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Buz, the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother, and the youngest of Job's friends who visited him in his affliction. His remarkable speech to Job, and his senior friends, is recorded in the xxxii. and five following chapters.
JOB, an ancient inhabitant of the land of Uz, east of Gilead, remarkable for his patience in the midst of most accumulated and extreme adversity. Many passages in the book of Job plainly show, that he flourished in the patriarchal age. The allusions to the deluge, and the destruction of Sodom, and the total silence of Job and his friends with respect to the law, which is never once quoted, and to the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt, show that he must have lived between the former and the latter of these events. But what fixes the chronology of Job almost to a certainty, is that his aged friend, Eliphaz the Temanite, is expressly recorded to have been the son of Esau, and the father of TEMAN, Gen. xxxvi. 10, 11. who is said to have built a city named after himself, in which his father resided, and was hence called a Temanite. Alstedius, in his Thesaurus Chronologiæ, proceeding upon this probability, fixes the era of Job's sufferings, B. C. 1673, and B. C. 1674; and gives two genealogies of Job, by one of which he makes him the son of Uz or Huz, (mentioned Gen. xxii. 21.) the eldest son of Nahor, Abraham's brother, and by the other, for which he quotes the authority of the LXX. in their appendix to the book of Job, he makes him the same with Jobab, king of Edom, (mentioned Gen. xxxvi. 33.) the son of Zerah or Serah, the son of Reuel, and grandson of Esau, by Bashemath, the daughter of Ishmael. According to this genealogy, Eliphaz was Job's grand-uncle, which is not improbable. Alstedius also tells us, that Dinah, Jacob's daughter, was Job's wife. The descent of Elihu also (mentioned in chap. xxxii. 27.) from Buz, the second son of Nahor, Gen. xxii. 21. is an additional confirmation that Job lived about this period.
Job was a man of great probity, virtue, and religion, and he possessed great riches in cattle and slaves, which at that time constituted the chief wealth even of princes in Arabia and Edom. He had seven sons and three daughters, and was in great repute among all the Eastern people on both sides of the Euphrates. He had an aversion to injustice, idolatry, fraud, and unchastity; he avoided evil thoughts, and dangerous looks; he was compassionate to the poor, a father to the orphan, a protector to the widow, a guide to the blind, and a support to the lame.
The name of Job occurs in the ancient martyrologies with the title of prophet, saint, and martyr. The worship of him, under the one or other of these characters, is of high antiquity, and was at one time very extensive, both in the Greek and Latin churches. The Greeks niade choice of May 6, for his festi
Fal, and have been followed in this arrangement by the Christians of Arabia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Russian empire. The Latins hold his festival on May 10. Next to the Maccabees, who were brothers as well as martyrs, Job is the first saint to whom the western church decreed public and religious honours.
Among the patriarchs and prophets there is no character to whom more churches have been consecrated, or chapels dedicated, than to Job. A pretended tomb of him has been shown in many places. The most celebrated is that of the Trachonites, towards the springs of the Jordan. It is situate between the cities, still bearing the names of Teman, Shuah, and Naama. There is another tomb publicly shown for that of the patriarch in Armenia, where Cock, the Chaldee Paraphrast, contended that he had lived. And as another Chaldee interpreter placed bis residence in the vicinity of Constantinople, we have also a third tomb of Job exhibited near the walls of this city; but which, by more sober historians, has been referred to an Arabian warrior of the same name, who fell at the siege of Constantinople in the year 672. In this city, however, was a monastery, in the sixth century, dedicated to the patriarch himself; yet the ecclesiastics did not venture to affirm that it was erected in consequence of their being in possession of his remains, as is usually done on the foundation of monasteries.
AMRAM, the son of Koath, and grandson of Levi. He married Jochebed, whơ bare unto him Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. Amram died in Egypt, aged 137. Exod. vi. 20.
JOCHEBED, was wife of Amram, and mother of Miriam, Moses, and Aaron. Several difficulties are started concerning the degree of relation between Amram and Jochebed, who was the daughter immediately of Levi, and aunt of Amram, her husband, because, Ex. ii. 1, vi. 20, Numb. xxvi. 59., she is called the daughter of Levi. Others maintain, that she was only cousin-german to Amram, being daughter of one of Kohath's brethren. The Chaldee, on Exod. vi. 20, says, that she was the daughter of Amram's sister; the Septuagint, that she was daughter to Amram's brother. Calmet thinks it most probable, that Jochebed was only cousin-german to Amram.
PHARAOH, who persecuted the Israelites, and published a decree, that all the male children born of Hebrew women should be thrown into the Nile.
SHIPHRAHand PUAH, two midwives of Goshen, in Egypt, deservedly celebrated in sacred history, and rewarded by the Almighty himself for their humanity, in disobeying the bloody mandate of the tyrant of Egypt, to murder the Hebrew boys at their birth, Exod. I. 15—19. Some commentators have expressed doubts, whether these worthy women were Egyptians or Hebrews, but we think it hardly admits of a question that they were Hebrews, as otherwise their Pagan superstition would have led them to comply with the royal mandate, and to think that at the same time they served their gods, by murdering the children of a race who despised their deities.
Where we cannot trace the connection between sacred and prophane history, we shall keep the characters separate, although it deviates something from the chronological order.
APIS, one of the ancient kings of the Peloponnesus, died B. C. 1948.
THELXION, son of Apis, succeeded his father, and died B. C. 1896.
TELCHIN, king of Sicyon, a son of Europs. He died B. C. 1793.
LYCAON I. king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and Melibea. He built a town called Lycosura, on the top of Mount Lycæus, in honour of Jupiter. He had many wives; he had a daughter called Callisto, and 50 sons. He was succeeded by Nictymus, his eldest son. He lived about B. C. 1820. There was another king of this name, Lycaon II. celebrated for his cruelties.
INACHUS, a son of Oceanus and Tethys, and the father of Io. He founded the kingdom of Argos, and was succeeded by his son Phoroneus, B. C. 1807, and gave his name to a river of Argos, of which he became the tutelar deity. He reigned 60 years.
OENOTRUS, the son of Lycaon, and sixth in descent from Phoroneus, king of Argos, who reigned about B. C. 1750, was the founder of the first Greek colony in Italy.
OGYGES, of Greece, a sovereign of Åttica and Bæotia, under whose reign happened the inundation, since known by the name of Ogyges' deluge. Whether this prince was a native or a foreigner, at what time he lived, and what was the deluge which happened under his reign, are questions of no very easy solution. The epoch of the deluge is placed by Barrier toward the year B. C. 1796, agreeably to the Greek history, and to the opinion of Petavius and Marsham. In Blair's table, the reign of Ogyges, in Attica, is fixed in the year B. C. 1796, and his death in B. C. 1764, when the deluge happened ; which disaster is said to have laid waste the country of Attica for 200 years, even till the coming of Cecrops.
AND SCIENCE, HERMES, surnamed TRISMEGISTUS, i.e. thrice greatest, an Egyptian, or Phænician priest, or philosopher, and according to some, a king; which triple office, they say, was the reason of this surname. It is more probable, however, that he was so named on account of his great learning; for he is said to have wrote thirty-six books on divinity and philosophy, and six on physic. Clemens Alexandrinus has given a catalogue of his works; but none of them are extant, except a piece entitled Pæmander, but even this is of doubtful authority. He taught the Egyptians chemistry, the art of land-measuring, the cultivation of the olive, the division of time into hours, and the use of hieroglyphics. He is supposed to have flourished about B.C. 1928.
PROMETHEUS, supposed to have been the first discoverer of the art of striking fire by flint and steel; which gave rise to the fable of his stealing fire from heaven. He was a renowned warrior, but his history is involved in fable. He flourished about 1687, B. C. The poetical account is, that he formed a man of clay, of such exquisite workmanship, that Pallas, charmed with his ingenuity, offered him whatever in heaven could contribute to finish his design, and for this purpose took him up with her to the celestial mansions, where he stole some fire from the chariot of the sun, with which he animated his image. At this theft Jupiter was so enraged, that he ordered Vulcan to chain him down on Mount Caucasus, and sent a vulture to prey on his liver; which was every night renewed, in proportion to the quantity eaten up in the day-time, until at last he was delivered by the vulture being killed.
ATLAS, an ancient king of Mauritania, brother to Prometheus, and a great astronomer. From his taking observations of the stars from a mountain, the poets feigned him to have been turned into a mountain, and to sustain the heavens on his shoulders. Being an excellent astronomer, and the first who taught the doctrine of the sphere, they tell us that his daughters were turned into stars ; seven of them forming the Pleiades, and the other seven the Hyades.
PERIOD IV. ом
FROM MOSES TO GIDEON.
B. C. 1574.
REMARKABLE FACTS, EVENTS, AND DISCOVERIES.
B.C. 1574 Aaron born in Egypt. 1571 Moses born, adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, and educated in Egyp
tian learning. 1566 A colony of Saites brought from Egypt into Greece by Cecrops, who
begins the kingdom of Athens. 1555 Moses performs many miracles in Egypt, and departs from that
kingdom with 600,000 Israelites, besides children, which completes the 430 years of sojourning. Soon after be delivers the
law, and establishes the tabernacle and ark. 1546 Troy founded by Scamander. 1515 Thirty-one kingdoms of Canaan subdued by Joshua: and the king
dom of Israel established in their stead. The Sabbatical year
commences. 1500 The deluge of Deucalion. 1496 The council of Amphictyon established at Thermopylæ. 1493 Cadmus carried the Phenician letters into Greece, and built the cita
del of Thebes. 1485 The first ship that appeared in Greece, brought from Egypt, by Da
naus, to Rhodes. 1452 The Pentateuch written in the land of Moab. 1451 Death of Moses; and the Israelites, under Joshua, pass the river
Jordan. 1406 Iron found in Greece, from the accidental burning of the woods. 1344 The kingdom of Mycenæ begins. 1326 The Isthmian games instituted at Corinth. 1325 The Egyptian canicular year began July 20th.
In this period a remarkable revolution takes place, in the migration of the Israelites out of Egypt, and their establishment in the land of Canaan. We have in this period, under the head of Literature, Cadmus and his son.
AMINADAB, or AMMINADAB, the son of Aram, great grandson of Judah, and the father of Naashon, one of the progenitors of the royal house of David. He was also the father of Elisheba, the wife of Aaron, and thus the progenitor in the maternal line of the high priests, as well as of the kings of Judæa, in the paternal,