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SPEAK BY THE CARD" (3rd S. ii 503, &c.)— GODOLPHIN : WHITE EAGLE (3rd S. iii. 448.)I subjoin the following quotation from Hooker's I believe that, even Editorial answers in “N. & Q.," Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, which may serve are not exempt from comment. It seems highly to throw additional light on the exact meaning of improbable that Carew should have given the exthis saying. It occurs in book i. chap. ii. & 5, ed. planation “white eagle,” without some grounds of Keble. Speaking of the Eternal Law, which “God apparent probability at least. First then, the himself hath made to himself, and thereby work- Cornish form of the name is Godolghan, or Godoleth all things whereof he is the cause and author," can (or Godalcan): the last syllable may be the be terms it that Law which hath been the pattern adjective can, white. Godol, or Gedol, may have to make, and is the card to guide the world hy." been a Welsh or Cornish word unknown to the This guiding Law is what Hooker terms further dictionaries, signifying “eagle” (probably as a on, " the first Law Eternal ;” or more fully, “that descriptive epithet, etymologically combatant); order which God, before all ages, hath set down even though we have no other voucher than Cawith himself, for himself to do all things by.” Of | rew himself. That such a word (whatever be course, it is not to be identified with Plato's doc- the meaning) existed in Welsh, we may learn trine of the '18éa ; indeed, our author expressly from the name of Cors-y-Gedol in Merioneth. disclaims this tenet of the Ultra-Realistic or Pla- Davies Gilbert seems to have imagined English tonic schools. In the above quotation, card would elements in this Cornish name. But although it evidently seem to bear the sense of “chart.” The is possible that Carew may be right in his division Encyclopædia Londinensis defines card to be “the and interpretation of the name, there is another paper on which the winds are marked under the explanation to be found, I believe, in Camden. mariner's needle," and quotes the following lines Godalcun is rend-red,“ wood of tin,” as though of Pope :
it were a wood in which there are tin mines (Gôd, « On Life's vast Ocean diversely we sail,
mutation from Coit, wood; and alcan, tin): but Reason the Card, but Passion is the gale."
while I believe that alcan is an element in the W. Bowen ROWLANDS.
name, the first syllable seems to me to be from
Cody, to raise, —"a place where tin is raiseil." CHURCH USED
BY CHURCHMEN AND ROMAN | I believe Carew to be quite right as to what the Catholics (3ra S. ii. 56, &c.) – The division of several parts of the Cornish name might mean, the same church between two rival bodies of wor- though wrong in so dividing the word, and applyshippers, is found in Germany. I recollect re- ing them to this particular example; while Davies marking, during my stay in Heidelberg some two
Gilbert is quite astray.
LÆLIUS. or three years back, that the principal church of The derivation of this Cornish name from Gothat lovely town — the Heiligengeist-kirche - W dolg han or Godolcan, " white eagle,” is ridithus allotted to the Roman Catholics and Luthe- | culous. There can be no such compound in rans: the former occupying the eastern, and the Cornish. Scawen says Godolphin in keeping latter the western portion of the sacred edifice. still displayed abroad the white eagle, from A partition effected a complete separation be- the Cornish Gothulgon;" and Gilbert adıls, in a tween the various parts, and the different services note, “ Godolanec, in the Phænician, is a place of went on at the same time without interrupting tin.” Pryce renders the name "the little valley of each other.
W. Bowen ROWLANDS. springs" (go, little; dôl, valley; phin or fince, of Church v. King (3rd S. iii. 447.)-The incident but I am disposed to think that godól is simply a
springs.) This is a more reasonable derivation; alluded 10 is the test offered to Lothaire, King of harsh pronunciation of dôl, and that the name Lorraine, by Adrian II. in 869; when he made him swear on the Eucharist that he had fully may have been, originally. Dôlrean, " the little complied with the orders of Nicholas I. as to
valley ; ;" or Dolfyn, “ the little spring."
R. S. CHARNOCK. putting away Valdrada, and taking back his queen, Theutberga. He was shortly after attacked by a fever, of which he died at Piacenza, iii. 511.) – This song was written by the alleged The same ordeal was proposed at Canossa to discoverer, the Rev. George Hunt Smyttan, late Henry IV. by Gregory VII., who had previously rector of Hawksworth, Notts. W. BEAMONT. subjected himself to it, in token of his being in- Latchfield, Warrington. nocent of the charges brought against him by the UNIPODS : Musky H-- (2nd S. xi. 428.)- I have emperor. Henry, however, declined to take it. little doubt that “ Musky H- is intended for The story of Loihaire will be found in his Life in Adiniral Hawke. From what I have read about the Biographie Universelle ; and is also alluded him (I forgot where), my impression is that he to in a note at p. 180 of vol ii. of Bowden's Life had the reputa'ion of a " fine gentleman.". of Gregory VII., where original authorities are Hawke, in 1758, was “under a cloud," on acreferred to.
VEBNA. count of his recent abortive expedition to the
1: The Song of the Battle of Hexham (3ra S.
coast of France. But his flag-ship was, on that for the poet. After waiting for the appearance occasion, the unfortunate “Ramilies," which, as a of a complete collection of Praed's poems, Mr. contemporary poet says, never had any luck, Griswold published a volume of such as he could "e'en from her rising to her setting day:
gather, and it ran through several editions. “Not e'en Hawke's valour could reverse thy doom,
In 1859, I edited another edition in two volumes; But silent slept the thunders in thy womb;
adding whatever I could, though I believe not to What time the foe, from Rochfort's tottering towers, the acceptance of most of my critics. I do not Dismayed, yet safe, beheld the British powers."
Scots' Mag. xxii. 94.
repent of the step, because I think that these suc
cessive editions have kept alive the interest in the He recovered his popularity the following year, author; and have made him known, though imin consequence of his glorious victory over Con- perfectly, to thousands of readers here who will flans.
eagerly seek a more complete issue. Hawke, in 1780, headed the representation of I believe I have the best authority for saying the twelve admiral against the management of the that the work of preparing a proper edition has navy by Lord Sandwich:
been placed in hands most suited to it. “Ye sailors cheer each honest name,
W. H. WHITMORE.
Boston, U. S. A.
STRADELLA (3rd S. iv. 9.) - Alessandro Stra-
most interesting of his works is a serenata, from N. F. H. for Wit, ii. 161.
which Handel has borrowed much for “ Israel in This family is now flourishing in Yorkshire at Egypt;" the oratorio of “San Giovanni Battista their patrimonial seat, Scarıhingwill Hall. It was is also an important work, and contains an aria, once alienated, but was recovered by a fortunate
“Anco in cielo," bearing some resemblance to marriage.
Meyerbeer's “ Ré del cielo" in the Prophète. CHRISTIE (3rd S. iii. 478) is doubtless one of the Stradella's published songs are “Se i miei sospiri,” nicknames of Christopher, and Stopher may be from
or “Pietà Signore,”
,” “ Anco in cielo," and “Se nel the last part of the name. From the other nick
ben.” Amongst those in MS. will be found “San name, Kit, we have Kitchen, “little Kit;” while Giovanni Battista” (an oratorio), a serenata, sixKitchener and Kitchiner are perhaps from cyttenere,
teen duets, thirty-one Italian madrigals, “ Idalma," an old word for a citizen. R. S. CHARNOCK.
opera (this is doubtful), twenty-eight duets, and various motetts, &c.
R. E. L. PLATFORM (3rd S. ii. 426, 475.) - Shakspeare uses the word in the First Part of Henry VI., 477.) – Your correspondent, T. J. Buckton, has
PRINCE CHRISTIERN OF DENMARK (3rd S. ii. Act II. Sc. 1:“And now there rests no other shift but this,
mistaken my query (3rd S. iii, 407), and indeed I To gather our soldiers, scatter'd and dispe s'd,
do not see how he has answered it at all. He has And lay new plutforms to endamage them.”
merely given the reigning sovereigns since Chris. In a foot-note to the word, Collier says:
tiern II., and should therefore have writien No. “11, e. plots or plans. The plot of a play was formerly 9 in his list
, as Christiern VIII., and his son as called a ' platform.' -- See the Hist. of Eng. Dram. Poetry Frederick VII. But what I want is the direct and the Stage, vol. iii. p. 393,” &c.
male descent of Prince Christiern from Christiern
ERIC. III., through a son John, who was, I believe, Ville-Marie, Canada.
Duke of Holstein.
G. W. M. PRAED's Poems (3rd S. ii. 519.)-I notice Burning ALIVE (3rd S. iv. 5.)-JEAN LE TROUthat J. P. O. suggests a reason for the publication
VEUR says: of Praed's Poems in the United States. He was
" Burning alive was no more a reality than John Doe descended, I believe, from a branch of that family and Richard Roe; and the obstinate retention of the form which continued in England; and to which be- of the sentence, for generations after it had ceased to be longed a Stephen Winthrop, an eminent London executed, proves not the cruelty of our ancestors, but the merchant, who died about 1750. I think Miss extraordinary pedantry of our lawyers,” &c. Mitford was hardly just in terming his name " the To be drawn on a hurdle and burned alive was vulgar abomination of this conglomeration of in- the sentence of the law on women convicted of barmonious sounds.” Winthrop is more correctly petit treason. By 30 Geo. III. c. 48, hanging was spelled Winthorpe, and not so very in harmonious. substituted for burning; and by 3 Geo. IV. c. Was not the other a compound name, Mackworth- | 114, petit treason was placed on the same footing Praed, and the result of the alliance of the two as murder. The pedantry of lawyers has nothing families ?
to do with sentences, and a judge before the 30 The reason of the publication bere was the ad. Geo. III. c. 48, had no more power to order a miration felt by the late Dr. Rufus W. Griswold petit traitor to be hanged than to be boiled. Up
to that time many women were strangled contrary and unsatisfactory. The Greeks impugned the to law, and I believe one or two, from careless- poverty of the Latin tongue (Greg. Naz. Orat. ness or mismanagement, legally burned.
xxi. p. 46.) Dr. Hampden says: The theolo
H. B. C. gical vocabulary of the Latins appears not to have U. U. Club.
been settled before the writings of Augustine.” BLACK MONDAY (3rd S. iv. 6.)-My friend, (Bampton Lectures, p. 471.) But Augustine's MR. NORTH, may rest assured that the term terminology is not up to the standard of the pre“ Black Monday," in the extract from the parish sent age or that of the Scholastic Fathers; thus accounts of St. Martin's quoted by him, refers to
he speaks of the three persons as tres substantiæ Easter Monday, and to no other day; for, al- (De Trin. vii.) Aquinas says that substantia though, as is very probable, neither the Mayor of answers to hypostasis in Greek (Summa, xxix. Leicester, nor few, if any, of his municipal subjects 3), which is true only as to previous and erromight be aware of its origin (as stated by Mr.
The Athanasian Creed applies the Halliwell), we know that a popular epithet, or
word substance in two distinct senses, in the exnick-name, is as tenacious of existence as a cat, pressions “God of the substance of the Father, and may be in common use long after its origin and man of the substance of his mother," where may have passed beyond “the memory of the the meaning in modern phraseology is God of the oldest inhabitant."
essence or spiritual substance of the Father, and The reason why the Mayor commanded the man of the fleshly substance of his mother. (See bells to be rung on that day is to be found in the Hampden's Bampton Lecture, iii. pp. 126, 469.) fact, that an annual hunting took place on the
T. J. BUCKTON. Dane's Hills, near Leicester, on Easter Monday, which was attended by the Mayor and Corpora- | There is no historical authority for the impression
First Danish INVASION (3rd S. iii. 467.) tion in state, the proceedings ending with a feast that England was first invaded by Normans from at the Mayor's expense.
France. Bede and other authorities date the first There is an entry in the Hall Book, dated 1633, invasion in 787; but Snorre, speaks of Ivar Vidof the ten occasions in the year, appointed for fadme, King of Scania, in the sixth or seventh cen. the wearing of scarlet robes, the seventh being tury, who subjected to himself a fifth part of Eng“ Easterday and Blacke Munday."
land or Northumbria. (Turner's Anglo-Saxons, iv. WILLIAM KELLY.
iii. 474.) It was not till 796 that the Normans comLeicester.
menced infesting the coasts of the empire of the SUBSTANTIA (3rd S. iii. 470.)– The equivalent Franks. (Koch, i. 79.) The palaces built by of the Latin substantia is the Greek ovola *, of Charlemagne at Nimeguen and Aix-la-Chapelle universal adoption from the categories of Ari- were burnt by the Normans in 881 and 882, when stotle. So in the fourth century, during the they sacked Liege, Maestricht, Tongres, Cologne, Arian divisions, the compound consubstantialis was Bonn, Zulpich, Nuys, and Trèves (Koch, i. 81.) the equivalent of the Greek ομοούσιος. .
They first invaded Ireland in 795. They estaIn the Stoic philosophy, củolu is equivalent to blished a colony in Iceland in 874, and the emúan, matter. Substance is that which stands under pire of Russia in 850. The power of Charlemagne, and supports the attributes of form, colour, &c. who died in 814, preserved France from their whereby such substance or matter is made ap- incursions; but in the reigns of Charles the Bald parent to the mental faculties. Instead of sub- and Charles the Gross, 840 to 887, that country stance, the word essence will better represent the suffered greatly from the Normans. Their ravages oiola of Aristotle. Spinoza's definition of sub- were extended to Spain, the Balearic Isles, Italy, stunce is existence.
Greece, and the shores of Africa (Koch, i. 81.) The word ümbotaois is appropriate to medicine, The words “triduo, flantibus Enris, vela pendunas an abscess, or sediment; to architecture, as tur” (Script. Rer. Dan. i. 236) which are Thithe base of a temple. Metaphorically it meant erry's authority, apply, I conceive, to the three ground work, argument, firmness (2 Cor. ix. 4; | days they were under sail from shore to shore ; xi. 17; Euseb. Hist. v. 1), a resolution, reality as thus the distance being about 360 miles, gives a opposed to appearance (Heb. i. 3, Aristot. Mundo, rate of five miles the hour, and this would bring iv. 19; Artemidor. Onirocr. iii. 14); substance or them to the east coast of England only, whence nature, and finally, in Greek dogmatic theology, they would proceed to the south coast in about persona, or person of the Trinity, the idea being three days more with favourable winds. Thierry borrowed from the Latins.
has not regarded this question from a nautical Quotations from the Greek and Latin fathers, point of view.
T. J. BUCKTON. showing their use of these terms, would be tedious Lichfield. * Ambrose, De Fide, iii. 7, p. 74 a; Augustin, De
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as all know, asTrinitate, vii. 5, p. 861 a.
cribes the first incursion of the Danes into England to the year 787. It may be doubted, how by an ancestor of the grandfather at the sale of ever, whether this is the correct date. It is not | Abbot Whiting's personal property after his exeimprobable that it is a postponement.
cution, and the dissolution of the monastery. On İn the Collection of letters of S. Boniface and Plate xvii. in the History of Glaston, is given a
X. A. X. others published by Dr. Giles, there occurs an representation of the watch and seal. epistle from Bregwin to Lull, the successor of S. Boniface. Dr. Ĝiles attributes to this epistle the generally the practice, especially in exposed situa
Mossing A BARN (3rd S. iv. 28.)— It is now date " circ. A.D. 761.".
tions, to " point" the inside of the roof of a barn The proem of the letter is in these words:
similarly to that of a house, i.e. to plaster up the “ Dies multi elapsi sunt, ex quo sollicitus præoptabam, joints between the slates so as to prevent driving ut Deo favente, tandem aliquando prosperum iter lega- rain and snow from finding an entrance. Fortarii nostri perveniendi ad Beatitudinem vestram invenire
mossing potuissent ; quia per hos scilicet proxime decurrentes merly the same end was attained by priores annos, plurimæ ac diversæ inquietudines apud nos the roof; in other words, by stuffing the joints in Britanniæ vel in Galliæ partibus audiebantur existere, and crevices in the slates, from the outside, with et hoc videlicet nostrum desiderabile propositum sæpius dry moss or other suitable material. The slates impedivit, et perterrendo valde prohibuit de nostra ali then, as now, were laid on laths and
In quos ad vos dirigere per tam incertas tamque... crebris infestationibus improborum hominum in provincias An- proportion as blue slate has been introduced,
Your correglorum seu Galliæ regiones. Nunc vero, pace ac tuitione mossing has been discontinued. nobis a principibus indubitanter undique promissa, misi- spondent will still find, in some wild out-lying mus ad vestram Venerabilem Fraternitatem hunc præ- districts of Lancashire, where the native rough sentem fratrem istarum præsentiam literarum bajulum, grey (stone) slate is used, the old custom re&c."-8. Bonifacii Opera, vol. i. p. 245, epist. cxx.
J. M. H. These passages can refer to the incursions into England and France of no other barbarians than
EPIGRAM (3rd S. iii. 499.) – I think the Soles the Danes; but the date of the epistle clashes ma
and Eels were more likely than the Kraken to have
heard first the sound of boots on the stairs of the terially with the epoch assigned by the chronicle. Is Dr. Giles's imputed date correct? (See his
C. W. B. own warning Postscriptum to the first volume.) TWILLED Beims: FLORAL CROWNS (3rd S. iïi.
H. C. C. 464.) — S. H. M.'s explanation that " Thy banks " PROVÈRB: “ The GRACE OF GOD IN
are the banks, not of rivers, but of Ceres and HIGHLANDS” (2nd S. xii. 309, 357.) – Pennant cereals, and mine that the relative "which" has records an ill-natured proverb applicable to the reference to these banks, and not to their "twilled
brims;" and that the “cbaste crowns people of the Carse of Gowrie in Perthshire :
were prim. “ They want water in the summer, fire in the
rose wreaths, agree with and support one another, winter, and the grace of God all the year round." and this unintentional agreement may be taken as (Chambers's Journal, 1834, p. 79.)
a further proof of their correctness. Another JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A.
proof is to be found in the now easy interpretation
of twilled. In modern French, the word ivuiller is ABBOT WHITING's Watch (3rd S. iii. 448, 476.) used, I believe, in a more restricted and technical As Abbot Whiting's watch bas been made a sub- sense ; but Cotgrave gives it as meaning “ filthily ject of inquiry in “N. & Q.," perhaps the fol- to mix or mingle Also, to bedirt, begrime, lowing notice of a portion of its history, previous besmear, smeech, or beray.” And in evidence of to the Duke of Sussex's sale, may not be unac- its use as an agricultural term, we find under ceptable.
touillé the old saying, “Avoine touillée croist The Rev. Richard Warner, in his History of comme enragée" — “In miry ground oats grow Glaston, tells us (p. lxxiv.) that the watch and like mad.” Shakspeare, therefore, companioning the abbot's private seal appending, were at that the strange and foreign word pioned with another, time (1826) in the possession of the Rev. John bas used twilled as derivable from this root; and Bowen, Minister of St. Margaret's Chapel, Bath, the digging and bemiring of the brims or edges of holding also other preferments in the county of the banks is the “ditching” and throwing up of Somerset, and well known for his musical par- the dug soil mentioned by S. H. M. Moisture is tialities. Mr. Warner has added that Mr. Bowen favourable to primroses, and the earlier showers purchased it in 1783 of Mr. Howe, a watchmaker, of February and March produce that miry state of at Bishop's Lydeard, Somersetshire, who had ac- the ditch bottoms which is euphemised by twilled. quired it at a sale by auction of the goods of the
BENJ. Easy. Rev. Mr. Paine, who had lived to the age of nearly 100 years, and in whose family a tradition in the Classical Journal for 1812, vol. v. p. 158,
SERMONS ON INOCULATION * (3rd S. iii. 476.) – had been held that the watch and seal had been there is an epilogue to the play of Terence acted successively worn by himself, his father, and his grandfather, and that they had been purchased
* Quære, Vaccination?
at Westminster School, 1811. The subject of Longman to lecture to his agricultural neighbours. It is vaccination and the attacks made upon
is clear that, when the Lecturer undertook the task, he detreated with great humour. Quære, Would it be termined to discharge it in a satisfactory manner. The
facts have been collected with diligence and judgment, worth reprinting in “N. & Q."?
and the story is told in good plain intelligible English; and we are very glad that the good sense of the Chorley
wood audience showed such an appreciation of Mr. LongMiscellaneous.
man's labours as to induce him to revise and publish
them. NOTES ON BOOKS.
Worcester and Worcestershire Antiquities. Descriptive
Catalogue of the Museum formed at Worcester during Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science, and the Meeting of the Archæological Institute of Great Bri
Art; with Biographical Memoirs. The Plutographs from tain and Ireland in 1862. (Worcester: Deighton &
Those who had not the good fortune to be at Worcester This is a good idea, well carried out. Public taste,
will find in this Catalogue of the Museum there formed, which is never wrong in the long run, is so decidedly in
some idea of the loss they thus sustained. The Collecfavour of the small carte-de-visite size for portraits of
tion was one of special interest for its richness in objects notabilities, that a series of such portraits to be successful must consist of what Hamlet so well describes as “pic- indebted to Mr. Way and his Worcestershire friends, first,
of local interest ; and antiquaries generally are greatly tures in little;" while the want of some short biogra
for forining so interesting a Collection, and next, for phies to accompany the portraits, with which everybody's giving us so good an account of it. Album is now filled, has long been felt. In the work before us, Mr. Lovell Reeve combines the two desiderata. THE RECONNOITERER -We have received from Messrs. The first two parts contain excellent portraits of Lord Salom one of the extraordinarily cheap and excellent Stanhope and l'hackeray, who represent the men of emi- glasses sold by them under this title. We have tested it nence in literature; while the department of seience is very strictly, and find it as good as it is cheap. It is as fitly represented by Sir C. Lyell and Sir R. Murchi- powerful, sharp, and distinct. What intending tourist, son, and that of art by Foley and David Roberts. The who has not a good glass, will now start without one, biographical memoirs are short, and to the point; and if when half a sovereign will make him master of such an the work continues to be carried on in the spirit in which indispensable companion to a pleasure trip? it is commenced, it can scarcely fail to be a very popular
BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES
WANTED TO PURCHASE,
Tas RECORD OP TAE HOUSE OF GOURNAY.
CENSURA LITERARIA. 10 Vols.
Charing Cross, W.C.
The Races of the Old World. A Manual of Ethnology.
By Charles L. Brace. (Murray.)
One glance at the extensive iist of authorities appended
man, Lecture IV., comprising the Reign of Edward I.
Mr. Longman is a bold man to venture, after enjoying the sweets of publishing, to encounter the pains and perils of anthorship. But boldness in this, as in most other cases, has been attended with success; and those who desire to refresh their memories with the more striking points in the history of England, have reason to be thankful to the incumbent of Chorleywood for inviting Mr.
Notices to Correspondents.
C. M Q. The Earls of Moray appear to have descended from the
G. P. L. Only a second part of The Book of Entertaining Know. ledge 10'18 publisherl, containing Religious Sects and Ceremonies, and the Habitations of Man.
F. M&WBURN. The most convenient work to consult on the Roman Roads is Richard of Cirencester on the Ancient State of Britain, reprinted in Bohn's Antiquarian Library.
ERRATA.-3rd S. iv. p. 34, col. ii. line !, for “ Davidson " read“ Davi: son;" line 48 after afforded me," add " at the end of the first week; p. 35, col. ii. line 2, for" allusions" read "allusion;" line 31, for "bid"
(Long- read" bed.""
"NOTES AND QCERIES" is published at noon on Friday, anul is also issued in MONTHLY Parts. The Subscription for STAMPED Copies for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 118. 4d., which may be pait by Post Office Order in javour of MESSRS. BELL A D DalDx, 189, FLEET STREET, E.C, to whom all COMMUNICATIONS FOR TAE EDITOR should be addressed.
Full benefit of reduced duty obtained by purchasing Horniman's Pure Tea; very chuice at 38. 4d. and 48: “ High Stanlard" at 48. 4d. (formerly 48. 8d.), is the st: unyest and most delicious imported. Agents in every town supply it in Packets.