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might have been brought forward by them; as fairly, as they are now by the opponents of Calvinism. Indeed, I think, no man can fairly and fully justify the divine conduct, in this particular, without conceding all the leading principles, on which Calvinism is grounded. The same is the case, with all those nations, which are favoured with the means of salvation. If all have any right to them, and an equal right to them: why are some so highly favoured above others? Is “God a respecter “ of persons?” But if all be undeserved, and contrary to man's deservings; according to our principles: then all have as much as they deserve, yea more; none have a right to complain; all have cause of gratitude: but some more than others; as Israel had more cause for thankfulness, than the surrounding nations had. But, though, Israel was chosen nationally to external privi. leges, temporal and spiritual; is there no intimation, of another election, even in respect of Israel? Not to speak of the frequent intimations, given by the prophets, of a remnant, whom God would, or did, distinguish from other Israelites, what says the apostle? “ They are not “all Israel, which are of Israel?" If so, there is an Israel, within an Israel: but how is this? “ Even so at this
present time, there is a remnant, according to the “ election of grace.”* This refers to the seven thousand in Israel, whom the Lord had “reserved to himself,” in the days of Elijah. These were “a remnant according " to the election of grace," and the rest of the nation were not. Is it not then, undeniable, that there was a national election, to external advantages; and a personal election, entirely distinct from it? An election of individuals, from among the elect nation? And that
the national election of Israel, was a type and figure, of.. the personal election of the true Israel, “ the church of “ the first born, whose names are written in heaven?” Some texts of Scripture follow,* which are, almost universally, by expositors, considered as prophecies, relative to the future dealings of God, with the nation of Israel; and coincident with the words of our Saviour: “ Except these days should be shortened, no flesh," (that is, none of Israel,) “ should be saved; but for the “ elects' sake, those days shall be shortened.”+ “For “ I will bring a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah, an " inheritor of my mountains: and mine elect shall in. “ herit it, and my servants shall dwell there.” “ So the “ holy seed shall be the substance thereof."
P. cciii. 1. 10. In the, &c.'s This is a decisive proof, that the national election of Israel was an entirely different thing, from the election spoken of in the New Testament: being only a shadow or type of it. « God “ hath from the beginning chosen you unto salvation, “ through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the “ truth; whereunto he hath called you by our gospel, to “ the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. "I “ Elect, according to the foreknowledge of God the “ Father, through sanctification of the Spirit unto obe“ dience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.”! Wherever election or predestination are spoken of in the New Testament, concerning christians, they are
• Is. xliji. 20. xlv. 4. Ixv. 9. † Matt. xxiv. 22. Is. vi. 13. §. In the numerous passages of the Old Testament, in which they are thus spoken of, there is not the slightest allusion to their being predestinated "to happiness in the world to come; nor indeed will any one contend that all the Jews were designed for eternal salvation. They were elected in this world only, as an introductory and preparatory step to the execution of God's merciful scheme of human redemption through the incarnation and sufferings of Christ.' 1 2 Thes. ii. 13, 14.
Il 1 Pet. 1. 2.
uniformly connected with things which accompany “salvation.”* The election of Israel was indeed an
introductory and preparatory step to the execution of • God's merciful scheme, &c: but had the Israelities themselves no advantages, in consequence of it? “ What “advantage then hath the Jew? Or, what profit is there " of circumcision? Much every way; chiefly because “ unto them were committed the oracles of God.”+ It is probable, that from the days of Moses to the coming of Christ, more person's out of this comparatively small nation were spiritual worshippers, and accepted servants, of God, than in all the world besides.
P. cciii. l. 20. "We shall, &c.'! This is a statement, which will require much proof: but let every argument have its due weight. What collective bodies
were converted to Christianity,' in the same manner, that Israel was chosen as a nation? Even the three thousand, converted on the day of Pentecost, and the tens of thousands, who afterwards believed, were merely a remnant of the nation of Israel; and, like the seven thousand in the days of Elijah, "a remnant according “ to the election of grace.” God had
God had “ not cast away “his people, whom he foreknew,”\ even when the nation of Israel ceased to be his church. “ Israel hath < not obtained that which he seeketh for: but the elec" tion hath obtained it; and the rest were blinded.” If the texts referred to, in the last remark, do not prove,
• Rom. viii. 28-30. Eph. i. 4, 5. 11–14. Col. iii. 12. 2 Tim. i. 9. Tit. i. 1, 2. 1 Pet. ii. 9, 10. † Rom. ii. 1, 2.
We shall in like manner find that the same words, elect and cbosen, « are applied to collective bodies of men who were converted to the gospel, • without any restriction to those who were obedient to its precepts, and will • hereafter be saved; and that an infallible certainty of salvation, in conse. . quence of a divine decree, is not attributed to any number of christians, or to any single christian, throughout the New Testament.' $ Rom. xi. 1---7.
that election is uniformly connected with the “
things " which accompany salvation:” the point must be yielded. But each text will be more particularly no. ticed. The more copious of the apostolical epistles are addressed to the churches, or to the saints, and not to individuals; and in those to Timothy and Titus, the apostle joins himself with the person to whom he wrote, when he spake on this subject:* but he mentions Clement, and others, “ whose names are written in the " book of life;”+ and St. John addresses one of his epistles, unto “ The elect lady, and her children,” and mentions her “elect sister.”'I Our Lord calls Paul “ a “ vessel of election." (Exaves exojms.)
P. cciv. 1. 3. St. Peter, &c.'1 Let this whole passage de minutely examined.
“ Elect, according to “ the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanc“ tification of the Spirit unto obedience, and sprinkling “ of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace “ be multiplied. Blessed be the God and Father of our " Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant
• 2 Tim. i. 9. Tit. i. 1, 2.
† Phil. iv. 3. Comp. Rev. svii. 8. # 3 John 1. 12.
& Acts ix. 15. • St. Peter tells the " strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, “ Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,” that they are “elect according to the “ foreknowledge of God;" and "a chosen generation, a peculiar people; " that they might show forth the praises of him, who hath called them out of “ darkness into his marvellous light." • It is evident that the apostle here • refers to the calling of these men to the knowledge of his gospel, which, • like every other circumstance relative to this gracious dispensation, was • foreknown by God; and that by denominating the christians of these fivees. • tensive countries, indiscriminately, "elect," and "a chosen generation," • he did not mean to assert that they would all be saved; but that they were • admitted to “ the marvellous light" of the gospel, while other nations • were still wandering in the darkness” • of heathenism. And to put this
beyond all doubt, the same persons, whom in his first epistle he addresses * as “elect according to the foreknowledge of God;” in his second Epistle he
addresses as “them that have obtained like precious faith with us, through " the righteousness of God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ:" sto be elect, and • to be a believer in Christ, are therefore the same thing.'
mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by “ the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead: to an in“ heritance, incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth “ not away, reserved in heaven for you; who are kept
by the power of God, through faith unto salvation, , “ ready to be revealed in the last time; wherein ye
greatly rejoice." And just after, “Whom,” (Jesus Christ,) “ having not seen, ye love; in whom though
now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with
joy unspeakable, and full of glory: Receiving the end “ of your faith, even the salvation of your souls."* Is there here 'no restriction to those who were obedient . to the precepts of the gospel?' No assertion, that the persons addressed would all be saved? I do not mean all, called Christians, in these countries; but all those; whom the apostle spoke of by character; for “ if any “ one did not love the Lord Jesus Christ,” he was not one of the persons intended. They to whom the apos. tle wrote, were “ elect, through sanctification of the
Spirit, unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of “ Christ:” therefore none were addressed, but those, who through faith, were sprinkled with the blood of Christ. The apostle joins himself with them, in the next verse, “as Legotten again unto a lively hope, &c:" none were, therefore, addressed, except those who had this lively hope, in consequence of regeneration: “and
every man that hath this hope in him, purifieth him. “ self, even as he is pure.”+. They were also, “ begotten
again—to an inheritance incorruptible, &c, which was “ reserved in heaven for them:" therefore the apostle addressed exclusively those, whom he considered as heirs of this inheritance; though there might be hypocrites
• 1 Pet. i. 1.3.
1 1 John iii, 3.