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he felt, and the anguish which he underwent, were most incomparably far beyond all sorrows of which any person here was sensible or capable.

The evangelists have in such language expressed his

agony, as cannot but raise in us the highest admiration at the Matt. xxvi. bitterness of that passion. He began to be sorrowful, saith Mark xiv. 33. St Matthew. He began to be sore amazed, saith St Mark:

and to be very heavy, say both : and yet these words in our translation come far short of the original expression', which

i The words in the original are #RTAngiv, says Etymologus: and Hethree, λυπείσθαι, εκθαμβείσθαι, and sychius, θάμβος" θαύμα, έκπληξις. domuoveîv. Auteio dai, the first, is of Gloss. Vet. Oáußos, stupor. Philopoa known and ordinary signification, nus, preserved by Eustathius, 'IA. M. but in this case it is to be raised [310] θάμβος μεν η έκπληξις" θαμβος to the highest degree of its possible δε κατά οξείαν τάσιν ο έκπλαγείς. From significancy, as appears by the words hence the verb Oaußeîv, in termination which follow, περίλυπός εστιν η ψυχή active, in signification passive, percul. Mov. For, as the ancient grammarians sum esse, in Homer, Il. A. 199. Oállobserve, ή περί πρόθεσις επίτασιν Bnrev g''AXLAeús, where it is the obδηλοί, and again, ή περί πρόθεσις servation of Eustathius: Το εθάμβησεν λαμβάνεται αντί της υπέρ κατά λόγον ενεργητικόν ή νεωτέρα χρήσις ουκ έχει υπερθέσεως και περιττότητος : and θαμβούμενοι γάρ, και εθαμβήθη, και τεtherefore tepiXutos of itself must θάμβημαι, φασίν οι μεθ' "Ομηρονbut signify a man possessed with an not universally true. For (as to our excessive grief; as in Æschylus, purpose) we have both the use and [Eumenid. 161.) Teplßapv kpúos, that sense of this word in the Old Testais, according to the scholiast, trepio

ment. As 1 Sam. xiv. 15. r7x7 tanni, Ows Bapú. But beside this Greek και εθάμβησεν η γη, αnd the earth notation, here is to be observed a quaked. And Psalm xlviii. 5. 17:30, reference to the words of David, Aquila O außnonoar, Symmachus Psal. xiii. 5. Ινατί περίλυπος ει η éčemldynoav: as Psal. xxxi. 22. 'Eqw yuxń uov; (vb)] *omninon). So that δε είπα εν τη εκστάσει μου, Aquila θαμit doth not only signify an excess of βήσει, Symmachus εκπλήξει. The like sorrow surrounding and encompass is also in the passive termination; as ing the soul; but also such as brings Daniel expresses his fear in a vision, a consternation and dejection of mind, εθαμβήθην, και πίπτω επί πρόσωπόν bowing the soul under the pressure Mov, Dan, viii. 17. and the wicked are and burden of it. And if neither the described by the Wise Man, Daupouuenotation of the word, nor the relation νοι δεινώς, και ινδάλμασιν έκταρασσόto that place in the Psalms, did ex MEVOL, Sap. xvii. 3. From whence it press that sorrow, yet the following appeareth, that Daußeiobal of itself part of our Saviour's words would signifieth a high degree of fear, horsufficiently evidence it, &ws Oavátov: ror, and amazement. Gloss. Vet. Dayit was a sorrow which like the pangs Boüual, obstupeo, stupeo, pavesco. And of death compassed him, and like the by the addition of the preposition ég pains of hell gat hold upon him, Psalm the signification is augmented. "Excxvi. 3. The second word, used by Barbos, &r TAMKtns, Hesych. passively; St Mark alone, is ék außeiofai, which θηρίον φοβερόν και έκθαμβον, Dan, vii. with the Vulgar Latin is pavere, but 7. actively, i.e. eKTANKTikby. Such an in the language of the Greeks bears augmentation in this word is justifiable a higher sense. θάμβος σημαίνει την by that rule left us in Eustathius, ad


render him suddenly, upon a present and immediate apprehension, possessed with fear, horror, and amazement, encompassed with grief, and overwhelmed with sorrow, pressed down with consternation and dejection of mind, tormented with anxiety and disquietude of spirit.

This he first expressed to his disciples, saying, My soul is Matt. xxvi. exceeding sorrowful; and lest they should not fully appre- Mark xiv. 34, hend the excess, adding, even unto death, as if the pangs of death had already encompassed him, and, as the Psalmist speaks, the pains of hell had got hold upon him. He went but Psal. cxvi 3 a little farther before he expressed the same to his Father, falling on his face and praying, even with strong crying and Heb. v. 7. tears, unto him that was able to save him from death. Nor were his cries or tears sufficient evidences of his inward suffer

ings, nor could the sorrows of his breast be poured forth either 191 at his lips or eyes; the innumerable pores of all his body must

give a passage to more lively representations of the bitter anguish of his soul; and therefore while he prayed more earnestly, in that agony his sweat was as it were great drops of Luke xxii. 41. blood falling down to the ground. As the Psalmist had before declared, I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out Psal. xxii. 14. of joint: my heart is like wax, it is melted in the midst of my bowels. The heart of our Saviour was as it were melted with fear and astonishment, and all the parts of his body at

Iliad. E. (142.] 'H é a Cols ubνον τήν έξω δηλοί σχέσιν, αλλά ύψωμα πολλάκις σημαίνει. Of which he gives an example in ekvoulws, used by Aristophanes in Pluto, 981. though not named by him. And again, ad Iliad. Ν. [278.] Η εξ πρόθεσις επίτασιν δηλοι, όποίαν και το μάλιστα. Εκθαμβείσθαι therefore is μάλιστα θαμβείσθαι, , to be surprised with horror in the highest degree, even unto stupefaction. Gloss. Vet. 'ExOaußoüuar, obstupesco. The third word is 'Aðnuoveîv, Vulg. Lat. tædere in St Mark, mæstus esse in St Matthew: but it hath yet a farther sense. 'Αδημονώ, ακηδιώ, αγωνιώ, says Hesychius. 'Αδημονώ, το λίαν λυπούpas, Suidas. It signifieth therefore grief and anguish in excess, as appeareth also by the origination of it. For, as Eustathius observes: Toù đôn

μονεϊν πρωτότυπον αδήμων, αδήμονος, ο
εκ λύπης ως ολα και τινος κόρου, δς άδος
Néyeral, åva TEATWKWS. Iliad. A. [88.)
From αδώ, αδήσω, αδήμων, from αδή-
μων, αδημονώ. It hath therefore in it
the signification of άδην or λίαν, 8a-
tiety, or extremity. From whence it
is ordinarily so expounded, as if it
contained the consequence of the
greatest fear or sorrow, that is, anxiety
of mind, disquietude, and restlessness,
'Αδημονείν αλύειν και απορείν, αμηχα-
veîv, Etymol. As Antony is expressed
by Plutarch, after the loss of 8000
men, being in want of all things
necessary for the rest: Κλεοπάτραν
περιέμενε, και βραδυνούσης αδημονείν
ñave. [c. 51.) So where the Heb.
dawn is by the LXX. translated
eKTAayos, by Symmachus it is
rendered å onuovîs, Eccles. vii. 16.

Isai. liii. 6.

the same time inflamed with anguish and agony; well then might that melting produce a sweat, and that inflamed and rarified blood force a passage through the numerous pores.

And as the evangelists' expressions, so the occasion of the grief, will manifest the height and bitterness thereof. For God laid on his own Son the iniquities of us all; and as we are obliged to be sorry for our particular sins, so was he grieved for the sins of us all. If then we consider the perfection and latitude of his knowledge; be understood all the sins of men for which he suffered, all the evil and the guilt, all the offence against the majesty, and ingratitude against the goodness of God, which was contained in all those sins. If we look upon his absolute conformity to the will of God; he was inflamed with most ardent love, he was most zealous of his glory, and most studious to preserve that right which was so highly violated by those sins. If we look upon his relation to the sons of men ; he loved them all far more than


did themselves, he knew those sins were of themselves sufficient to bring eternal destruction on their souls and bodies; he considered them whom he so much loved, as lying under the wrath of God, whom he so truly worshipped. If we reflect upon those graces which were without measure diffused through his soul, and caused him with the greatest habitual detestation to abhor all sin ; if we consider all these circumstances, we cannot wonder at that grief and sorrow. For if the true contrition of one single sinner, bleeding under the sting of the Law only for his own iniquities, all which notwithstanding he knoweth not, cannot be performed without great bitterness of sorrow and remorse; what bounds can we set unto that grief, what measures to that anguish, which proceedeth from a full apprehension of all the transgressions of so many millions of sinners ?

Add unto all these present apprehensions, the immediate band of God pressing upon him all this load, laying on his

shoulders at once an heap of all the sorrows which can happen Heb. iv. 15. unto any of the saints of God; that he, being touched with the Hleb. ii. 17, 18 feeling of our infirmities, might become a merciful high-priest,

able and willing to succour them that are tempted. Thus may we behold and see if there be any sorrow like unto that sorrow which was done unto him, wherewith the Lord afflicted him in the day of his fierce anger. And from hence we may and must

Lam. i. 12.

conclude, that the Saviour of man, as he took the whole nature
of man, so he suffered in whatsoever he took : in his body, by
internal infirmities and external injuries; in his soul, by fears
and sorrows, by unknown and inexpressible anguishes. Which
shews us fully (if it can be shewn) the third particular pro-
pounded, What our Saviour suffered.

That our Saviour did thus suffer, is most necessary to
believe. First, that thereby we may be assured of the verity
of his human nature. For if he were not man, then could not
man be redeemed by him; and if that nature in which he ap-
peared were not truly human, then could he not be truly man.
But we may be well assured that he took on him our nature,
when we see him subject unto our infirmities. We know the

Godhead is of infinite perfection, and therefore is exalted far 192 above all possibility of molestation. When therefore we see

our Saviour truly suffer, we know his divine essence suffered
not, and thence acknowledge the addition of his human nature,
as the proper subject of his passion. And from hence we may
infallibly conclude, surely that Mediator between God and
man was truly man, as we are men, who when he fasted was
an hungry, when he travelled was thirsty and weary as we
are, who being grieved wept, being in an agony sweat, being
scourged bled, and being crucified died.

Secondly, It was necessary Christ should suffer for the
redemption of lapsed men, and their reconciliation unto God;
which was not otherwise to be performed than by a plenary
satisfaction to his will. He therefore was by all his sufferings
made an expiation, atonement, and propitiation, for all our
sins. For salvation is impossible unto sinners without remis-
sion of sin; and remission, in the decree of God, impossible
without effusion of blood. Our redemption therefore could
not be wrought but by the blood of the Redeemer, but by
a Lamb slain, but by a suffering Saviour.

Thirdly, It behoved Christ to suffer, that he might purchase thereby eternal happiness in the heavens both for himself the Head, and for the members of his body. He drunk of Psal. cx. 7. the brook in the way, therefore hath he lift up his head. Ought Luke xxiv. not Christ to suffer, and to enter into his own glory? And doth he not by the same right by which he entered into it, confer that glory upon us? The recompense of the reward was set before him, and through an intuition of it he cheerfully underwent


Luke xxiii.

whatsoever was laid upon him. He must therefore necessarily
suffer to obtain that happiness, who is therefore happy because
he suffered.

Fourthly, It was necessary Christ should suffer, that we
might be assured that he is truly affected with a most tender
compassion of our afflictions. For this end was he subjected
to misery, that he might become prone unto mercy; for this
purpose was he made a sacrifice, that he might be a com-
passionate high-priest: and therefore was he most unmerciful
to himself, that he might be most merciful unto us.

Fifthly, It was necessary the Son of man should suffer, thereby to shew us that we are to suffer, and to teach us how we are to suffer.

For if these things were done to the green tree, what shall be done to the dry? Nay, if God spared not his natural, his eternal, his only-begotten Son; how shall he spare his adopted sons, who are best known to be children because they are chastised, and appear to be in his paternal affection because they lie under his fatherly correction? We are therefore heirs, only because co-heirs with Christ; and we shall be kings, only because we shall reign together with him. It is a certain and infallible consequence, if Christ be risen, then shall we also rise; and we must look for as strong a coherence in this other, If Christ hath suffered, then must we expect to suffer. And as he taught the necessity of, so he left us the direction in, our sufferings. Great was the example of Job, but far short of absolute perfection : the pattern beyond all exception is alone our Saviour, who hath taught us in all our afflictions the exercise of admirable humility, perfect patience, and absolute submission unto the will of God.

And now we may perceive the full importance of this part of the Article, and every Christian may thereby understand what he is to believe, and what he is conceived to profess, when he makes this confession of his faith, He suffered. For hereby every one is obliged to intend thus much: I am really persuaded within myself, and do make a sincere profession of this as a most necessary, certain, and infallible truth, that the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father, and of the same essence with the Father, did for the redemption of man- 193 kind really and truly suffer; not in his Divinity, which was impassible, but in his humanity, which in the days of his humiliation was subject unto our infirmities : that as he is

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