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TEXT 11 For there is no respect of persons with God. 12 For, as many as have sinped without law, shall also perish with
out law; and as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged
by the law; 13 (For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers
of the law shall be justified. 14 For when the gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the
things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves.
PARAPHRASE. 11 the gentile. For with God there is no respect of per12 sons. For all, that have sinned without having the po
sitive law of God, which was given the israelites, shall
perish' without the law; and all, who have sinned, being 13 under the law, shall be judged by the law, (For the bare
hearers of the law are not thereby just, or righteous, in the sight of God, but the doers of the law; they, who
exactly perform all that is commanded in it, shall be jus14 tified. For, when the gentiles, who have no positive
law given them by God, do, by the direction of the
NOTES. God, before the Messias: and that, under the Messias, the professors of chris. tianity, consisting most of converted gentiles, were the people of God, owned and acknowledged as such by him, the unbelieving jews being rejected, and the unbelieving gentiles never received ; but that yet personally both jews and gentiles, every single person, shall be punished for his own particular sin, as appears by the two next verses.
12 f 'Anodoārtas, “ shall perish;" xpolho outas, “ shall be judged.” Those under the law, St. Paul says, “ shall be judged by the law :" and this is easy to conceive, because they were under a positive law, wherein life and death were annexed, as the reward and punishment of obedience and disobedience; but of the gentiles, who were not under the positive law, he says barely, that “ they " shall perish.” St. Paul does not use these so eminently differing expressions for nothing; they will, I think, give some light to chap. v. 13, and my interpietation of it, if they lead us no farther. . 14 Min vóuoy ixovlss, “having not the law," or not having a law. The apostie by the word law, generally, in this epistle, signifying a positive law, given by God, and promulgated by a revelation from heaven, with the sanction of declared rewards and punishments annexed to it, it is not improbable, that in this verse, (where, by the Greek particle, he so plainly points out the law of Moses) by vóuo, without the article, may intend law, in general, in bas sense of a law, and so this verse may be translated thus: “ for when the gente “ tiles, who have not a law, do by nature the things contained in the law: " the:e, not having a law, are a law to themselves." And so, ver. 19, “ As s many as have sinned, being under a law, shall be judged by a law."* For though, from Adam to Christ, there was no revealed, positive law, but that
TEXT. 15 Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their
conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts, the mean
while, accusing, or else excusing one another) 16 In the day, when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus
Christ, according to my gospel. 17 Behold, thou art called a jew, and restest in the law, and makest
thy boast of God:
PARAPHRASE. light of nature, observe, or keep to the moral rectitude, contained in the positive law, given by God to the
israelites, they being without any positive law given them, 15 have nevertheless a law within themselves. And show
the rule of the law written in their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness to that law, they amongst
themselves, in the reasoning of their own minds, ac16 cusing, or excusing one another) At the day of judg
ment, when, as I make known in my preaching the gos
pel, God shall judge all the actions of men, by Jesus 17 Christ. Behold, thou art named' a jew; and thou, with
satisfaction, restest in the privilege of having the law, as
a mark of God's peculiar favourk, whom thou gloriest ! in, as being thy God, and thou one of his people; a
people, who alone know and worship the true God; TEXT. 18 And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more ex
NOTES. given to the israelites; vet it is certain that, by Jesus Christ, a positive law from heaven is given to all mankind, and that those, to whom this has been promulgated, by the preaching of the gospel, are all under it, and shall be judged by it.
16 h « According to my gospel,” i.e. as I make known in my preaching the gospel. That this is the meaning of this phrase, may be seen, 2 Tim. ii. 8. And of St. Paul's declaring of it, in his preaching, we have an instance left upon record, Acts xvii. 31.
17 i 'Etorquán, thou art named, emphatically said by St. Paul; for he, that was such a jew, as he describes in the following verses, he insists on it, was a jew only by name, not in reality, for so he concludes, ver. 28 and 29, he is not, in the esteem of God, a jew, who is so outwardly only.
17--20 k In these four verses St. Paul makes use of the titles the jews assumed to themselves, from the advantages they had, of light and knowledge, above the gentiles, to show them how inexcusable they were, in judging the gentiles, who were even in their own account so much beneath them in knowledge, for doing those things, which they themselves were also guilty of.
17 k Vid. Mic. iii. 11.
cellent, being mstructed out of the law, 19 And art confident tha: thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a
light of them which are in darkness, 20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the
form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law. 21 Thou, therefore, which teachest another, teachest thou not thy
selt: thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou
steal ? 22 Thou, that savest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou
commit adultery? thou, that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit
sacrilege? 23 Thou, that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law, dishonoureth thou God?
PARAPHRASE. 18 And thou knowest his will, and hast the touch-stone of 19 things excellent', having been educated in the law, And
takest upon thee as one, who art a guide to the blind",
a light to the ignorant gentiles, who are in darkness", 20 An instructor of the foolish", a teacher of babes", hav
ing an exact draught, and a complete system" of know21 ledge and truth in the law. Thou, therefore, who art a
master in this knowledge, and teachest others, teachest
thou not thyself? Thou, that preachest that a man 22 should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou, that declarest
adultery to be unlawful, dost thou commit it? Thou,
that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? 23 Thou, who gloriest in the law, dost thou, by brea
NOTES. 18 ! Tá sia Qipoula, signifies things excellent, convenient, controverted, or differing. In either of these senses it may be understood here, though the last, viz. their difference in respect of lawful and unlawful, I think may be pitched on, as most suited to the apostle's design here, and that which the jews much stood upon, as giving them one great pre eminence above the defiled gentiles.
* 19, 20 m “Blind, in darkness, foolish babes," were appellations which the jews gave to the gentiles, signifying how much inferior to theinselves they thought them in knowledge.
20 - Mópowosso " forin," seems here to be the same with Tún@, “ form," chap. vi. 17, i.e. " such a draught, as contained and represented the parts and “ lineaments of the whole.” For it is to be remembered, that the apostle uses these expressions and terms here, in the same sense the jews spoke of themselves, vauntingly, over the gentiles, he thereby aggravating their fault, in judging ulu gentiles as they did.
TEXT. 24 For the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles, through
yout, as it is written. 25 For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if
thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncir
cumcision. 26 Therefore, if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?
PARAPHRASE. 94 of the law, dishonour God? For the name of God is
blasphemed amongst the gentiles, by reason of your mis05 carriages, as it is written, Circumcision indeed, and
thy being a jew, profiteth?, if thou keep the law :. but, if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision is
made uncircumcision; thou art no way better than an 26 heathen. If, therefore, an uncircuncised gentile keep
the moral rectitudes of the law, shall he not be reckoned
NOTES. 24 o See 2 Sam. xii. 14, Ezek. xxxvi. 23.
25 p Circumcision is here put for “being a jew," as being one of the chief and most discriminating rites of that people.
9 “ Profiteth, if thou keep the law;" because a jew, that kept the law, was to have life therein, Lev. xviii. 5.
26" Tà dixará mala tag youd," the righteousness of the law.” I have taken the liberty to render it, the rectitude of the law, in an appropriated sense of the word, rectitude, in imitation of St. Paul, who uses dixasvuala here for all those precepts of the law, which contain in them any part of the natural and eternal rule of rectitude, which is made known to men, by the light of reason. This rule of their actions all mankind, uncircumcised as well as circumcised, had, and is that which St. Paul calls dixaiwux tô lô, ch. i. 32. Because it came from God, and was made by him; the moral rule to all mankind being laid within the discovery of their reason, which if they kept to, it was dixaiwua, righteousness to them, or they were justified. And this rule of morality, St. Paul says, the gentile world did acknowledge. So that doxaiwuel Tall Ocow, ch. i. 32, signifies that rule of right, taken in general; and doxatu wola Toù róux here signifies the particular branches of it contained in the law of Moses. For no other part of the law of Moses could an heathen be supposed to observe, or be concerned in: and, therefore, those only can be the dixarwuala Toû róus here meant. If we consider the various senses, that translators and expositors have given to this term dixaiwua, in the several places of St. Paul's epistles, where it occurs, we shall have occasion to think that the apostle used this word with great latitude and variety of significations; whereas I imagine, that, if we carefully read those passages, we shall find, that he used it every-where in the same sense, i.e. for that rule, which, if complied with, justified, or rendered perfect, the person, or thing, it referred to. For example:
Rom. i. 32. Arxaiwua Osow, translated, “ the judgment of God," is that rule of right, which, if the heathen world had kept and perfectly obeyed, they had been righteous before God.
NOTE. "Rom. ii. 26. Arxaiópata ToŨ róuz, “ the righteousness of the law," are those precepts of the law of Moses, which, if the uncircumcised, whom he there speaks of, had kept, they had been righteous before God.
Rom. v. 16. Eis dratána, “ to justification," is to the obtaining of righteousness.
Rom. v. 18. si svos doxatónata, “by one righteousness," is by one act, whereby he was justified or completely perfected, to be what he had undertaken to bę, viz the redeemer and saviour of the world. For it was dià authuatsy, or, as some copies read it, da watauato, by his suffering, viz. death on the cross, that he was perfected, Heb. ii. 9, 10, and 14, 15, and v. 7-9, Rom. v. 10, Phil. ii. 8, Col. i. 21, 22.
Rom. viii. 4. To doxaiwuice TOū vóur,“ the righteousness of the law." Here, as Rom. ii. 26, it is that rule of right, contained in the law, which, if a man exactly performed, he was righteous and perfect before God.
Heb. ix. 1. Arxan buata Malpeias,“ ordinances of divine service," are those rules, or precepts, concerning the outward worship of God, which, when conformed to, render it perfect, and such as was right and unblameable before God.
Heb. ix. 10. Arxarárata capxós, “ carnal ordinances," are such rules concerning ritual performances, as, when observed, justified the flesh. By these observances, according as they were prescribed, the flesh, or natural outward ; man, obtained a legal outward holiness, or righteousness; there was no exception against him, but he was freely admitted into the congregation, and into the sanctuary.
In the same sense dix cesánatá is also used in the Apocalypse.
Rev. xv. 4. Tá dirección ata og sparepáonoar, "thy judgments are made * manifest," i.e. those terms whereupon 'men are to be justified before God, were clearly and fully made known, under the gospel. Here, as Rom. i. they are called dixavamata. Osč, the terms which God had prescribed to men, for their justification. And
Rev. xix. 8. Tà dirección ata tūv ayiwe, “ the righteousness of the saints," j.e. the performances, whereby the saints stand justified before God.
So that, if we will observe it, dixaisua is the rule of right; as having God for its author, it is dizziwnice Osã; as contained in the precepts of the law, it is dixeruata të rój18; as it concerns the external, instituted rites of the levi. tical worship of God, it is dixeriuata hatpelas; as it concerns the outward, legal, or ritual holiness of the jews, it is discuswuata gacxas; as it is in holy men made perfect, it is dixccolata árybwe.
It may not be amiss to take a little notice also of St. Paul's use of the other term here, you , “ law," which he commonly puts for a positive rule given to men, with the sanction of a penalty annexed ; and in particular, frequently (sometimes with, sometimes without, the particle) for the law of Moses, with out naming what law he means, as if there had been no other law in the world, as indeed there was not any other in St. Paul's notion of a law, from the fall to our Saviour's time, but only the law, given by God to the israelites, -* by the hand of Moses. Under the gospel the law of Moses was abrogated : but yet the δικαιώματα του νόμο were not abrogated. The δικαιώμα του Θεού not only stood firm, but was, by the divine authority, promulgated anew, by Jesus Christ, the King and Saviour of the world. For it is of this that he says, “ that he is not come to destroy the law, but to fulfil it," i.e. to give it positively and plainly, in its full latitude and extent, and set these dixzaucta toŨ vóuoũ in their due light and full force; and accordingly, we see all the branches of it more expressly commanded, and with penalties more vigorou ly inforced, on all his subjects, by our Saviour and his apostles, than they were in the law of Moses.