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Gloucester, that duke so good,
Next of the royal blood,
For famous England stood

With his brave brother. Clarence, in steel so bright, Though but a maiden knight, Yet in that furious fight,

Scarce such another!

14 Warwick in blood did wade; Oxford, the foe invade, And cruel slaughter made,

Still as they ran up. Suffolk his axe did ply; Beaumont and Willoughby Bare them right doughtily; Ferrers, and Fanhope.

Upon Saint Crispin's Day
Fought was this noble fray;
Which Fame did not delay

To England to carry.
0, when shall English men
With such acts fill a pen?
Or England breed again

Such a King Harry?

ing privileges? who ever saw, before this regiment, an English Ligier in the stately porch of the Grand Signor at Constantinople? who ever found English consuls and agents at Tripolis in Syria, at Aleppo, at Babylon, at Balsara, and which is more, who ever heard of Englishman at Goa before now? what English ships did heretofore ever anchor in the mighty river of Plate ? pass and repass the unpassable (in former opinion) Strait of Magellan, range along the coast of Chili, Peru, and all the backside of Nova Hispania, further than any christian ever passed, traverse the mighty breadth of the South Sea, land upon the Luzones in despite of the enemy, enter into alliance, amity, and traffic with the princes of the Moluccas and the isle of Java, double the famous cape of Bona Speranza, arrive at the isle of St. Helena, and last of all return home most richly laden with the commodities of China, as the subjects of this now flourishing monarchy have done?



1 You brave heroic minds, Worthy your country's name,

That honor still pursue;

Go and subdue! Whilst loitering hinds

Lurk here at home with shame.



2 Britons, you stay too long; Quickly aboard bestow you!

And with a merry gale

Swell your stretched sail, With vows as strong As the winds that blow you!


[From the Voyages, 1589] To harp no longer upon this string, and to speak a word of that just commendation whic our nation do indeed deserve: it cannot be denied, but as in all former ages they have been men full of activity, stirrers abroad, and searchers of the remote parts of the world, so in this most famous and peerless government of her most excellent Majesty, her subjects, through the special assistance and blessing of God, in searching the most opposite corners and quarters of the world, and to speak plainly, in compassing the vast globe of the earth more than once, have excelled all the nations and people of the earth. For which of the kings of this land before her Majesty had their banners ever seen in the Caspian sea ? which of them hath ever dealt with the emperor of Persia as her Majesty hath done, and obtained for her merchants large and lov

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A poet's brows
To crown, that may sing there.

12 Thy Voyages attend, Industrious Hakluyt!

Whose reading shall inflame

Men to seek fame;
And much commend
To after times thy wit.


And ours to hold,
Earth's only Paradise.

Where Nature hath in store
Fowl, venison, and fish;

And the fruitful'st soil,

Without your toil,
Three harvests more,
All greater than your wish.

And the ambitious vine
Crowns with his purple mass

The cedar reaching high

To kiss the sky, The cypress, pine, And useful sassafras.

7 To whom, the Golden Age Still Nature's laws doth give:

Nor other cares attend,

But them to defend From winter's rage, That long there doth not live.

8 When as the luscious smell Of that delicious land,

Above the seas that flows,

The clear wind throws, Your hearts to swell, Approaching the dear strand.

9 In kenning of the shore (Thanks to God first given!)

O you, the happiest men,

Be frolic then!
Let cannons roar,
Frightening the wide heaven!

And in regions far,
Such heroes bring ye forth

As those from whom we came!

And plant our name
Under that star
Not known unto our North!

And where in plenty grows
The laurel everywhere,

Apollo's sacred tree
Your days may see

SIR WALTER RALEIGH [From A Report of the Fight betwixt the Revenge and an Armada of the

King of Spain, 1591] Because the rumours are diversly spred, as well in Englande as in the lowe countries and els where, of this late encounter between her maiesties ships and the Armada of Spain; and that the Spaniardes according to their usual maner, fill the world with their vaine glorious vaunts, making great apparance of victories: when on the contrary, themselves are most commonly and shamefully beaten and dishonoured; therby hoping to possesse the ignorant multitude by anticipating and forerunning false reports: It is agreeable with all good reason, for manifestation of the truth to overcome falsehood and untruth; that the beginning, continuance, and successe of this late honourable encounter of Syr Richard Grinvile, and other her maiesties Captaines, with the Armada of Spaine; should be truly set downe and published without parcialltie or false imaginations. And it is no marvell that the Spaniard should seeke by false and slandrous Pamphlets, advisoes and Letters, to cover their owne losse, and to derogate from others their due honours especially in this fight beeing performed farre of; seeing they were not ashamed in the yeare 1588, when they purposed the invasion of this land, to publish in sundrie languages in print, great victories in wordes, which they pleaded to have obteined against this Realme, and spredde the same in a most false sort over all partes of France, Italie, and elsewhere. When shortly after it was happily manifested in verie deed to all Nations, how their Navy which they termed invincible, consisting of 240 saile of ships, not onely of their own kingdom, but strengthened with the greatest

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Argosies, Portugall Caractes, Florentines, of Horse and foote. In this sort I have a and huge Hulkes of other countries: were little digressed from my first purpose, only by thirtie of her Maiesties' owne shippes of by the necessarie comparison of theirs and warre, and a few of our owne Marchants, by our actions: the one covetous of honor the wise, valiant, and most advantagious without vaunt or ostentation; the other so conduction of the L. Charles Howard, high greedy to purchase the opinion of their own Admirall of England, beaten and shuffeled affaires, and by false rumors to resist the togither, even from the Lizard in Cornwall : blasts of their owne dishonors, as they wil first to Portland, where they shamefully left not only not blush to spread all maner of Don Pedro de Valdes, with his mightie untruthes: but even for the least advantage, shippe: from Portland to Cales, where they be it but for the taking of one poore adlost Hugo de Moncado, with the Gallias of venturer of the English, will celebrate the which he was Captain, and from Cales, victorie with bonefiers in everie town, driven with squibs from their anchors: were alwaies spending more in faggots, then the chased out of the sight of England, round purchase was worth they obtained. When about Scotland and Ireland. Where for the as we never yet thought it worth the consympathie of their barbarous religion, hop-sumption of two billets, when we have taken ing to finde succour and assistance: a great eight or ten of their Indian shippes at one part of them were crusht against the rocks, time, and twentie of the Brasill fleet. and those other that landed, being verie Such is the difference between true valmanie in number, were not withstanding ure, and ostentation: and betweene honbroken, slaine, and taken, and so sent from ourable actions, and frivolous vainevillage to village coupled in halters to be glorious vaunts. But now to returne to shipped into Engla[n]d. Where her Maiestie my first purpose. of her Princely and invincible disposition, The L. Thomas Howard, with sixe of her disdaining to put them to death, and scorn- Maiesties ships, sixe victualers of London, ing either to retaine or entertaine them: the barke Ralegh, and two or three Pinnasses [they) were all sent backe againe to theire riding at anchor nere unto Flores, one of countries, to witnesse and recount the the Westerlie Ilands of the Azores, the last worthy achievements of their invincible and of August in the after noone had intelligence dreadfull Navy. Of which the number of by one Captaine Midleton, of the approach souldiers, the fearefull burthen of their of the Spanish Armada. Which Midleton shippes, the commanders names of everie being in a,verie good Sailer, had kept them squadron, with all other their magasines of companie three daies before, of good purprovision, were put in print, as an Army pose, both to discover their forces the more, and Navy unresistible, and disdaining pre- as also to give advice to my L. Thomas of vention. With all which so great and ter- their approch. He had no sooner delivered rible an ostentation, they did not in all their the newes but the Fleet was in sight: manie sailing rounde about England, so much as of our shippes companies were on shore in sinke, or take one ship, Barke, Pinnes, or the Iland; some providing balast for their Cockbote of ours: or ever burnt so much ships; others filling of water and refreshing as one sheep-cote of this land. When as on themselves from the land with such thinges the contrarie, Syr Francis Drake, with only as they coulde either for money, or by force 800 souldiers not long before, landed in recover. By reason whereof our ships being their Indies, and forced Santiago, Santa all pestered and romaging everie thing out Domingo, Cartagena, and the Fortes of of order, verie light for want of balast. And Florida.

that which was most to our disadvantage, the And after that, Syr Iohn Norris marched one halfe part of the men of every shippe from Peniche in Portugall, with a handfull sicke, and utterly unserviceable. For in the of souldiers, to the gates of Lisbone, being Revenge there were ninetie diseased: in the above 40 English miles. Where the Earle of Bonaventure, not so many in health as could Essex himselfe and other valiant Gentlemen, handle her maine saile. For had not twentie braved the Cittie of Lisbone, encamped at men beene taken out of a Barke of Sir the verie gates; from whence after many George Caryes, his being commanded to be daies abode, finding neither promised partie, sunke, and those appointed to her, she had

, nor provision to batter: made retrait by hardly ever recovered England. The rest land, in despite of all their Garrisons, both for the most part, were in little better state. ve, in

The names of her Maiesties shippes were shot eight forth right out of her chase, bethese as followeth: the Defiaunce, which sides those of her Sterne portes. was Admirall, the Revenge Viceadmirall, After the Revenge was intangled with this the Bonaventure, commanded by Captaine Philip, foure other boorded her; two on her Crosse, the Lion by George Fenner, the larboord, and two on her starboord. The Foresight by M. Thomas Vavisour, and the fight thus beginning at three of the clocke Crane by Duffeild. The Foresight and the in the after noone, continued verie terrible Crane being but small ships; onely the other all that evening. But the great San Philip were of the middle size; the rest, besid[e]s having receyved the lower tire of the Rethe Barke Ralegh, commanded by Captaine venge, discharged with crossebarshot, shifted Thin, were victualers, and of small force or hir selfe with all diligence from her sides, none. The Spanish fleete having shrouded utterly misliking hir first entertainment. their approch by reason of the Iland; were Some say that the shippe foundred, but wee now so soone at hand, as our ships had cannot report it for truth, unlesse we were scarce time to waye their anchors, but some assured. The Spanish ships were filled with of them were driven to let slippe their companies of souldiers, in some two hunCables, and set sayle. Sir. Richard Grinvile dred besides the Marriners; in some was the last waied, to recover the men that others eight hundred. In ours there were were upon the Iland, which otherwise had

none at all, beside the Marriners, but the beene lost. The L. Thomas with the rest servants of the commanders and some fewe verie hardly recovered the winde, which Sir voluntarie Gentlemen only. After many enRichard Grinvile not being able to do, was terchanged voleies of great ordinance and perswaded by the maister and others to cut small shot, the Spaniards deliberated to his maine saile, and cast about, and to trust enter the Revenge, and made divers atto the sailing of his shippe: for the squadron tempts, hoping to force her by the multiof Sivil were on his weather bow. But Sir tudes of their armed souldiers and MusRichard utterly refused to turne from the ketiers, but were still repulsed againe and enimie, alledging that he would rather chose againe, and at all times beaten backe, into to dye, then to dishonour him selfe, his coun- their owne shippes, or into the seas. In the trie, and her Maiesties shippe, perswading beginning of the fight, the George Noble of his companie that he would passe through London, having received some shot thorow the two Squadrons, in despight of them: and her by the armados, fell under the Lee of enforce those of Sivill to give him way. the Revenge, and asked Syr Richard what Which he performed upon diverse of the he would command him, being one of the formost, who as the Marriners terme it, victulers and of small force: Syr Richard sprang their luffe, and fell under the lee of bid him save himselfe, and leave him to his the Revenge. But the other course had beene fortune. After the fight had thus without the better, and might right well have beene intermission, continued while the day lasted answered in so great an impossibilitie of and some houres of the night, many of our prevailing. Notwithstanding out of the men were slaine and hurt, and one of the greatnesse of his minde, he could not bee great Gallions of the Armada, and the perswaded. In the meane while as hee at- Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in tended those which, were nearest him, the many other of the Spanish ships great great San Philip being in the winde of him, slaughter was made. Some write that sir and comming towards him, becalmed his Richard was verie dangerously hurt almost sailes in such sort, as the shippe could in the beginning of the fight, and laie speechneither way nor feele the helme: so huge less for a time ere he recovered. But two and high carged was the Spanish ship, being of the Revenges owne companie, brought of a thousand and five hundredth tuns. Who home in a hip of Lime from the Ilandes, afterlaid the Revenge aboord. When he was examined by some of the Lordes, and others : thus bereft of his sailes, the ships that wer affirmed that he was never so wounded as under his lee luffing up, also laid him that hee forsooke the upper decke, til an aborde: of which the next was the Admirall houre before midnight; and then being shot of the Biscaines, a verie mightie and puysant into the bodie with a Musket as hee was a shippe commanded by Brittan Dona. The dressing, was againe shot into the head, said Philip carried three tire of ordinance on and withall his Chirugion wounded to death. a side, and eleven peeces in everie tire. She This agreeth also with an examination taken

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