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I went up, not of mine own head, but by the appointment and revelation of God: and because there was a seeming difference betwixt the course that I took in my preaching and planting the Gospel, and theirs; they permitting circumcision where they preached, I not permitting it; I was willing to communicate unto them the course which I held among the Gentiles; but not in open hearing, but privately, to those which were in chief account; viz. Peter, James, and John; lest by any means I should have been thought to have gone a wrong way to work in my ministry.
II. 3. But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:
But so ordered I the matter, that not so much as Titus, who was with me in that journey, being a Gentile and a Grecian, was compelled, notwithstanding the importunity of some, to be circumcised:
II. 4. And that because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that 8c.
And that chiefly, because of some false brethren of my nation, the Jews, who were secretly and underhand brought in, and set as spies, to pry into that liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, whereby we do justly hold ourselves freed from these legal ceremonies and observances; and laboured, by their enforcement, to draw us unto that bondage of the Mosaical Law, from which we were delivered by Christ:
II. 5. To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour ; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.
To whom we yielded not an inch, nor gave subjection for so much as an hour, but opposed them effectually; that ye might well find, that it was no other than the truth of the Gospel, which we had delivered to you, and that ye might resolve to persist therein.
II. 6. But of these who seemed to be somewhat, whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me: God accepteth no man's person: for fc.
But of these great apostles, who carried much sway in the Church, and seemed persons of eminence, whatsoever they were, all is one to me: God doth not accept of any man's person; as more regarding him, because he is great, learned, well spoken: even the best of them in conference added nothing to me, nor taught me any thing that I knew not.
II. 7. But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, &c.
But, contrariwise, when they saw that I was made the Apostle of the Gentiles, as Peter was of the Jews &c. So verse 8.
II. 9. And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to
be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave
to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; &c. And when Peter, James, and John, who were justly accounted to be the Pillars of the Church, perceived that great measure of
and mercy, which God had vouchsafed unto me, in so miraculous a call to my Apostleship, they did willingly admit me and Barnabas, into the society and partnership of this great work; consenting, that we should go to convert the heathen, and they the Jews.
II. 11. But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed.
Thus we went about our great and holy task: but when Peter was come to Antioch, where I was, I withstood him openly and professedly; because indeed he was worthy of blame and opposition.
II. 12. For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles : but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.
For, before that certain Jews came thither from James, he did familiarly converse at meals, and upon all other occasions, with the Gentiles; as making no difference betwixt them and Jews: but, when those Jews were come to him from James, he withdrew and separated himself from the Gentiles, as if they had been unclean and unfit to be conversed with ; belike fearing the offence of those Jews, which were newly come unto him.
II. 13. And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him ; insomuch that Barnabas also fc.
And the other Jews, which were with him before, following his example, dissembled also with him, and withdrew themselves from the Gentiles; insomuch as Barnabas also, my companion, began to be drawn away with them.
II. 14. But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews ?
But when I saw that they halted thus, and went not sincerely on, according to the truth of the Gospel (wherein we have learned, that the partition-wall is broken down, and that in Christ there is neither Jew nor Gentile,) I said boldly unto Peter before them all, If thou, being naturally born a Jew, livest in a free fashion, after the manner of the Gentiles, without any regard of the strict observation of the Jewish rites, why dost thou compel those, which are born Gentiles, to live according to the rules of the Jewish strictness?
II. 15, 16. We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, Knowing that a man is not justified by the works
of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have betiered in Jesus Christ.
We, who are Jews by nature, and therefore, as it might seem, peculiarly chosen and privileged by God, and not Gentiles, who have been heretofore censured and rejected for inpure
and unclean persons; Even we, well knowing that a man is not justified by the Works of the Law, but by Faith in Jesus Christ, have believed in Jesus.
II. 17. But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, ue ourselves also are found sinners, is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid.
Thus I said to Peter, and that justly and truly, How is it then ? if we, leaving our confidence to be justified by the Works of the Law, and seeking to be justified by Christ, be yet found to be sinners; shall we therefore say that Christ came to strip us of that righteousness which we might have hoped for in the Law, and to leave us as sinful and polluted men under the state of sin and death ? God forbid, that we should teach such doctrine.
II. 18. For if I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor,
For, as for me, I have always hitherto preached the death and abolition of sin, by the power of Christ's death ; and, if I should now preach the power and prevalence of sin over the soul, notwithstanding that death of Christ, I should build up that which I have formerly destroyed, and make myself justly censurable.
II. 19. For I through the law am dead to the law, that I might lire unto God.
It is not the Justice of Christ, that voids the Law, or disables it from justifying us: no ; it is the Law itself, that kills her followers alone : I myself, by the power and rigour of the Law, am a dead man to the Law ; insomuch as it condemos me for not keeping it, and puts me out of all hope and confidence in myself or it; that I might seek unto God, for that life of Faith, which is only to be found in and by Christ.
II. 20. I am crucified with Christ : nevertheless I live ; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me : and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God.
Ås my Saviour was crucified, so am I crucified with him; and, by the power of his death, am dead to my sins and corruptions : but, though I be dead, one way, yet I live another: yet I know not whether I may properly say, that I live, or rather that Christ lives in me; for as my soul animates my body, so Christ animates, as it were, my soul, and moves and works in me: and the life, which I now live, is not a carnal, but a spiritual life; not the life of nature, but of grace, wrought in me by the power of Faith in the Son of God.
II. 21. I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.
Howsoever other men may be joining Christ and the Law together, I, for my part, will not be so injurious to the grace of Christ, as to frustrate it, by adding a partner to it: for, surely, if Righteousness be to be had by the Works of the Law, then Christ is dead in vain.
III. 1. O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?
O ye foolish Galatians, how comes it to pass, that ye are so bewitched, by your glozing and false teachers, as to be carried away from your obedience to the truth of the Gospel; ye, which have Christ Jesus so clearly and openly preached unto you, as if ye had seen him hanging upon the cross before you?
III. 2. This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
Let me ask you but this question : Ye believe that ye have received the Spirit of God; tell me then, whence had you it? did you receive it by doing the Works of the Law; by the gift of these circumcisers? or did ye receive it upon your hearing and believing of the Gospel, and that word of Faith which ye heard of us?
III. 3. Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?
Are ye so foolish, as having begun in the profession of the doctrine of Justification by Faith, ye will now seek to be perfected by circumcision in the flesh, and other carnal observances ?
III. 4. Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.
Have ye in vain suffered so much for the defence and profession of the Gospel ? if, at least, it be in vain; as certainly it is in vain, if ye now fly off from the sincerity and truth thereof.
III. 5. He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith ?
The Apostles of Christ, who, by laying on of hands, gave you the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, and wrought strange wonders among you, did they do it upon your doing of the Works of the Law, or upon your receipt of the doctrine of Faith?
III. 8. Preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.
Preached before unto Abraham, even ere he was circum
cised, this glad tidings of the Gospel; saying, Thy name shall be used in all benedictions; and thou shalt be a pattern and rule of blessings to all nations.
III. 9. So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham.
So then, they, which do truly believe, are so blessed, as faithful Abraham was.
III. 10. For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse : fc.
For, as many as depend upon the Works of the Law for their Justification, are under the curse, in not performing the Law; as it is written, Cursed, &c.
III. 12. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
The Law doth not stand upon the requiring of our Faith as a condition of our Justification and Salvation; but stands upon these terms, The man, that doth them, shall in and by them obtain life.
III. 13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us : for it is written, Cursed is erery one that hangeth on a tree :
Christ hath redeemed us from that curse, which must needs follow upon the breach of the Law; in that he, who was in his own person most holy and blessed, in the person of us sinners and for us for whose sins he came to satisfy his Father he is made a curse; as it is written, &c. See Deut. xxi. 23.
III. 14. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ.
That the blessing, which was promised to Abraham, might, &c. that we, through Faith, might receive that good Spirit of Sanctification, which he hath promised.
III. 15. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.
Brethren, let me fetch an argument even from your human affairs : If it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be ratified and confirmed, no man takes upon him to disannul or to alter it: how much more shall the covenant, that God himself made with Abraham, be firm and inviolable !
III. 16. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
Now to Abraham and to his seed were the promises made; I will be the God of thee and thy seed ; and, In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed: and though the word Seed do, in the signification thereof, imply a collection or multitude; yet, in this sense, it is, in the use and intention of God, restrained to one, even Christ, who is, by a specialty, that seed