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(consigned to W. and R. Rathbone,) navigated by eight men of colour and an apprentice boy; and it is but justice to the crew to observe, that during their stay they have been remarkable for their good conduct and proper behaviour, and that the greatest cordiality appears to prevail among them.
Since Faul Cutlee's arrival he has been twice in London, the second time at the request of the Board of the African Institution, who were desirous of consulting with him as to the best means of carrying their benevolent views respecting Africa into
From the preceding memoir, the reader must have become acquainted with the prominent features of Paul Cutice's character. A sound understanding, united with energy and perseverance, seems to have rendered him capable of surmounting difliculties which would have discouraged an ordinary mind; whilst the failures, which have attended his well concerted plans, have rather resulted from casualties than from crior in judgement.
Born under peculiar disadvantages, deprived of the benefits of early education, and his meridian spent in toil and vicissitudes, he has struggled under disadvantages which have seldom occurred in the career of any individual. Yet under the pressure of these difficulties, he seems to have fostered dispositions of mind which qualify him for any station of life to which he may be introduced.
His person is tall, well formed, and athletic: his deportment conciliating, yet dignified and serious. His prudence, strengthened by parental care and example, no doubt guarded him in his youth when exposed to the dissolute company which unavoidably attends a seafaring life; whilst religion, influencing his mind by its secret guidance in silent reflection, has in advancing manhood added to the brightness of his character, and instituted or confirmed his disposition to practical good. On being questioned some years since respecting the religious profession of his parents and himself, he replied, "I do not know that my father and mother were ever adopted as members of any society, but they followed the Quaker Meeting." As to himself, he has since made application, and been received into membership with the Society of Friends.
Liverpool, Oct. 4, 1811.
WE learn that the interesting character described in the foregoing pages resided when in London at the house of one of the Directors of the African Institution. This gentleman having received letters from most respectable persons in America on behalf of Paul Cullee, speaking in the highest terms of his integrity and abilities, was anxious to avail himself of so favourable an opportunity for deriving the most minute information on subjects which had come under the captain's own observation. Here several of the members of the African Institution and of the Old Abolition Committee examined the captain as to the present circumstances of Sierra Leone; that point which was fixed upon as a suitable station for exhibiting an attractive example to the untutored sons of Africa, of the benefits and advantages to be derived from civilization. They learned with pleasure that some progress had been made in this desirable work, though far short of what might have been expected, from the immense sums expended and the amiable characters of the directors of the company: but, as in all such cases every thing depends upon the capacity and conduct of those who are sent out, it so happened that in many instances the worthy directors found their confidence abused; and a series of mismanagement under some of the persons thus sent reduced the concern to so low an ebb, that it was deemed expedient to dissolve the company, and solicit Government to take the colony into its own hands. This was accordingly done, and in this state it was found when Paul Cuffce arrived at Sierra Leone. The influence and management, however, is, we believe, almost precisely the same now as under the late company. It is gratifying to find that the present condition of the colony affords strong ground to hope, that if well-disposed individuals co-operate cordially in promoting its best interests, a most beneficial influence may be extended over immense tracts of country on the continent of Africa. The great bulk of the population consists of people of colour (principally Nova Scotians and Maroons); of 1917 souls within Sierra Leone, only 22, exclusive of the military, are Europeans. Many of the inhabitants are intelligent, and would be active, if a suflicient stimulus were afforded to bring their powers into play for this purpose Captain Cuff e strongly advises the establishment of a while-fishery, as whales are frequently met with within four degrees of the equator. If this most desirable object were properly encouraged by our Government, and those who have the control of affairs relative to Sierra Leone, the captain seems quite disposed to devote his experience and as much of his assistance as possible to establish such a concern. This must necessarily prove a source of wealth to the colony,
and tend most materially to increase its strength. He further proposed, that as Government are in the possession of many square miles of territory, which tracts in their present situation are of little or no use, experimental farms should be established, and that black families now resident in America, who could be well recommended for integrity, good morals, and skill in agriculture and the useful mechanic arts, should be encouraged to settle in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, and in places at no great distance under its protection. The good effects which might flow from a measure like this are incalculable; new lands would gradually be cleared, and the climate rendered thereby more salubrious. The inhabitants, instead of being coatented with a bare existence, would acquire a disposition to exert themselves in order to procure the comforts of civilized life; they would feel something of their importance in the scale of human beings; they would learn the value of character; their minds would receive new tone and vigour; and we may fairly calculate, that the views of some of them would be extended to the diffusion of light and knowledge among their less favoured brethren. But in order that these desirable effects should be produced, the mind must to a certain degree be at ease it is in vain to expect much active exertion while it is chained down to the necesary cares of providing for the wants of the passing day. If the managers of the colony could be prevailed upon to adopt the suggestions of Paul Cuffee on this head, the civilization of Africa would in our opinion make a sensible progress; and we are not without some hope that they will be attended to, as we understand that the African Institution held a board on the 27th of August last, purposely to confer with Captain Cuffee, at which board the Duke of Gloucester presided. We are informed that the captain's answers to the questions put to him by the royal duke and other members present, were marked by frankness and strong good sense; and a general sentiment prevailed that he might be made a powerful instrument in promoting the benevolent designs of the Institution. A committee was accordingly appointed to consider the subject, and report to the first sitting in November. This committee was also charged to inquire into the amount of the captain's expenses in his two journeys from Liverpool to London, and also as to the loss that he might have incurred in this attempt to serve the cause of humanity. He presented to his royal highness some articles of African manufacture, which we understand were not only graciously received, but that the royal duke condescended to write the captain a letter expressive of the gratification he felt in receiving such specimens of African ingenuity from the hands of so meritorious an indi
vidual of that race. Those who are interested in the welfare of Africa, must look with no small degree of interest to the Report which the Committee of the African Institution may make on this subject.
On the 29th of August, two days after this interview with the Board, Paul Culce proceeded to Liverpool, where his ship The Traveller lay, a license having been procured to enable him to revisit Sierra Leone, where he had left his captain M. Wainer. He took out with him an assortment of such articles as were deemed suitable for that market. On account of the differences between this country and America, he was advised on his arrival in Africa to take in a cargo of rice, and proceed with it to the Cape de Verd islands, and thence return home with a cargo of salt. The permission to do this, however, was notobtained, and he will be obliged to return from Sierra Leone to West Port, Massachusets, in ballast. His object is, if possible, to keep open a communication between America and the colony, in order that, if our Government should encourage his plans, and the first settlers should succeed in forming satisfactory establishments, others of the same cast in America, on being informed of their success, might be induced to follow, and thus strengthen the colony by the accession of useful citizens. It is to be observed by the way, that a most important collateral purpose might be effected by experimental farms: they might afford employment to such of the natives as were captured in slave vessels, who would thus have an opportunity of learning the useful arts; and, when they had passed a reasonable time in apprenticeship, might carry their knowledge to the interior of the country. They would have seen the advantage of respecting private rights; they would have felt the value of property; and it is to be hoped, by a residence for some time among those who had been blessed with the knowledge of Christianity, might learn to discriminate between the name and the substance, and be prepared to prove to their unenlightened countrymen, that Christianity is a very different thing from what they must have been led to consider it from the conduct of such professors as they had been in the habit of seeing engaged in the slave trade. Indeed, from the conduct of the white slave dealers, the suffering part of the natives must have hitherto considered christianity and dæmonism as synonymous terms.
While we rejoice at the prospect which seems opening before us in this direction, we cannot but deplore the ravages which have been committed by the miscreant slave traders on the coast of Africa, even during the last year. These wretches, who ought to be treated as pirates by every civilized state, carry on their depredations under Spanish and Portuguese colours. A large proportion of them are Americans; and facts
have occurred which prove, that even the capital of persons resident in this country is employed in the murderous traffic. It is estimated that during the last year 70,000 inhabitants were carried off from the coast; of these it is said that 6000 were taken from the river Calabar in six months, and an equal number from a river in the neighbourhood. Slave vessels swarm in the Gambia and the Bite of Benin. It is some consolation, however, that the slave trade felony act passed in last session will now begin to operate: and we understand that a frigate, under the command of the hon. capt. Irby, also a sloop or two of war, have just sailed for Africa, with instructions to put the laws in execution. We learn, that of five American ships in the Gambia, under Spanish colours, three have been taken: andwe trust captain Irby will be in time to intercept a considerable number said to be now on their passage from Rhode Island and Amelia Island. The following account, published by the African Institution, will show the artifices under which this abominable business is carried on: and as they ought to be generally known, we shall give the particulars at length.
CASE OF THE BRIG AMELIA,
This vessel sailed from Cabenda on the 1st of January last, with 275 slaves on board. After being at sea twenty days, the slaves rose and took her; she was again retaken, off Cape Mount, by the brig Kitty, of Liverpool, and brought into Sierra Leone, 24th May, 1811.
The following papers will best convey the leading features of the case.
"Charleston, 17th May, 1810.
"The voyage on which we have jointly embarked, and which is now left to your discretion, is of a very delicate nature, and requires the greatest prudence and discretion. In order to qualify the Agent to bring a cargo from the coast, it will be necessary to put her under Portuguese colours: this, with the assistance of Messrs. Sealy, Roach, and Toole, of Bahia, for whom I enclose you a letter of introduction, you will easily be able to effect. They will procure for you some honest Portuguese merchant, who, for a small sum, shall undertake all what is necessary for owners to do. A captain of colour, one oflicer, and part of the crew, in compliance with the laws, must be Portuguese; but the Portuguese captain, at the same time that he must be instructed by the pretended owner to appear for him on all occasions in protecting the ship and property, must also be instructed not to interfere with the navigation of the ship, except at your request; and he must be put entirely under your orders. As you shall have to grant a bill of sale for the brig, when she is apparently sold, you must be very cautious to take a counter bill of sale; and again, as collateral security, a bottomry bond on the vessel for 10,000 dollars, with a power of attorney from the sham owner to you, to sell and dispose of her in any manner you shall think proper. I would wish you, besides, to take a very strong declaration in writing, witnessed by Sealy, Roach, and Toole, that the sale made by you is merely fictitious; that the cargo and her earnings are bona fide your property; which declaration must be