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then we have no light, except we open the door, and when it rains we are obliged to shut it, and burn a light. With all this trouble we can only make one room, out of the three we have, habitable, by putting our carpets, &c. into the holes. In this room we and our two children and the maid-servant are living.” — Missionary Labours, &c. p. 70.

VALLEY OF HINNO M.

SCRIPTURE NOTICES.

“ MOREOVER he burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in the fire after the abominations of the heathen, whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel ..."-2 Chronicles xxviii. 3.

“And they have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire ; which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter : for they shall bury in Tophet till there be no place.”Jeremiah vii. 31, 32.

[Joshua xv. 8, xviii. 16; 2 Kings xxiii. 10; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6; Neh. xi. 30; Jer. xix. xxxii. 35.]

This valley is so called in the Old Testament; though more commonly in the fuller form, Valley of the Son of Hinnom ... It is a deep and narrow dell, with steep rocky sides, often precipitous, ... and sweeping around mount Zion ... descends with great rapidity into the very deep valley of Jehoshaphat. ... Here it meets the gardens," (lying partly within its own mouth, and partly

1 See following pages.

in the valley of Jehoshaphat, or Kedron, and irrigated by the waters of Siloam,) in which Jerome assigns the place of Tophet; where the Jews practised the horrid rites of Baal and Moloch, and “burned their sons and their daughters in the fire.” It was probably in allusion to this detested and abominable fire, that the later Jews applied the name of this valley (Gehenna), to denote the place of future punishment, or the fires of hell. ROBINSON's Researches, vol. i. pp. 324, 402, 404, 405.

“On the south side of the valley of Hinnom, and near its junction with Kedron, is the Potter's Field. It is a small parcel of ground near the top of the bank, with an old ruined house on it. There was a small level spot, thirty feet below the top of the bank, at the bottom of a thick stratum of horizontal rock. Walls have been made enclosing a part of this, the face of the rock forming the south wall of the building. The roof, which is flat, is on a level with the top of the bank, and in it are a number of holes, through which they used to throw the dead bodies. It is not now used as a place of interment, and is, in fact, going to ruin, part of the walls having fallen in. ...

“At the junction of the valley of Hinnom with that of the Kedron, which is nearly at right angles, the Hinnom running nearly east, and the Kedron nearly west, there is a level space of several acres, laid out in gardens, and well set with trees. These gardens and trees continue up the valley of the Kedron, which is wider than that of Hinnom, for some distance; this rich and beautiful spot, watered by Siloam, is called the King's Dale. These valleys have all steep high banks." -Paxton's Letters from Palestine, pp. 122, 123.

"I was told in England that the country about Jerusalem was everywhere barren, rocky, and sandy; but I find this is not exactly the case. The valley of Hinnom," just outside the Jaffa gate, presents a most lovely,

i Sometimes called in this upper part, Valley of Gihon.

picturesque, and animated scenery; its verdure is rich ; particularly at this season you see there the green cornfields, the meadows covered with flowers, and the trees in blossom ; scattered over the plain you behold tents pitched, horses, camels, and sheep grazing, and hundreds of men, women, and children, of all nations, and in every variety of costume, strolling about, enjoying the evening breeze. So rich and full of interest is the walk round mount Zion, down to the brook Kedron, the valley of Jehoshaphat, the village of Siloam, to the garden of Gethsemane, and from thence up the mount of Olives, that we cannot look upon it without delight and heartfelt admiration.”-Missionary Labours in Jerusalem, p. 93.

“As we looked over the precipitous brow of the hill into the valley of Hinnom, which is very deep, and shaded by trees hanging over its sides, we thought how, in other days, the cries of the human victims sacrificed to Moloch must have risen from this valley, now so still and peaceful, to the palaces of Mount Zion; or perhaps only the sound of drums and other instruments drowning the cries of agony, that they might not disturb the mirth of the king. What must Manasseh have felt after his conversion, when he walked along the brow of this hill, and looked down into the valley below ? Surely the remembrance of his groves and his idols, with their attendant horrors, and, above all, the thought of his own murdered infants, must have led him the more earnestly to the blood that cleanseth from all sin.”—Narrative, &c. p. 151.

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VALLEY OF JEHOSHAPHAT; OR BROOK KIDRON, KEDRON,

OR CEDRON.

SCRIPTURE NOTICES.

“And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over : the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.”—2 Samuel xv. 23.

“ For it shall be, that on the day thou goest out, and passest over the brook Kidron, thou shalt know for certain that thou shalt surely die ..."-1 Kings ii. 37.

... “And Asa destroyed her” (Maachah's) “idol, and burnt it by the brook Kidron.”—1 Kings xv. 13.

“And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest ... to bring forth out of the temple of the Lord all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven ; and he burned them without Jerusalem, in the fields of Kidron . . . And he brought out the grove from the house of the Lord, without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people ... And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the Lord, did the king beat down, and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron.”— 2 Kings xxiii. 4, 6, 12.

" And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook of Kidron ... shall be holy unto the Lord ..."-Jeremiah xxxi. 40.

“When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.” John xviii. 1. (See GETHSEMANE.)

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“The deep valley on the east of Jerusalem, (now called the valley of Jehoshaphat,) appears to be mentioned both in the Old and New Testament only under the name of the brook or torrent Kidron. Josephus also gives it only the same name. The prophet Joel, indeed, speaks of a valley of Jehoshaphat, in which God will judge the heathen for their oppression of the Jews ; but there seems to be no ground, either in the Scriptures or Josephus, for connecting it with the valley of the Kidron. .... The name Jehoshaphat, however, was already applied to it in the earliest ages of the Christian era ; ... there is, therefore, no good reason why we should not employ this name at the present day. ....

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