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Obs. 2.-Most plural nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe

, only.

EXAMPLES

Nom.-Hoi res, eagles, foxes,
Pos.-Horses'. eagles'.

foxes'. OBs. 3.-Many nouns ending in the singular in s, or ce, add the apostrophe only.

EXAMPLES.

Nom.-Mechanics,

conscience, Pos.- Mechanics'.

conscience'. New York Mechanics' Association.

He suffered for conscience' sake. Note.-A noun or pronoun in the Possessive case is used adjectively. (For illustration, see Appendix, Note E.]

Obs. The Possessive case does not always indicate “ possession or ownership." Children's shoes. Here the word "chilaren's" does not imply ownership. It simply specifies - shoes” as to size.—Small shoes. Here a small” specifies “ shoes” in a similar manner—"small” and “children's," performing similar offices, are similar in their etymology; "small" is an adjective—“ children's” is an Adjective.

NOTE.—Nouns and Pronouns become Adjectives whenever their principal office is to specify or describe other names: and they may have the form of the Nominative, Possessive, or Objective case.

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EXAMPLES.

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Slecl pens.-Silver steel.—A he goat.- Our national resources.- Nero England customs.- Il’ood cgravings. Upland cotton.—A she goal. Their enemies.--Paris fashions.

“O, my offence is rank-it smells to heaven;

It hath the primal, eldest curse upon it,

A brother's murder." Def. 55. A noun or pronoun which is the Object of a sentence or a phrase, is in the

Objective Case. EXAMPLES—John saws wood-Science promotes happiness.

** The king of shadows loves a shining mark.“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle wbeeling near its broro."

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Def. 56. A noun or pronoun not dependent on any other word in construction, is in the

Independent Case.
OBS.—The Icdependent case includes
1. The names of persons addressed.
EXAMPLES-O Liberty !. “Friends, Romans, countrymen !"

2. Names used to specify or define other names, previously 'mentioned.

Examples—Paul the Apostle wrote to Timothy. Here “ Paul” is the subject of “ wrote,” hence in the Nominative case (See Def. 53). “Apostle” designates which “ Paul” is intended; hence, in the Independent case.

3. Nouns used to introduce independent phrases. Examples—The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 4. Nouns and pronouns used in predication with verbs. EXAMPLES—"God is love"-" It is l_"The wages of sin is death."

5. Nouns and pronouns used for euphony, titles of books, cards, signs, &c.

EXAMPLES.

“The moca herself is lost in heaven.", “Webster's Dictimary"wMunson and Bradley." OBS.-In the English language, nouns are not varied in form to distinguish the cases (except for the Possessive). Commonly, the case of a noun is determined by its position in a sentence—the Subject (nominative) taking the first place, the Object (objective) the last.

EXAMPLES.

Subject.

Object.
John assists William.

William assists John. But this natural order of position is often reversed by the poets and public speakers.

EXAMPLES

“Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
And all the air a solemn stillness holds."
Him, from my childhood, I have known.”

si Thee we adore."

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Exercises. Let the class turn to pages 25 and 28, and point out the nouns-naming the cases of each, and the reason for each modification, after the following

MODEL.

I.
The Lord uplifts his awful hand,

And chains you to the shore.
Lord.. is a name; hence a Noun--for “the name of a being, place, or

thing, is a Noun.”
Name, in this instance appropriated to an individual Being; hence
Proper-for “a name appropriated to an individual person,” is a
Proper Noun."
Name appropriated to males; hence Masculine Gender - for

names of males are in the Masculine Gender."
Spoken of; hence Third Person--for “the name of the person or
thing spoken of is of the Third Person.”
Denotes but one; hence Singular Number—for “nouns denoting
but one are of the Singular Number."
Subject of the sentence; hence Nominative Case--for “the sub-

ject of a sentence is in the Nominative Case.” Hand..is a. name; hence à Noun—for “the name of a being, place, or

thing, is a Noun."
Name of a class of things; hence Common-for "a name used
to designate a class of things is a Common Noun."
Not distinguished by sex; hence Neuter Gender-for “names
of things without sex are of the Neuter Gender."
Spoken of'; hence Third Person-for "the name of the person or
thing spoken of is of the T Person."
Denotes but one; hence Singular Number—for “nouns denoting
but one are of the Singular Number."
Object of the sentence; hence Objective Case--for “the object

of a sentence or phrase is in the Objective rase.” Shore.. is a name; hence a Noun--for "the name of a being, place, or

thing, is a Noun."
Name of a class of things; hence Common-fo "a name used
to designate a class of things is a Common Noun."
Not distinguished by sex; hence Neuter Gender-for “names
of things without sex are of the Neuter Gender.”
Spoken of; hence Third Person---tor" the name of the person or
thing spoken of, is of the Third Person."
Denotes but one; hence Singular Number—for “nouns deroting
but one, arc of the Singular Nurnber."
Object of a Phrase; hence Objective Case--for “the objert of a
sentence or phrase is in the Objective Case.”

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PRONOUNS.

Rem.-To avoid an unpleasant repetition of the same word in a sen. ience, a class of words is introduced as substitules for names. Hence,

Def. 57. A word used instead of a Noun, is called a

Pronoun. Obs.—As pronouns are of general application, the noun for which any given pronoun is substituted is commonly determined by the context-and, because it generally precedes the Pronoun, it is called its antecedent.

CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS.
Rem.—Some Pronouns, by their forms, denote their modification of
Gender, Person, Number, and Case.

Others relate directly to the nouns for which they are used.
Others, in addition to their ordinary office, are used in asking questions,
Others describe the names for which they are substituted. Hence,
Prin. Pronouns are distinguished as
Personal

Interrogative, and
Relative,

Adjective.
PERSONAL PRONOUN.
Def. 58. A Pronoun whose form determines its
Person and Number, is a

Personal Pronoun. LIST.-The simple Personal Pronouns are, I, thou or you, he, she, it. Their corresponding Compounds are, myself, thyselt, yourself, himself, herself, itself.

MODIFICATION Rem.-Whenever one word is used in the place of another, it is properly subjected to the same laws as the other: this is true of Pronouns. Hence,

Prin. Pronouns have the same modifications of Gender, Person, Number, and Case, as Nouns.

NOTE--Pronouns of the First and Second Persons are not varied to denote the sex.

Rem.-To denote these several Modifications, some Pronouns are varied in form. This variation of form is called

DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS.

FIRST PERSON. Nominative. Possessive. Objective. Independent. Singular I

my*

me

I or met Plural

we
our

us

we

.

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SECOND PERSON.

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THIRD PERSON.

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Singular You

your
you

you Plural You

your
you

you
SECOND PERSON. —Solemn Style.
Singular. Thou
. thy

thee

thou Plural Ye your you

ye

-Masculine.
Singular , He

his
him

he or him Plural They .

their them they

THIRD PERSON.- - Feminine.
Singular . She

her
her

she Plural They their them they

THIRD PERSON.-Neuter. Singular. It. : its

it Plural They their them they

Obs. 1.--Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are used in common with other definitives—substantively, i. e., as the representatives of nouns which it is their primary office to specify. They are then properly called Adjective Pronouns.

EXAMPLES—" He is a friend of mine." " Thine is the kingdom.” “ Theirs had been the vigor of his youth.”

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* My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, its, mine, and thine, when used to specify or otherwise describe nouns and pronouns (and they commonly are so used), are to be classed as Adjectives. They are placed here to enote their origin, and to accommodate those Teachers who prefer to call them Pronouns. (For an exposition of their true etymo ogy, see Appendix, Note E.-See, also, Webster's Grammar.)

† Pronouns in the Independent Case, commonly take the form of the Nominative, as "O happy they!" "Ah luckless he!" "It is 1!"

But they sometimes take the form of the Objective, as Him excepted.” "I found it to be him.“It was not me that you saw.” " Ah nie!"

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