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with miraculous power from above, and immediately inspired with the Holy Ghost, and consequently what they delivered was not the word of man, but of God himself; being God is of that universal knowledge and infinite wisdom, that it is impossible he should be deceived, of that indefectible holiness and transcendent rectitude, that it is not imaginable he should intend to deceive any man, and consequently whatsoever he liath delivered for a truth must be necessarily and infallibly true ; I readily and steadfastly assent unto them as most certain truths, and am as fully and absolutely, and more concerningly persuaded of them, than of anything I see or know. And because that God who hath revealed them hath done it, not for my benefit only, but for the advantage of others, nor for that alone, but also for the manifestation of his own glory; being for those ends he hath commanded me to profess them, and hath promised an eternal reward upon my profession of them; being every particular person is to expect the justification of himself, and the salvation of his soul, upon the condition of his own faith; as with a certain and full persuasion I assent unto them, so with a fixed and undaunted resolution I will profess them; and with this faith in my heart, and confession in my mouth, in respect of the whole body of the CREED, and every article and particle in it, I sincerely, readily, resolvedly say, I BELIEVE.


that we may

HAVING delivered the nature of faith, and the act of belief common to all the articles of the CREED,

understand what it is to believe ; we shall proceed to the explication of the articles themselves, as the most necessary objects of our faith, that we may know what is chiefly to be believed. Where immediately we meet with another word as general as the former, and as universally concerned in every article, which is God : for if to believe be to assent upon the testimony of God, as we have before declared, then wheresoever belief is expressed, or implied, there is also the name of God understood, upon whose testimony we believe. He therefore whose authority is the ground and foundation of the whole, his existence begins the CREED, as the foundation of that authority. For if there can be no divine faith without the attestation of

God, by which alone it becomes divine, and there can be no such attestation, except there were an existence of the testifier, 16 then must it needs be proper to begin the confession of our faith with the agnition of our God. If his name' were thought fit to be expressed in the front of every action, even by the heathen, because they thought no action prospered but by his approbation; much more ought we to fix it before our confession, because without him to believe as we profess, is no less than a contradiction.

Now these words, I believe in God, will require a double consideration; one, of the phrase or manner of speech; another, of the thing or nature of the truth in that manner expressed. For to believe with an addition of the preposition in, is a phrase or expression ordinarily conceived fit to be given to none but to God himself, as always implying, beside a bare act of faith, an addition of hope, love, and affiance. An observation, as I conceive, prevailing especially in the Latin church, grounded principally upon the authority of St Augustin'.

1 θεός, θεός: "Έθος ήν, ότε κατ. And again: 'Credimus Paulo, sed αρχoιντό τινος, θεόν λέγειν επευφημι non credimus in Paulum; credimus Souévois. Hesych. Lex.

Petro, sed non credimus in Petrum.' 2 For, Ser. 181, which is upon the Tract. in Joh. [c. 6. vol. II. p. CREED, we find these words; Non 515 D.] Secondly, he distinguisheth dicit, Credo Deum, vel Credo Deo, between credere Deum, and credere in quamvis et hæc saluti necessaria sint. Deum. Multum interest, utrum Aliud enim est credere illi, aliud cre. quisque credat ipsum esse Christum, dere illum, aliud credere in illum. et utrum credat in Christum.-Ille Credere illi, est credere vera esse quæ enim credit in Christum, qui et loquitur; Credere illum, credere quia sperat in Christum, et diligit Christipse est Deus; Credere in illum, dili um.' De verbis Dom. Serm. 61. gere illum.' [c. 1, Vol. vi. p. 279 A. [144. c. 2, § 2. vol. V. p. 693 F.] Append.] And though that collec. And, which is the sum of all, he puts tion of Sermons de tempore under a high value upon the preposition, as the name of St Augustin be not if, by virtue of the addition of in, all his (divers of them being transla the phrase did properly signify so tions of the Greek Homilies), yet this great an accession unto faith: .Quid distinction may be collected out of est credere in Deum? Credendo other parts of his works. For, first, amare, credendo diligere, credendo he distinguisheth very clearly and seri in eum ire, et ejus membris incor. ously between credere Deo, and credere porari.' Tract, 29 in Joh. (8 6. vol. in Deum. "Nunquam tamen aliquis III. p. 515 D.) Which doctrine of Apostolorum dicere auderet, Qui cre St Augustin's being taken notice of dit in me, (non credit in me, sed in by Peter Lombard, hath since been eum qui misit me : omnino enim non continued by the school

men; and diceret, Qui credit in me). Credimus Aquinas, Sum. ii. qu. 2, art. 1, § 2. ad enim Apostolo, sed non credimus in prim. bringing all three under one Apostolum.' Tract. 54, in Psalm. act of faith, hath been contradicted (54 in Joh. c. 3: vol. III. p. 650 D.) by Durand. in 3 Sent. dis. 23, q. 7,

Whereas among the Greeks, in whose language the New Testament was penned, I perceive no such constant distinction in their deliveries of the CREED; and in the Hebrew language of the Old, from which the Jewish and Christian Greeks received

and ונס בן יאמינו לעולם ,with thee

6. Credere in Deum non est prosper. For although the Vulgar præcise actus fidei, sed fidei et Latin, which our translation folcaritatis simul; et sunt etiam plures, loweth, hath made that distinction et non unus actus tantum. By which the Hebrew maketh not: Cre. whose subtile, but yet clear, deter dite in Domino Deo vestro, et securi mination (as many of his are beyond eritis; credite prophetis ejus, et cuncta the rest of the schools), whatsoever is evenient prospera:' yet the Septuaadded by the preposition to believe, gint acknowledgeth no necessity of appears not to be a part of belief, but receding from the original phrase: an act superadded to the act of faith. εμπιστεύσατε εν κυρίω τω θεώ υμών, ,

1 For jox is sometimes joined with και εμπιστευθήσεσθε εμπιστεύσατε εν 5, sometimes with 2: when with 5, it προφήταις αυτού, και ευοδωθήσεσθε. answers properly to πιστεύειν τω θεώ, , Nor is it only attributed to Moses as credere Deo, (5 being nothing else but joined with God, and so taken as a significator of the case); when with it were into the same phrase, but 5 it corresponds to πιστεύειν εις τον separately by himself, as Exod. xix. Oedv, credere in Deum, (a being a pre 9, “The Lord said unto Moses, Lo, position of the same nature with els or I come unto thee in a thick cloud, in). But yet there is so little, or that the people may hear when I speak rather no difference in the Hebrew,

* that in the first place where it is used, believe in thee for ever.And thereand that of the father of the faith. fore when it was objected to St ful, even for the act of justifying faith, Basil, that they did believe in Moses, 777742 10X77 Gen. xv. 6, it is translated as well as that they were baptized by the LΧΧ. και επίστευσεν 'Αβράμ into Moses, and generally: Ý Tiotis τω θεώ, not εις θεόν, and that trans ομολογείται ήδη και εις ανθρώπους lation warranted by St Paul, Rom. iv. γεγενησθαι: the Father doth not 3, Gal. iii. 6, and St James ii. 23. deny the language, but interprets In the same manner, 2 Kings xvii. 14. it: ή εις αυτόν πίστις επί τον κυριον

åvapépetal. De Sp. S. c. 14. [$ 31, lated by the LXX. (as that transla 33. vol. III. p. 25 D, 27 c.] Neither tion is preserved in the Alexandrian is this only spoken of Moses and the and Complutensian copies), of ook prophets, that the Israelites believed επίστευσαν κυρίω θεώ αυτών. Besides, in them, but of David, not as a the same phrase is used in the same prophet, but as a bare relater of place both to God and to man, as

his own actions, 1 Sam, xxvii. 12. Exod. xiv. 31, ay yVOZ)7172 1738' 7772 v'IX JON"I kal ÉTLO TEÚOn 'Arxis įv and they believed in God, and in his Aavig. LXX. Et credidit Achis in servant Moses; which the Chaldes David,' Vulg. 'Est ergo fides nostra paraphrase explaineth thus, 2011 primo quidem omnium in Dominum

nostrum Jesum Christum, consequenthey believed in the Word of God, ter vero etiam in omnes sanctos Paand in the prophecy of Moses his triarchas, vel Prophetas, vel Aposservant. And 2 Chron. XX. 20. tolos Christi.' Orig. in Apol. Pam

phil. [Inter Opera Origenis, vol. IV.

Appendix, p. 38 B.) To conclude, God, 80 shall ye be established; this general phrase of believing in, is believe in his prophets, 80 shall ye originally attributed sometimes to the

-is trans אשר לא האמינו ביהוה אלהיהם

and במימרא דיי ובנביאות משה עבדיה

האמינו ביהוה אלהיכם ותאמנו האמינו בנביאיר Believe in the Lord your והצליחו

that phrase of believing in, it hath no such peculiar and accumulative signification. For it is sometimes attributed to God, the author and original cause; sometimes to the prophets, the immediate revealers of the faith ; sometimes it is spoken of miracles, the motives to believe; sometimes of the Law of God, the material object of our faith. Among all which varieties of that phrase of speech, it is sufficiently apparent that in this confession of faith it is most proper to admit it in the last acception, by which it is attributed to the material object 17 of belief. For the Creed being nothing else but a brief comprehension of the most necessary matters of faith, whatsoever is contained in it beside the first word I believe, by which we make confession of our faith, can be nothing else but part of those verities to be believed, and the act of belief in respect of them nothing but an assent unto them as divinely credible and infallible truths. Neither can we conceive that the ancient Greek Fathers of the Church could have any farther meaning in it, who make the whole body of the CREED to be of the same nature, as so many truths to be believed, acknowledged, and confessed ; insomuch as sometimes they use not believing in', neither for the Father, Son, nor Holy Ghost; sometimes using it as to them, they continue the same to the following articles of, the Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints, &c. and generally speak of the CREED: as of nothing but supreme author of our Faith, as to άγιον πνεύμα, και είς σαρκός ανάσταGod; sometimes to the intervenient σιν, και εις ζωήν του μέλλοντος αιώνος, messengers, as the prophets; some και είς βασιλείαν ουρανών, και εις μίαν times to the motives of our Faith, καθολικήν εκκλησίας του θεού. Socrat. Psal. 1xxviii. 32. nN5552

Ηist. Eccl. 1. i. c. 26. Sozomen. 1. ii. LΧΧ. και ουκ επίστευσαν εν τοις θαυ C. 27. Κατήχησις φωτιζομένων σχεμασίοις αυτού, αnd they believed not in διασθείσα εις το, και εις έν άγιον his wondrous works; sometimes to the πνεύμα,-και εις μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν object of it, or that which is believed,

εκκλησίαν, και εις σαρκός ανάστασιν, as Psalm cxix. 66, 2nN Typ5Ι και εις ζωήν αιώνιον. S. Cyril. Hierohave believed in thy commandments, sol. Catech. 16 et 18, init. [pp. 243, as Mark i. 15, πιστεύετε εν τώ ευαγ 285.] Εις το πνεύμα το άγιον,-είς γελία.

μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν και αποστολικήν 1 Πιστεύομεν τοίνυν και ομολογου εκκλησίαν. S. Epiphan. in Anc. 8120. μεν ένα μόνον αληθινόν και αγαθών (vol. II. p. 123 A.) And in a larger θεόν,-και ένα τον μονογενή αυτού υιόν, confession: Πιστεύομεν εις μίαν καθο-και εν μόνον πνεύμα άγιον. S. Basil. λικών και αποστολικήν εκκλησίαν, και de Fide, c. 4. [vol. II. p. 227 Β.] εις έν βάπτισμα μετανοίας, και εις ανάσ

2 Arius and Euzoius in their con τασιν νεκρών, και εις βασιλείαν ουfession delivered to Constantine: IIc ρανών. και εις ζωήν αιώνιον. 8 121. στεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκρά [p. 124 c.] τορα, και εις κύριον Ιησούν, -και εις το 3 Gregorius Nyssenus calls them

mere matter of faith, without any intimation of hope, love, or any such notion included in it'. So that believing in, by virtue of the phrase or manner of speech, whether we look upon the original use of it in the Hebrew, or the derivative in the Greek, or the sense of it in the first Christians in the Latin Church, can be of no farther real importance in the CREED in respect of God, who immediately follows, than to acknowledge and assert his being or existence. Nor ought this to be imagined a slender notion or small part of the first Article of our faith, when it really is the foundation of this and all the rest; that as the CREED is fundamental in respect of other truths, this is the foundation" even of the fundamentals : for he that cometh to God must believe that he is. And Heb. xi. 6. this I take for a sufficient explication of the phrase, I believe in God, that is, I believe that God is.

As for the matter or truth contained in these words so explained, it admits a threefold consideration, first, of the notion of God, what is here understood by that name; secondly, of the existence of God, how we know or believe that he is ; thirdly, the unity of God, in that though there be gods many 1 Cor. viii. 5. and lords many, yet in our CREED we mention him as but one. When, therefore, we shall have clearly delivered what is the true notion of God in whom we believe, how and by ευσεβείς περί θεού υπολήψεις. And -illa scilicet qua creditur, Unum omEusebius in his Confession exhibited nino Deum esse :' and adv. Praxeam, to the council of Nice, concludes: IIl c. 2, where he makes another reστεύομεν και εις εν πνεύμα άγιον. Τού hearsal of his Creed, he begins with: των έκαστον είναι και υπάρχειν πιστεύ . • Unicum quidem Deum credimus.' ODTES: (Socrat. Hist. Eccl. 1. 8.) 1 'Non est amor Dei Articulus, signifying that every particular which neque etiam amor proximi;......quia he had rehearsed he believed to be*. etiamsi sint præcepta generalia activa, And that was all in the confession tamen cum actio contineatur, non intended. Alexander, bishop of Alex oportet eum constituere articulum: andria, after a long declaration of sed ista sunt fidei dogmata, que the former articles concerning the sunt columnæ et fundamenta legis Father and the Son, draws to a con divinæ.' 18. Abravanel de cap. fidei, clusion on the latter article thus: IIpòs c. 11. 'Primus est deorum cultus, δε τη ευσεβεία (1. ευσεβεί) ταύτη περί deos credere." Sen. Epist. xcv. § 49. πατρός και υιού δόξη-εν πνεύμα άγιον ομολογούμεν-μίαν και μόνην καθολικήν : την αποστολικήν εκκλησίαν-μετά του foundation of foundations and pillar τον (vel τούτο) την εκ νεκρών ανάστα of wisdoms is to know, that the first ow otoapev, Theodor, Hist. Eccl. 1. i. Being is, and that it giveth existence c. 4. So Tertull. de Præscript. adv. to every thing which is. Maimonides Hæret. c. 13. 'Regula est autem fidei de Fundamen. Legis, c. 1. & 1.

• Dr Burton points out that this is not quite correct. The meaning is that each of these three persons had a real and substantial existence.

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