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Juries instituted. The first land-tax. Figures in arithmetic first introduced into England. The Danes invade 'the Kingdom. Ethelred
them £ 10,000 to depart, 991.
They return again four or five times, and receive from Ethelred, at one payment, about £ 30,000, raised by a land-tax called Danegelt, 999.
The Danes grew so imperious as to be called Lord Danes : this induced Ethelred to order a general massacre of them, which began at Welwiu, in Hertfordshire, 1002.
In revenge for this treachery, Swain, King of Denmark, landed on the coast of Devon ; also on the coast of Norfolk, and destroyed Norwich and Thetford, and received from Ethelred, £:36,000.
The Danes, who had plundered the Kingdom for some years, receive £ 48,000 from Ethelred. In those ravages they destroyed Oxford, and all studies ceased there for upwards of one hundred
Swain returns, is proclaimed King of England, and Ethelred retires to the Isle of Wight, 1018..
Swain was killed at Thetford, in Norfolk. Canuto his son, proclaimed King. Ethelred returns, and Canute leaves England; but soon returns with a fleet of 200 sail, and lands at Sandwich. Ethelred avoided giving the Danes battle, which displeased his subjects. He reigned thirty-five years, and was buried at St. Paul's.
EDMUND II. surnamed Ironside, third son of Ethelred, is acknowledged as King by the city of London, and one part of the nation, while the other part acknowledges Canute. They fight several battles, and at length agree to divide the Kingdom. Edmund is murdered by Duke Edrick. He reigned but nine months, and was buried at Glastonbury. ;
CANUTE, was acknowledged King of all England, and crowned in London; married Emma; widow of Ethelred; kept up a body of Danish troops, for whose snbsistence he exacted, in one year nearly £ 100,000. The city of London paid £ 11,000 per annum land-tax, 1018.
Canute goes to Denmark, subdues Norway, and is styled King of England, Denmark, and Nora way, 1019.
Canute entered on a war with Sweden, sailed for Denmark, seized on the crown of Sweden, and took the title of King of England, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. He was afterwards sur. named the Great. Canute reigned nineteen years, died at Shaftsbury, and was buried at Winchester.
HAROLD I, son of Canute, by his first wife, was crowned at Oxford. Queen Emma formed a party in favour of her children, and persuaded Alfred and Edward, her sons by Ethelred II. to come to England. Alfred on his arrival, was treacherously inurdered by Earl Goodwin, at Guilford, in Surry. Edward escaped, and went into Normandy, Queen Emma was banished, and went to Bruges, in Flanders, to reside, 1037.
Harold reigned three years, and was buried at Winchester.
HARDICANUTE, son of King Canute and Queen Emma, succeeds on the death of Harold. Many heavy taxes were imposed to defray the expenoes of the Danish fleet. Hardicanute reigned two years, and was buried at Winchester,
SAXON KINGS RESTORED.
EDWARD, surnamed the Confessor, son of King Ethelred II. and Queen Emma; mounts the throne. Earl Godwin and his sons are banished. William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy, visited Edward, who gave him a promise (as it is said) that the crown of England should descend to him. Earl Godwin returns, and is reconciled with the King.
One day, as the King and the Earl were at table, Edward accused him of being his brother's assassin, but the Earl asserted his innocence by adding, “ May this be the last morsel I shall ever swallow, if I am guilty ;” but no sooner had he put it into his mouth, than he fell down, and expired:
St. Peter's Church, Westminster, rebuilt by Edward: The charter of privileges granted to it, and said to be the first that had a great seal of England. This church was afterwards demolished by Henry III. and the present one built. Edward caused the Saxon laws and customs to be written in Latin, and collected them into a body, thence called the Laws of Edward the Confessor. He also caused the original Doomsday- Book to be made. Edward was born at Islip, in Oxfordshire, reigned twenty-three years, died January 5th, 1066, and was buried at Westminster.
HAROLD, second son of Godwin, Earl of Kent, seized the throne, and was crowned at Oxford. But William, Duke of Normandy, claiming the crown, made a descent upon the coast of Sussex and engaged Harold near Hastings, whose army was routed, and himself slain, October 14th. He was buried at Waltham Abbey, in Essex, 1066.
WILLIAM the Conqueror crowned Ķing at Westminster. William Fitz-Osborne created Earl of Hereford; the first Earl created in England. The King re-established the tax called Danegelt
. Curfew bell, on the ringing of which, at eight o'clock every one extinguished fire and candle, 1068.
Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, beheaded for rising in arms against William. He was the first English Nobleman so put to death, 1075.
King William laid the foundation of the tower of London, 1078.
Introduced the Norman Laws and Language, destroyed thirty-six parish churches ; dispeopled Hampshire for above thirty miles, to enlarge New Forest, and laid waste the country for sixty miles, between the Humber and the Tees, 1085.
Norwich Cathedral built, 1987.
William was born at Falaise in Normandy, 1025, died at Hermentrude, September 9th, 1087, and was buried at Caen.
WiĻLIAM II. surnamed Rufus, who had usurped the crown from his brother Robert, embarks for Normandy, and makes war upon him. Robert mortgages Normandy to William, and goes to the Holy War. The first decision by single combat. Westminster Hall built by William Rufus, 1098.
An inundation of the sea overflowed the lands of Goodwin, Earl of Kent, now called Goodwin's Sands. William, hunting in the New Forest, is slain accidentally by an arrow, shot at a stag by his bow.. bearer, Sir Walter Tyrrell. He was buried at: Winchester, 1100,
HOUSE OF BLOTS.
STEVIEN, Earl of Boulogrie and Mortaigne, grandson to William the Conqueror, usurps the crown on Henry's death, and seizes the late King's treasures, to the amount of £ 100,000. Stephen abolisties Danegelt for ever. The Empress Matilda lands'at Arundel, and claims the crown. Makes her natural brother, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, her general, 1139.
Stephen is defeated at Lincoln, made prisoner, and laid in chains in Gloucester goal. Matilda declared Queen. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, taken prisoner, and exchanged for Stephen.' The Earl dies, and Matilda leaves England. Henry, son of Matilda, arrived in England; and peace concluded between him and the King Stephen was born at Blois, died at Dover, and buried at Feversham.
HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET.
HENRY II. was crowned on the death of Stephen. Thomas-a-Becket sides with the pope against the King, is impeached, and condemned to pay a fine quits England, and is protected by the pope and the French King. Henry visits Normandy, and. is reconciled with the King. Becket is murdered in the cathedral at Canterbury by four knights. The King made an expedition to Ireland, where he received the submission of the Irish Princes, and made his youngest son, John, Lord of Ireland.