at Hampstead had been postponed for the present. The Presbytery resolved to record their sympathy with Mr. Smyth in his present trying circumstances, and their earnest hope and prayer that his health

may speedily be so established as to permit his settlement in a congregation from which he has received such a cordial call.

Mr. Alexander reported, that owing to the threatened opening of the Crystal Palace and grounds to the shareholders on the Sabbath being for the present abandoned, he had not thought it needful to call together the Committee appointed at last Presbytery. The Presbytery approved of the conduct of the Convener, and the Committee was discharged.

It was reported that a majority of the Presbytery of Kelso had agreed to loose Mr. Wright from his charge at Morebattle; but that owing to a protest and appeal to the Synod, no further action could be taken at present. Mr. Davison, student, delivered the remainder of his trials, and, after examination, was licensed to preach the Gospel within the bounds. The Presbytery adjourned to meet again on Tuesday, September 12, at three o'clock.


HARBOTTLE. The day set apart for laying the foundation-stone of the new church here was the 16th of August-a day looked forward to with great interest by the congregation. The services were introduced by a regular diet of worship, which the Rev. M. Walker, Moderator of the Presbytery of Northumberland, conducted, preaching an excellent and impressive sermon from Psalm xlviii. 12, 13. Mr. Cathcart followed him, and gave an historical account of this church, and stated that

the old records bore testimony to the fact that

there was a minister there before 1736, and that he was the ninth who had laboured as stated pastors over the congregation, and detailed their names with other recorded particulars. He also gave an encouraging account of the present struggle of the people to rebuild this falling and uncomfortable fabric, which was to be taken down immediately, and in which this was to be the last service. He was happy way both edified and encouraged his succeeded by Mr. Lennie, who in his own audience. The members of Presbytery and congregation then retired to the place made ready for the interesting ceremony for which they had met. The minister of the church read two verses of the 127th Psalm, which were sung; also the 3d chapter of Ezra, and then offered up prayer to Almighty God that and that He would make the house about to His blessing might descend upon the people, be built one in which His name should be honoured, and souls converted to himself. He then introduced James C. Stevenson, jun., Esq., of Laygate, who had come to lay the foundation-stone of their new church, and gave him a sealed bottle, in which were the following documents, to be deposited in the stone:-A shorter Catechism; a Catechism of the government of the Presbyterian Church; a copy of the Minutes of Synod, and a statement of the

accounts of the Church for the last year; a

copy of a Newcastle newspaper, by date 11th August, 1854. As also a copy of the "English Presbyterian Messenger" for August, 1854; a sketch of the previous history of the church at Harbottle; and a list of the present office-bearers taking an active part in the new erection. Mr. Stevenson proceeded then to show his masonic skill in adjusting the stone on its permanent resting-place, and standing upon it delivered an admirable address, full of practical sagacity and needful counsel. The congregation reassembled in the old church, when Mr. Blythe most suitably reminded them of their spiritual duties, and was followed by Mr. Anderson, whose words of practical wisdom, excellent judgment, and mature experience, it is hoped will not soon be forgotten. The church will be a neat, but plain building in the early English style, will accommodate nearly 500 sitters, and will cost about 500. The people expect to be able to meet half the cost, and from the encouragement they have already received, and hope to receive from Christian friends, a prosperous issue is anticipated, when the worshippers of God here will have the privilege of occupying a house of prayer commodious, convenient, and so much more attractive than that of former years. There were many strangers present from neighbouring churches, sympathizing with and encouraging the minister and his people in the arduous but creditable undertaking.

CROOKHAM.--On Thursday, the 27th of July, the children of the Crookham Sabbathschool were invited to tea by Mrs. Edmonds. About 150 assembled in the school-room adjoining the church, at half-past five, P.M., and proceeded, accompanied by their teachers, to the manse grounds, where they were plentifully supplied with tea and cake. Thanks having been returned, Mr. Edmonds proceeded to exhibit and explain to the youthful audience a number of beautifully-coloured Scripture prints. At intervals they sang-much to the evident delight of a number of persons who came to witness the proceedings-a few beautiful hymns selected for the occasion; and at half-past eight, P.M., they separated, highly delighted with the evening's entertainment.

| his devotion to their weal and to the cause of education. Mr. Robertson presided, and opened the proceedings of the evening in a neatly-conceived and well-expressed speech. Mr. Brotherton then rose and read an address to Mr. Burns, which want of space compels us to abridge:-" Rev. and dear Sir,- We, the members of your flock, respectfully solicit your acceptance of these tokens of our heart-felt love for your person, and our grateful acknowledgment of your services as a faithful minister of Christ. At the time you came amongst us the Church of our fathers was weak, and the cause of Christ, low. With a zeal that has never cooled, and an energy that has never abated, you commenced to build the waste places of our Zion, and to gather in her scattered children. The external building, the beautiful house where our fathers worshipped, was dilapidated and forsaken, but, through your efforts, it was repaired, and now we can look on the result of your labours, and see the house of our God renewed and comfortable. We had no nursery for the young, as our Sabbath-school was only a name; neither had we a day-school where our children could receive a good literary and religious education. For want of those nurseries of the Church many are not of us now, who might have been with us still under our own vine, sheltered under Christ's shadow, and nourished by his delicious fruit. Through your unwearied exertions, Rev. Sir, we have a Sabbath-school and day-school, and both in a flourishing condition. Having enjoyed the privilege of sitting under your ministry for ten years, we can bear our testimony to the faithfulness with which you have preached a whole Christ as the salvation of fallen men, and which God has blessed to the conversion of sinners, and the edification of saints. The sick-beds of the afflicted have largely shared in your works of faith and labours of love, and many have to bless God for directing your steps to the dwelling of the suffering and the dying... And now, dearly beloved sir, knowing the many opportunities you have had to leave us, and the willingness with which you have ever listened to our earnest entreaties to remain amongst us, as our esteemed and muchbeloved pastor, we beg your acceptance of this

you; and may the great Head and King of the Church long spare your valuable and useful life to your beloved family and flock. Signed, on behalf of the congregation,

SEATON DELAVAL.-On Saturday, the 12th ult., the children of the Sabbath and day-gift, as a pledge of our strong affection towards schools, together with children and teachers from the neighbourhood, to the number of about 500, visited Warkworth Castle and the Hermitage. They sang a variety of hymns, and were addressed by the Rev. Robert Henderson, after their arrival at Warkworth. Having spent a pleasant day, they were speedily conveyed by a special train to their homes, in an early part of the evening. Lately, the congregation at Delaval, with their friends in the surrounding district, to the number of 400 and upwards, visited the public Institutions of Edinburgh, which were kindly thrown open for their inspection by the Lord Provost.

WHITEHAVEN. - - TESTIMONIAL TO THE REV. JOSEPH BURNS.-A local tea-meeting of the members of Mr. Burns' congregation was held in the school room, for the purpose of presenting him with a splendid gold watch and chain, in recognition by his flock of

"LAWRENCE ROBERTSON, Chairman. "ROBINSON SIMPSON, Session Clerk. "JAMES LACKLISON, Treasurer. "ANDREW BROTHERTON, Secretary." The watch and chain were then handed to Mr. Burns by Mr. Simpson, accompanied by a few brief but feeling observations. The watch on the inside case bears the following inscription :-" Presented by the congregation of the Presbyterian Church, James-street, to the Rev. Joseph Burns, their esteemed pastor, in acknowledgment of his services as a faithful minister of Christ.-Whitehaven, August 7th, 1854." Mr. Burns briefly replied. The Meeting was afterwards addressed by Mr. Lachlison, the Rev. Dr. Bonar, of Kelso, and others.

Children's Messenger.


Very early, indeed, in the Christian era, If you look to the first page of the present before the first century had closed preachers were these efforts begun; and probably number of the "Messenger" you will find a letter that most boys and girls will be of the cross had succeeded in entering able to understand. We wish you to read China, and stating to some of its vast it. It is from Mr. Burns, of China, and millions the facts and doctrines of the gives a very interesting account of his visits Gospel. There is an old tradition in exto the little towns and villages near to the istence, that St. Thomas, of whom you read in the New Testament, preached the place where he lives. It will show you what the Gospel can do for the poor Chi- Gospel in China: of the truth of which nese when God's Spirit brings it home to many stand in doubt; but one of the their hearts. It must have been a painful Chinese historians, writing within the first thing to see the father and mother of century, gives some account of the facts of the poor young man, mentioned in the Christ's life and death, which it is thought letter, beating him so cruelly because he he could not have done had not some mishad resolved to burn the dumb and uselesssionary found his way into the country idols, that could do nothing for him, and at that early period. turn to the living and true God, saying; "Thou art my God for ever and ever." Little did they think of what was to take place so soon with them. What a kind and merciful God is ours! He did not punish them for beating their son, nor say, They are joined to their idols, let them alone," for He knew they "did it ignorantly and in unbelief;" but He sent his Spirit into their hearts, and soon they are all in the streets, heedless of the scoffs and jeers of the crowd, breaking up their own idols to which they had been so long in bondage. And now they are true "pilgrims," marching to the Celestial City,


humble followers of the Lord of life.

What He has done for these people He can do for millions more. Let us try to thank Him for his grace and goodness, and beseech Him to turn many more from darkness to light. Nor must we forget the poor converts. They will have many trials to endure; more than we can well understand. Friends and neighbours will scoff and laugh; means will perhaps be taken to turn them out of the path of life and lead them back into idolatry. Let us earnestly pray, therefore, that the Lord may be their refuge, and the everlasting God their shield and stay.

THE ROMAN CATHOLICS IN CHINA. You may be quite sure that China has often been looked at by the Christian Church as a fit field for missionary labours, and that so many centuries, since it became tolerably well known to Europe, have not been allowed to roll away without some efforts being made to introduce into it the knowledge of the true God and Jesus Christ.

tain that the Gospel was preached in China However this may be, we know for cerin the seventh century, and that some Nestorian missionaries succeeded in establishing themselves in different parts of the country.

The Gospel so introduced soon spread; several were converted to Christ; many churches formed; other missionaries brought in; a translation of some parts of the Scrip

ture was made; and for several centuries a prosperous state of things was kept up.

In the thirteenth century, some Roman Catholic missionaries were sent to China;

but instead of quietly proceeding with their work, they began to dispute with the Nestorians about certain points on which they differed from them, and which chiefly related to matters of forms and ceremonies. At last their controversies rose to such a banished both the Nestorian and Catholic height that the Emperor interfered and missionaries from the country.

in China languished, and no advance was For a long time the cause of Christianity made. A few native Christians remained, but the missionaries were strictly kept out of the country, and everything was done to prevent the spread of the Gospel.

At last, in the sixteenth century, the famous Francis Xavier resolved to try to get into China. Accordingly he sailed from India, and made his way towards Canton. When he reached Macao, an island about ninety miles short of Canton, he was told he could not enter China, and that if he did he would be instantly put to death. Xavier, however, determined to go on. He had come, he thought, at the bidding of Christ, and he felt it was his duty to go on, whatever might happen to him. Accordingly, he went towards the continent,

and, though very ill, he would be carried on shore. This was done, but he had scarcely landed when he died, breathing out a fervent prayer for the conversion of China.

After Francis Xavier, no further attempts were made for about thirty years, when Valiquani ventured to go, but died without being able to get nearer than Macao, a town then partly inhabited by Portuguese. At length two famous Jesuits went to Macao, determined, if possible, to get into China. One of them was called Ricci. He was a very learned man, particularly in mathematics and in astronomy. After living a little while at Macao, he found that a Portuguese embassy was going up to the court at Pekin, and he got himself united with it, not as a Christian missionary, but simply as a learned man, and as such he was presented to the Emperor. It So happened that the Emperor just then wanted a good astronomer to set the calendar right, and Ricci proved the very man for him. He was accordingly appointed to the offices of Royal Astronomer and Professor of Mathematics, and was viewed with no little favour by the Emperor. Ricci saw the advantage he now possessed of introducing Christianity again, and resolved to quietly try as much as he could to do it. By degrees he brought forward his views first before one and then another at the court, till several learned men became converts to his doctrines, and some ladies embraced Christianity. The work now went on well; and, though the old edict was not recalled, Jesuit missionaries were allowed to come into the country under the protecting influence of Ricci, till many societies of converts were collected. Several beautiful churches were built, and Christianity again fairly established in many places. Amongst other instances of success, I might tell you that a large and beautiful church was built within the precincts of the Emperor's palace: that at one time no fewer than 300 churches were standing in the country, and that no less than 300,000 Chinese professed themselves converts to Christianity. Nor was this all at one time there was seated a Christian Emperor upon the throne, who, with his wife and children, had been all baptized, while many of the learned men of


China held Christian views.

Of course there was much in both the doctrines and the usages of the Jesuits that was very bad but yet there was a great deal of good done by them. Thus, they translated the Gospels and Epistles of Paul, with portions of the Old Testament, into Chinese; they prepared a dictionary and other books, by which to aid persons in learning the language; and wrote many tracts containing a statement of the Gospel way of salva

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tion, which they widely circulated. Many persons, there can be no doubt, were truly converted by them, and many suffered martyrdom in behalf of the Gospel. So far all was well; and, had the Jesuits just kept to their proper work, they would have done much good. But they foolishly begun disputing amongst themselves about various matters; their quarrels rose high; the Pope tried to set them right, but in vain; and at last the Emperor became so indignant at their conduct, that he revived the old edict, and they were all again banished from the country, and forbidden, on pain of death, ever to return. Their churches were destroyed, and 300,000 Christians thus deprived of their places of worship and their ministers. This was about 131 years ago. Many died rather than leave the country; but others went as they were bidden. They did not, however, go far. Some pitched their home in Macao, and others in Tartary, in both which places they established colleges for the preparation of missionaries and the working of various schemes by which quietly and secretly to keep their hold of China.

Nor have they worked in vain. European missionaries have been trained there, and, when they were thought fit to enter the country, have been quietly smuggled up to the stations they were to fill. Native teachers have also been trained, and thus their cause has been kept alive; so that now, when China is opening, we find the Catholics have still nearly 300,000 converts in the heart of the country, and many teachers and missionaries ready to take advantage of any opening to claim the land for Rome. Such is a short story of the Roman Catholic Mission in China.-Rec. C. H. Bateman.

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