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have been arranged at a later period. The words, * There shall not remain one stone upon another,' came into my mind. Any one may perceive by a little observation that they (the stones) do not fit together now as they originally did.”—Missionary Labours in Jerusalem, pp. 94, 112.
"I went to the place where the Jews are permitted to purchase the right of approaching the site of their temple, and of praying and wailing over its ruins and the downfall of their nation. The spot is approached
WAILING PLACE OF JEWS. only by a narrow, crooked lane, which there terminates at the wall in a very small open space. Two old men, Jews, sat there upon the ground, reading together in a book of Hebrew prayers. On Fridays they assemble here in greater numbers. It is the nearest point in which they can venture to approach their ancient temple, and, fortunately for them, it is sheltered from observa
tion by the narrowness of the lane and the dead walls around. Here, bowed in the dust, they may at least weep undisturbed, and bedew with their tears the soil which so many thousands of their forefathers once moistened with their blood.”—Robinson's Researches, vol. i. pp. 349, 350.
JERUSALEM AS IT NOW IS.
Psalm cu. 1316. “ Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Zion : for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is come. For thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and favour the dust thereof. So the heathen shall fear the name of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth thy glory, when the Lord shall build up Zion.”
“The Holy City is surrounded by a massive stonewall, which is forty feet high and four broad, built in 1542 by Sultan Sulyman, with tower, battlement, and loop-holes, like that of York ; and so constructed, that a convenient walk may be taken on the top of it with perfect safety. In the cool of the evening, and early in the morning, this promenade is one of the most pleasant recreations the Holy City still affords ; flights of steps leading up at convenient distances .... The circumference of modern Jerusalem is about three miles. It took me an hour to walk round it. Of the several gates of the Holy City mentioned in the Scriptures and in Josephus, four only have been left open, one on each of the four sides of the city; viz. the West Gate, leading to Jaffa, Bethlehem, Hebron, and Gaza; the North, or Damascus Gate ; the East Gate, leading to Gethsemane, Bethany, &c.; and the South, or Zion Gate, because it is on that mountain.
“Though Jerusalem is built upon hills, which are more than 2,000 feet above the level of the Mediterranean, yet it is surrounded by mountains still higher. Of these the principal are, the Mountain of Evil Counsel, or
Judgment, so called because on it, they say, was the house of Caiaphas, whose counsel was taken to put Jesus to death. The Aceldama, or Field of Blood, is on this mountain. The Mount of Offence, so called on account of the idolatry King Solomon committed on it, and the ever memorable Mount of Olivet. The Mount of Offence is really only a lower ridge of Olivet... These mountains are separated from the town by steep glens. The narrow valley of Hinnom runs between the mountain of Evil Counsel and that of Zion, whilst Jehoshaphat divides Moriah from Olivet.” There is also the hill called Ophel, which ends in a steep rocky point just over the Pool of Siloam.
The city is built upon four distinct hills, Zion, Moriah, Acra, and Bezetha. Bezetha, situated to the north-east, may be called the Mahometan quarter, for it is entirely inhabited by Moslems, and encloses the most ruinous part of the town. They are the lords of the landproud, overbearing, and fanatic. The nine soap manufactories of the city, the oil-presses, and the leatherfactory, are in their hands. They are generally very ignorant. Their boys are taught to read the Koran ; their girls do not go to school, nor do their women frequent any kind of public worship.
On Mount Moriah stands the Mosque of Omar, and other Mahometan buildings, covering the spot where once Solomon's temple stood. The Moslem, in the pride of his heart, takes here his evening walk; but Christians and Jews are excluded.
Mount Acra may be called the Christian quarter, for it is chiefly inhabited by Christians. Acra is the highest situation in Jerusalem ; the streets are cleaner, and kept in better order than the rest of the town. The chief buildings on Acra are some large convents and punneries, and the church of the Holy Sepulchre, so called from its being supposed to cover the Saviour's tomb. It is
i This is a matter of great uncertainty.
situated on the foot of the mount, which part is called Calvary.
The Hill of Zion contains THE CITADEL OF DAVID, so called because this fortification occupies the same position as that of David did. It consists of several buildings joined together, and is surrounded by a deep trench. When it was erected is uncertain. Some irregular troops are stationed here to guard the gates, keep order, &c. A covered wooden bridge over the trench leads into the interior of the castle. This bridge has benches on each side, on which the Pashas of Jerusalem are often seen seated, surrounded by their officers, smoking their pipes and administering justice. Before the castle there is an open square, used as a fruit and vegetable market. Every morning women are collected here from various places, with the produce of their gardens and fields, to be sold to the green-grocers of the town, when an absurd scene commences. The buyer offers a price, the seller says it is not sufficient,—they abuse each other, scream, quarrel, and shake each other, till the whole market-place appears in a perfect confusion ; yet, in a very short time, the bargain is made, and order restored, and the square is cleared by nine o'clock.
The Tower HIPPICUS is also on Mount Zion. This was one of the three towers built by Herod the Great, and has survived the destructions of ages. THE VILLAGE OF THE LEPERS is near the Zion gate. This unfortunate and pitiable race consist of about one hundred. They are compelled to live separate from all, intermarry, and thus propagate their miseries from one generation to another. The malady appears when they are about twelve or fourteen years old, and increases till they literally lose one limb after the other; as they grow older their sight fails, their throat and lungs become infected, and death ensues. They live upon charity. The other buildings on Mount Zion are two CONVENTS, THE ENGLISH HOSPITAL FOR SICK JEWS, THE JEWISH QUARTER, and THE TEMPORARY ENGLISH CHURCH. The Jews rise
at midnight, wrap themselves in their veils, and with dust on their foreheads, prostrate themselves on the ground, repeating some of the lamentations of Jeremiah, and mournful songs on their captivity, &c. One of their prayers is—
“ In mercy, Lord, thy people's prayer attend;
Grant his desire to mourning Israel;
And call his glorious name Immanuel."
“How doth the city sit solitary, that was once full of people! How is she become as a widow ! She that was great among the nations, and princess among the provinces, how is she become tributary ! None who are acquainted with Jerusalem's history can proceed far in her streets without being reminded of these words. Most of the streets are desolate, badly paved, narrow,