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Thirdly, to come yet nearer to the particular acknowledgment of this truth, we shall farther shew that the promised Messias was not only engaged to suffer for us, but by a certain and express agreement betwixt him and the Father, the measure and manner of his sufferings were determined, in order to the redemption itself which was thereby to be wrought; and what was so resolved, was before his coming in the flesh revealed to the prophets, and written by them, in order to the reception of the Messias, and the acceptation of the benefits to be procured by his sufferings.

That what the Messias was to undergo for us was predetermined and decreed, appeareth by the timely acknowledgment of the Church unto the Father: Of a truth, against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod 185 and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy

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id est, putative imaginatum, sed [Vol. 1. p. 70 c.) •A Judæis non
corpus verum.' Gennad. de Eccl. credunt Christum crucifixum, sed
Dogm. c. 2. Where, for de thesi, I Simonem Cyrenensem, qui angariatus
suppose we should read ookńoet. The sustulit crucem ejus.' S. August.
original of this train of heretics is to Hær. 4*. Thus the Valentinians, par.
be fetched from Simon Magus, whose ticularly Marcus, the father of the
assertion was: 'Christum nec venisse, Marcosian heretics: Marcus etiam
nec a Judæis quidquam pertulisse.' nescio quis hæresim condidit, negans
S. August. Hares. 1*. Wherefore resurrectionem carnis, et Christum
making himself the Father, Son, and vere, sed putative, passum
Holy Ghost, he affirmed, .se in Filii asseverans.' S. August. Hær. 14.
persona putative apparuisse,' and so [Vol. VIII. p. 8 c.] Thus Cerdon:
that he suffered as the Son amongst • Christum-in substantia carnis
the Jews: αληθεία μη πεπονθέναι δέ, negat, in phantasmate solo fuisse
αλλά δοκήσει μόνον. Damascenus de pronuntiat, nec omnino passum, sed
Hæresibus. Now what Simon Magus quasi passum.' Tertull. Presc, c. 51.
said of himself, when he made him. [adv. omn. Hær. c. 6.) Christum
self the Son, that those who followed ipsum neque natum ex femina, neque
affirmed of Christ. As Saturninus, habuisse carnem, nec vere mortuum,
who taught: “Christum in substantia vel quidquam passum, sed simulasse
corporis non fuisse, et phantasmate passionem.' S. August. Hær. 21.
tantum quasi passum fuisse.' Tertuil. [Vol. viii. p. 9 B.) And the Mani-
de Præscrip. c. 46 [adv. omn. Hær.c. 1. chees, who taught : Christum non
See note on p. 300). Vide Epipha fuisse in carne vera, sed simulatam
nium mutilum, Hær. 23. § 1 [p. 62.] speciem carnis ludificandis humanis
And Basilides, who delivered: cival de sensibus præbuisse; ubi non solum
φησιν αυτόν (τον Χριστόν) φαντασίαν mortem, verum etiam resurrectionem
εν τω φαίνεσθαι, μη είναι δε άνθρωπον, mentiretur.' Idem, Hær. 46 (p. 16 F.]
μηδέ σάρκα ειληφέναι- ουχί Ιησουν Whom therefore Vincentius Lirinensis
φάσκων πεπονθέναι, αλλά Σίμωνα τον calls phantasiæ prædicatores, c. 20.
Kupovalov. S. Epiphan. Hær. 24. § 3. [Common. c. 14.]

* These words are rejected by the Benedictine editors. See Vol. viii. p. 6, notes b, f.

counsel determined before to be done. For as when the two goats were presented before the Lord, that goat was to be offered for a sin-offering upon which the lot of the Lord should fall; and that lot of the Lord was lift up on high in the hand of the high-priest, and then laid upon the head of the goat which was to die; so the hand of God Lev. xvi. 8. is said to have determined what should be done unto our Saviour, whose passion was typified by that sin-offering. And well may we say that the hand of God, as well as his counsel, determined his passion, because he was delivered by the de- Acts ii. 23. terminate counsel and foreknowledge of God.

And this determination of God's counsel was thus made upon a covenant or agreement between the Father and the Son, in which it was concluded by them both what he should suffer, and what he should receive. For beside the covenant made by God with man, confirmed by the blood of Christ, we must consider and acknowledge another covenant from eternity, made by the Father with the Son. Which partly is expressed, If he shall make his soul an offering for sin, he shall Isai. lili. 10. see his seed, he shall prolong his days; partly by the apostle, Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written Hob. x. 7. of me) to do thy will, O God. In the condition of making his soul an offering for sin, we see propounded whatsoever he suffered; in the acceptation, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God, we see undertaken whatsoever was propounded. The determination therefore of our Saviour's passion was made by covenant of the Father who sent, and the Son who suffered.

And as the sufferings of the Messias were thus agreed on by consent, and determined by the counsel of God; so they were revealed by the Spirit of God unto the prophets, and by them delivered to the Church; they were involved in the types, and acted in the sacrifices. Whether therefore we consider the prophecies spoken by God in the mouths of men, they clearly relate unto his sufferings by proper prediction ; or whether we look upon the ceremonial performances, they exhibit the same by an active representation. St Paul's apology was clear, that he said none other things but those Acts xxvi. 22. which the prophets and Moses did say should come, that Christ should suffer. The prophet said in express terms, that the Messias whom they foretold, should suffer: Moses said so in those ceremonies which were instituted by his PEARSON.


ministry. When he caused the passover to be slain, he said
that Shiloh was the Lamb slain before the foundations of the
world. When he set the brasen serpent up in the wilderness,
he said, the Son of man should be lifted up upon the cross.
When he commanded all the sacrifices for sin, he said, with-
out effusion of blood there was no remission, and therefore the
Son of God must die for the sins of men. When he appointed
Aaron to go into the Holy of Holies on the day of atonement,
he said, Christ, our High-priest, should never enter through
the veil into the highest heavens, to make expiation for us,
but by his own blood. If then we look upon the fountain,
the eternal counsel of the will of God; if we look upon the
revelation of that counsel, either in express predictions, or
ceremonial representations, we shall clearly see the truth of
our third assertion, that the sufferings of the promised Messias
were predetermined and foretold.

Now all these sufferings which were thus agreed, deter-
mined, and revealed, as belonging to the true Messias, were
undergone by that Jesus of Nazareth, whom we believe to
be the true Christ. Never was there any suffering type
which he outwent not, never prediction of any passion which
he fulfilled not, never any expression of grief and sorrow

which he felt not. When the appointed time of his death Luke xviii. approached, he said to his apostles, Behold, we go up to

Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. When 186

he delivered them the blessed sacrament, the commemoration Luke xxii. 22. of his death, he said, Truly the Son of man goeth as it was

determined". After his resurrection, he chastised the dulness
of his disciples, who were so overwhelmed with his passion,

that they could not look back upon the antecedent predictions; Luke xxiv. saying unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all

that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have
suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? After
his ascension, St Peter made this profession before the Jews,
who had those prophecies, and saw his sufferings, Those
things which God before had shewed by the mouth of all
his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled.
Whatsoever therefore was determined by the counsel of God;
whatsoever was revealed by the prophets concerning the suf-

1 Κατά το ωρισμένον.


Acts iii. 18.

ferings of the Messias, was all fulfilled by that Jesus whom we believe to be, and worship as, the Christ. Which is the fourth and last assertion propounded to express our Saviour's passion in relation to his office.

Having considered him that suffered in his office, we are next to consider him in his person. And being in all this Article there is no person expressly named or described, we must look back upon the former, till we find his description and his name. The Article immediately preceding leaves us in the same suspension; but for our satisfaction refers us to the former, where we find him named Jesus, and described the only-begotten Son of God.

Now this Son of God we have already shewed to be therefore truly called the only-begotten because he was from all eternity generated of the essence of the Father, and therefore is, as the eternal Son, so also the eternal God. Wherefore by the immediate coherence of the Articles, and necessary consequence of the CREED', it plainly appeareth, that the eternal Son of God, God of God, very God of very God, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried. For it was no other person which suffered under Pontius Pilate, than he which was born of the Virgin Mary; he which was born of the Virgin Mary, was no other person than he which was conceived by the Holy Ghost; he which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, was no other person than our Lord; and that our Lord no other than the only Son of God: therefore by the immediate coherence of the Articles it followeth, that the only Son of God, our Lord, suffered under Pontius Pilate. That Word which was in the beginning, which then was with God, and was God, in the fulness of time being made flesh, did suffer. For the princes of this world crucified the Lord of glory; and God purchased his 1 Cor. Il 8. Church with his own blood'. That Person which was begotten of the Father before all worlds, and so was really the Lord of glory, and most truly God, took upon him the nature of man, and in that nature being still the same Person which

Acts xx. 28.

1 This is that inseparabilis connexio in the Creed, which Cassianus urgeth 80 much against Nestorius, De Incarn. I. vi. [Ita enim sibi connexa et concorporata sunt omnia, ut aliud sine alio stare non possit. Cassianus

de Incarn. lib. vi. c. 17.)

• Dominum passum symboli tenet auctoritas, et Apostolus tradidit, dicens, Si enim cognovissent, nunquam Dominum gloriæ crucifixissent.' Vigil. advers. Eutych. 1. ii. [S 8. p. 20.]


before he was, did suffer. When our Saviour fasted forty days, there was no other person hungry, than that Son of God which made the world: when he sat down weary by the well, there was no other person felt that thirst, but he which was eternally begotten of the Father, the fountain of the Deity: when he was buffeted and scourged, there was no other person sensible of those pains, than that eternal Word which before all worlds was impassible : when he was crucified

and died, there was no other person which gave up the ghost, 1 Tim. vi. 16. but the Son of him, and so of the same nature with him, who

only hath immortality. And thus we conclude our first consideration propounded, viz. Who it was which suffered : affirming that, in respect of his office, it was the Messias ; in respect

of his person, it was God the Son. Howie di Ukut

But the perfect probation and illustration of this truth de

! requireth first a view of the second particular propounded,

How, or in what he suffered. For while we prove the person 187
suffering to be God, we may seem to deny the passion, of
which the perfection of the Godhead is incapable. The
divine nature is of infinite and eternal happiness, never to be
disturbed by the least degree of infelicity, and therefore
subject to no sense of misery. Wherefore while we profess
that the Son of God did suffer for us, we must so far explain
our assertion, as to deny that the divine nature of our Saviour
suffered. For being the divine nature of the Son is common to
the Father and the Spirit, if that had been the subject of his
passion, then must the Father and the Spirit have suffered.
Wherefore as we ascribe the passion to the Son alone, so
must we attribute it to that nature which is his alone, that is,
the human. And then neither the Father nor the Spirit will
appear to suffer, because neither the Father nor the Spirit,
but the Son alone, is man, and so capable of suffering.

Whereas then the humanity of Christ consisteth of a soul and body, these were the proper subject of his passion; nor could he suffer any thing but in both or either of these two. For as the Word was made flesh, though the Word was never made? (as being in the beginning God), but the flesh, that is, the humanity, was made, and the Word assuming it

1 Ο λόγος σάρξ εγένετο, -ίνα και tápov kai äoov érißás. S. Athanas. de ο λόγος αεί η λόγος, και σάρκα έχη και Incarn. Dom. cont. Apol. l. i, c. 12. λόγος έν ή το πάθος και τον θάνατον [Vol. 1. p. 932 B.] ανεδέξατο, έν μορφή τη ανθρωπίνη μέχρι

Jolin i 11.

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