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because, in the case of scandal, we must judge, not from the secret intention of the agent, but from the plain quality of the action. It is the quality and the nature of that act to lead the weak into this error, and to allure them to sin; wherefore, whatever was the intention of the agent, the action itself is chargeable with scandal. As, therefore, every one is bound to abstain from any action which he is not compelled to perform, whereby scandal may be justly feared to be given to the weak,* how much more is a man bound to abstain from being present at the mass, to which there is nothing to constrain him to go, and by which the minds, both of the weak and of the strong, are justly scandalized?

Thirdly, those lukewarm protestants who frequent masses sin against the papists themselves, whom this hypocrisy confirms in their errors and idolatry. Indeed, when they see our people attending their masses, they immediately imagine, in themselves, that not only these masses, but all the other dregs of papistry, are approved of more especially since the mass is held to be a kind of symbol, or token, by which Romanists and protestants are distinguished. Let them, therefore, answer me, and shew how they can conscientiously confirm those in their superstitious rites, whom they are bound with all diligence to recal from these dark and ignorant doings. For that apostolical command is urgently incumbent upon us :-"Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them." (Ephes. v. 11.) Now, judge how admirably such persons act up to this precept. The apostle forbids us to have communication with unlawful works; these people gratuitously thrust themselves into them, and join those whom we judge guilty of idolatrous practices, actually while occupied on their offensive deeds. The apostle commands us to reprove such works; these persons not only seem, by their silence, to consent to them, but, by conforming to these superstitious rites, to approve and to praise (if not in words, yet in deeds,) the very act of idolatry. By this hypocrisy, they render the papists more obdurate in their pernicious errors. They sin, therefore, against the charity which we owe to our very enemies; and this it is impossible to do, without injury to the conscience.

Lastly, they sin directly against God. For religion, which binds us to God, binds us to the profession of our religion; and as it prohibits any concealment of the true religion, so it forbids, more imperatively, any pretended assumption of a false one; and thence it is, that God himself acknowledges those only as his true servants who have no fellowship with idolaters, even in the mere external act of worship. "I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him." (1 Kings, xix. 18., Engl. Trans.) If they had bowed their knees before an idol, with the worshippers of Baal, although in their hearts they had despised that idol, doubtless God would not have reckoned them among his people; for every man is bound perpetually to this

Gerson, part ii. Reg. Moral.

profession of religion-namely, to associate with the pious and the orthodox, and to separate from idolaters and heretics. (1 Cor. x. 21.) For since God is the creator of the body, as well as of the soul, and Christ is equally the redeemer of both, it is meet that we should yield to God the homage of the body as well as of the mind, and adhere to Christ, in body as well as in mind. (1 Cor. vi. 20.) Wherefore, it is vain for those who join themselves in idolatrous worship to the servants of the devil, and of Antichrist, to allege that they are still in allegiance to God and Christ. Tertullian says, with elegance, as well as with piety, "It is profaneness in any man to lie about his religion; for by the very fact of pretending that he worships one thing when he worships another, he denies the real object of his worship; and inasmuch as he has denied him, he does not worship him." All these points might be illustrated by the examples of holy men, drawn alike from scripture and from ecclesiastical history. But time will not allow us to engage in this part of the argument.

Since, therefore, protestants, who are present at the idolatrous sacrifice of the mass, defile their own souls by an act of hypocrisy; injure the weak brethren, by putting a stumbling-block in their way; ruin the papists, by confirming them in their impious practices; and, lastly, dishonour God, by halting between the true and the idolatrous worship of him, we must conclude, that protestants cannot conscientiously be present at the mass.



THE following old English hymns are, I think, worthy of a place in the "Antiquities" of the British Magazine. They are not Wycliffe's, but they are probably from the pen of one of his disciples; or perhaps from that of Richard Rolle, the celebrated hermit of Hampole. I have transcribed them from a very curious volume, preserved among Abp. Ussher's MSS. in the library of the university of Dublin. (C. 5, 7.) It is a small quarto, written early in the fifteenth century, and contains some pieces of Richard Rolle, particularly his Treatise of Love, his Prayers or Meditations on the Passion of our Lord,+ and his poem called "The Pricke of Conscience," which, in the present


These prayers are a different series from those published some time ago in the British Magazine, with the notes, which render them so highly interesting to all lovers of old English. By a curious slip of the pen or of the printer, they are attributed, through several successive numbers of the Brit. Mag., to Robert Rolle, although the true Christian name appears in the title prefixed to the first of these prayers, Brit. Mag. Vol. iv. Sept. 1833, p. 261. Richard Rolle was an Eremite of the order of St. Augustine, and lived near Doncaster, in Yorkshire, A.D. 1340. Some of his works have been published in the Bibliotheca Patrum. Lugd. 1677. tom. xxvi. p. 609. His tract De emendatione peccatoris was published separately, Paris, 1510, 4to; and his Opuscula, Colon. 1536, fol. He is sometimes corruptly called Pampolitanus.

volume, is entitled Speculum hujus vitæ. It contains also a treatise, which appears to be the tract attributed to Wyckliffe by Bale and Lewis, under the title De dilectione,* beginning, In quolibet homine peccatore. The present copy is in English, and begins thus :

"In uche a t synful man and womman that is bonden in dedly syne, byn three wrechednes, the whoche bregen hem ‡ to deth of helle."

This piece occupies fifteen pages of the MS., and is followed by a treatise thus entitled in rubric :


Diliges dmn deu tuu. M. xxij. two the first commaūdmētes.


Aft Seynt

What St. Richard is here meant I do not know, unless it be Richard of Hampole, of whom Henry Wharton tells us, "Sancti titulum apud populares suos post obitum sortitus videtur. Habetur enim MS. in Bibliotheca Cottoniana [sub effigie Tiberii A. 15]. Officium S. Richardi Hampola Eremita, in quo de vita et miraculis ejus agitur." Two the first commandments I suppose means "the first two commandments."§ Lewis mentions a Homily on Matt. xxii. 37, which is attributed to Wycliffe in a MS. preserved in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; but the introductory paragraph quoted by Lewis does not appear in the Dublin copy, which begins with the following words::

"Thou shalt loue thi lord God w' al thi hert, w' al thy soule, w'al thi thout. To loue God wt al thi hert is nought elles but that thi hert be nougt louyg ne worschypyg no thing that may be, so muche as hym, and to kepe hys comaūdemētes."

This tract occupies twenty-three pages. Dr. Lyon, in his catalogue of the MSS. of Trinity College, Dublin,¶ conjectures that John Peckam, Archbishop of Canterbury, may have been the author of this piece, but he does not state the grounds of his conjecture; it does not appear to coincide with any of the tracts attributed to that prelate by Bale and Cave.

But I must not digress any farther from my promised hymns; they are introduced in a devotional tract, which Dr. Lyon says is probably by Richard Rolle, with which the volume begins. It is a kind of meditation or instruction on the passage, Ego dormio, et cor meum vigilat; and it may, perhaps, be interesting to quote the paragraph which immediately precedes the first of the following hymns:

"Resistite diabolo et fugiet a vobis, for myche helpe t† the bysy preyer of an ryghtwisse man to Jhu c'st, whose m'cy helpe and grace gretely vs nedes. ‡‡ and that thou be neuer ydel, but thou be ay oth [either] spekyng of God or worchyge some good werke and profytable, and pncipally that thou have him ay in thi mynde, and

This work is mentioned by Mr. we know nothing but the names. library of Trinity College, Dublin.

Vaughan among the treatises of which he says So much for his boasted researches in the ↑ Uche a, each one, i. e. every. Hem for them, and her for their, are very common in English of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: we shall see many instances of it in the following poems; and the pronunciation still survives,—we often say, bring 'em, take 'em, for bring them, take them. § See Appendix ad Cavæi Hist. Litter. Lewis, p. 216.

Dr. Lyon's catalogue has never been printed; it exists in his own autograph MS. in Trinity College library. tt Helpe, for helpeth.

Nedes, active; somewhat in the sense of behoves.

thekyng on his harde passyon that he suffurd for makynde, how he that was kynge of alle kynges weped water wt sore teres and sykynges [sighings] for the harde peyne that he schuld goo unto and suffer; and for the noye (a) and the sorowg (b) that he schuld have, alle hys body swatte wat" and blode and so dude neuer creatre in this world, safe onely he; for neuer man mygt suffer so muche peyne as he dude for the love of manes soule; and that grete loue schulde stur vs to haue grete sorowg and mynde of his passyon syngyng this mournýge songe.

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To the iewes ihū that the duden bete, (e)
that her (f) schourges duden mete
As fast as thei knouthen dynge (g)
her peynes than were unmete,
for of hym thei token non hede,
but defouled him with spittyng;

hard thei duden him thring (h) to apyler
of stone,

with thornes thei crouned hym kynge; hard was that prykkyng,

that he suffurd than of hem.

Alas my dere swetyng, with her hard throngynge, (i)

Grete peyne was the thane on;

Swete ihu thei demed (j) the honged for to be,

With falshede and with wrong,

And to a cros of tree ful fast thei neyled the,

With yrnen neyles (k) strong.

Thu bothe hande and fote of the

to a tree,

And therled (1) was thi feyre side,
thow hongest al one on rode, (m)
by rōnē (n) wt spotel and blode,
that semely was and whyte,
thi feyre body was defouled there,
And grymly stongen (o) with a spere,
for deel now may I wepe

Ihu thi flesche thei deiden to tere, (p)
that pyte it is th❜of to here,
With woudes (q) and depe

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fyue places lord with outen moo (r)

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(a) Noye, trouble, anguish; hence the word annoy.

(b) The character here represented by g, very closely resembles the italic z, and denotes the aspirated or quiescent gh, of which our language still retains the use, as in bought, through, sigh, &c.; the word sorrowg, therefore, is in pronunciation the same as sorrough, sorrow. (c) Mened, led, constrained.

(d) The for thee: this spelling is very common. So also se for see. (e) The duden bete, thee did beat.

(f) Her for their, hem for them, are very common in MSS. of this period, and the pronunciation is still retained; we still familiarly say, bring 'em, take 'em.

(g) The word knouthen I cannot explain, nor am I sure that I have read it correctly; dynge, or ding, means to dash with violence.

(h) Thring appears to signify bind; to apyler, to a pillar.

(i) Her hard throngynge, their hard binding.

(j) Demed, judged, condemned, sentenced.

(k) Yrnen, iron; neyles, nails, dissyllable.

(1) Therled, pierced.

(m) Rode, or rood, the cross; al one, wholly, entirely.

(n) By ronnen, perhaps for beronnen, (i.e. berun,) the reduplicate intransitive form of run, used here in the sense of besmeared,—“ berun with spittle and blood." The form is still used in such words as bethink, betroth, besprinkle, befall.

(0) Stongen, stung, wounded. (p) Thei deiden to tere, perhaps for they did tear. q) Woundes appears to be here a trissyllable; perhaps it was written wonudes, or wonundes, a line being over both o and n.

(s) So in Scotland to this day muckle for much.

(r) Moo, or mo, more.
(t) Hem mekele, them meekly.

(u) Gutt, probably the same as Quyte, (Wicliffe, N. T., 2 Thes.) quit, reward, desert, merit. Hence our word requite.

VOL. IX.-May, 1836.

3 T

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Then follows a paragraph in prose, of which I shall only quote the concluding words :

"— thāne schall ihū be al thi delygte, al thi desyre, al thi ioy, al thi solace & comforte. So that of hym schal eur be thi songe in desyrable longyg of soule, and in ioyful thougtes of hym al thi reste, thane may thou sey safely, I slepe & my herte wakes, and synge this song of loue.

[hū for the mourne I may,

as turtel that longeth both nygt & day, for her loue is loue hyr froo; (h) for aft the lorde me longeth ay, And that is al my myrthe & pley, Where I sitte or goo;

thefore lord thou rewe (i) on me,
And helpe me sone that I may see,
the feyerhe (k) of thi face,

wt angelys that byn brygt & clethere, (1)
and holy soules that thou bougtes dere,
Into holy place.

Although I have already occupied too much space, I must beg the favour of a few lines more, to mention that the same volume from which I have transcribed the foregoing poems contains a copy of the sermon, alluded to by your correspondent "R. S. B.,"* on the text Redde rationem villicationis tuæ, which John Fox has attributed to R.

(a) Gif for if. The aspirated g in the beginning of a word was probably pronounced y, a pronunciation still retained in some provincial dialects of England, as yate for gate; ayenst for against, &c. This sound of g is still preserved in the German language, and is represented as nearly as possible by y.

(b) Dyng, use with violence. (c) Rewthful, pitiful, rueful: th probably quiescent. (d) Teres, dissyllable; tears. (e) Thurg, through. (f) Brygtenesse, trissyllable. (g) Twynne, (twayne) divide, separate, become two. (h) There is apparently some error of the scribe in this line: perhaps the second loue should be lone, or long.

(i) Rewe (sometimes spelt rewthe, but with th mute) have pity; also, to grieve. Hence to rue, rueful. (k) Feyerhe, or Feyerhood, probably fairness.

(1) Clethere for clear: th was quiescent, as appears from the rhyme. Brit. Mag. for February, p. 138.

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