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subsistence. If we conceive' it is an operation only’, then must it only be actuated and not act; and when it is not actuated, it must not be at all. If we say, that it is a quality, and not a substance; we say that it is that, which we cannot prove to have any being. It seemeth to me strangely unreasonable, that men should be so earnest in endeavouring to prove that the Holy Ghost which sanctifieth them, is no substance, when they cannot be assured that there is any thing operative in the world beside substantial beings; and consequently if they be not sanctified by that, they can be susceptible of no holiness. By what reason in nature can they be assured, by what revelation in Scripture can they be confident, that there is a reality deserving the name of quality distinguished from all substance, and yet working real and admirable effects? If there were no other argument but this, that we are assured by the Christian faith that there is an Holy Ghost existing; and we cannot be assured, either by reason or faith, that there is a quality really and essentially distinguished from all substance; it would be sufficient to deter us from that boldness, to assert the Holy Ghost, in whose name we are baptized, to be nothing else but a quality.

But we are not left to guess at the nature of the Spirit of God; the word of God, which came from that Spirit, hath sufficiently delivered him as a person. It is indeed to be observed, that in the Scriptures there are some things spoken of the Holy Ghost, which are proper and peculiar to a person, as the adversaries confess; others which are not properly and

θεόν, οι δε ουκ έγνωσαν οπότερον τούτων αιδοί της γραφής, ώς φασιν, ως ουδέν έτερον σαφώς δηλωσάσης. Οrat. xxxvii. (xxxi. & 5. Vol. 1. p. 559 A.] These were the three particular and opposite opinions: either the Spirit is an operation, or a created substance, or God; the fourth is but a doubt or hesitation which of the three is true. The first of these is thus propounded by way of question : Το Πνεύμα το άγιον ή των καθ' εαυτό ύφεστηκότων πάντως υποθετέον, ή των εν ετέρω θεωρουμένων, ών το μεν ουσίαν καλούσιν οι περί ταύτα δεινοί, το δε συμBeßnkós. Ibid. [§ 6. p. 559 D.] Either it is subsisting in itself, as a sub

stance; or in another, as an accident. This was the first question then, and still is.

[ conceived, 3rd Ed.]

2 This is the argument of the Same Father : Ει μεν ούν συμβέβηκεν, ενέργεια τούτο αν είη θεου· τί γαρ έτερον, ή τίνος; τούτο γάρ πως μάλλον, και φεύγει σύνθεσιν" και ει ενέργεια, , ενεργηθήσεται δηλονότι, ουκ ενεργήσει, και μου το ενεργηθήναι παύσεται" ' τοιούτον γάρ ή ενέργεια.

OUV ενεργεί, και τάδε λέγει, και αφορίζει, και λυπείται, και παροξύνεται, και όσα κινουμένου σαφώς εστίν, ου κινήσεως ; Ibid. (8 6. p. 559 D.]

primarily to be attributed to a person, as we cannot deny:
and it might seem to be equally doubtful, in relation to the
Scripture-expressions, whether the Holy Ghost were a person
or no; and that they which deny his personality, may pretend
as much Scripture as they which assert it. But in this seem-
ing indifferency, we must also observe a large diversity; in-
asmuch as the Holy Ghost, or Spirit of God, is not always
taken in the same propriety of signification; nor do we say
that the Holy Ghost, which signifieth a person, always signi-
fieth so much. It is therefore easily conceived how some
things may be attributed to the Spirit in the Scriptures which
are not proper to a person, and yet the Spirit be a person,
because sometimes the Spirit is taken for that which is not
a person, as we acknowledge: whereas, if ever any thing be
attributed to the Holy Ghost as to a person, which cannot be
otherwise understood of the Spirit of God than as of a person,
then may we infallibly conclude that the Holy Ghost is a
person. This therefore we shall endeavour fully and clearly
to demonstrate; first, That the Scriptures declare unto us the

Holy Ghost as a person, by such attributes and expressions as 310 cannot be understood to be spoken of the Spirit of God any

other way than as of a person : secondly, That whatsoever attri-
butes or expressions are used in the Scriptures of the Holy
Ghost, and are objected as repugnant to the nature of a person,
either are not so repugnant as is objected; or if they be, they
belong unto the Spirit, as it signifies not a person.

First then, The Holy Ghost, or good Spirit of God, is
clearly and formally opposed to those evil spirits, which are
and must be acknowledged persons of a spiritual and intel-
lectual subsistence. As, The Spirit of the Lord departed from 1 Sam. xvi.
Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him. Now,
what those evil spirits from the Lord were, is apparent from
the sad example of Ahab, concerning whom we read, there 2 Chron.
came out a spirit and stood before the Lord and said, I will
entice him; and the Lord said unto him, Wherewith ? and he
said, I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his .
prophets. And the Lord said, Thou shalt entice him, and thou
shalt also prevail ; go out, and do even so. From whence it is
evident, that the evil spirits from God were certain persons,
even bad angels, to which the one good Spirit as a person
is opposed, departing from him to whom the other cometh.

14.

xviii, 20 21.

Again, The New Testament doth describe the Holy Ghost by such personal dispositions, and with such operations, as are as evident marks and signs of a person as any which are attributed to the Father or the Son, which are unquestionable persons; and wbatsoever terms are spoken of the Spirit by

way of quality, are spoken as well of those which are acknowCeph. iv. 30. ledged persons. We are exhorted by the apostle not to grieve

the Spirit of God; and grief is certainly a personal affection,

of which a quality is not capable. We are assured that the Rom. vil. 26. same Spirit maketh intercession for us with groanings which

cannot be uttered; and we can understand what are interceding persons, but have no apprehension of interceding or groan

ing qualities. The operations of the Spirit are manifest, and 1 Cor. ii. 10. as manifestly personal; for he searcheth all things, yea, even 1 Cor. ii. 11. the deep things of God; and so he knoweth all things, even the

things of God, which can be no description of the power of 1 Cor. xii. 11. God; he worketh all the spiritual gifts, dividing to every man

severally as he will, in which the operation, discretion, distribution, and all these voluntary, are sufficient demonstrations of a person. He revealeth the will of God, and speaketh to the sons of men, in the nature and after the manner of a person; for the Spirit said unto Peter, Behold, three men seek thee; arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them,

doubting nothing ; for I have sent them. And the Holy Ghost Acts xiii. 2 said unto the prophets and teachers at Antioch, Separate me

Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.
We cannot better understand the nature of the Holy Ghost

than by the description given by Christ which sent him : and John xiv. 26; he said thus to his disciples, The Comforter (or the Advocate), vi . 7, 8, 13, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my

name, he shall teach you all things;...he shall testify of me:
and
ye

also shall bear witness....If I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world, and he will guide you into all truth; for he shall not speak of himself ; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he shall shew you things to come. He shall glorify me; for te shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All which words are nothing else but so many descriptions of a person; a person hearing, a person receiving, a person testifying, a person speaking, a person reproving, a person instructing.

Acts x. 19.

4-7.

The adversaries to this truth', acknowledging all these 311 personal expressions, answer that it is ordinary in the Scrip

tures to find the like expressions, which are proper unto per-
sons, given unto those things which are no persons: as when
the apostle saith, Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity 1 Cor. xiii.
envieth not, charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth
not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily
provoked, thinketh no evil, rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth
in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all
things, endureth all things: all which personal actions are
attributed to charity, which is no person, as in other cases
it is usual”, but belonging to that person which is charitable,
because that person which is so qualified doth perform those
actions according to, and by virtue of, that charity which is in
him. In the same manner, say they!, personal actions are
attributed to the Holy Ghost, which is no person, but only the

1 The present adversaries to this (Rom. iii. 19.), et Scripturæ quod
truth are the Socinians, and their opi- prospiciat et prænunciet (Gal. iii. 8),
nion was thus first delivered by Soci. et charitati quod sit longanimis, &c.
nus: Quod in testimoniis sacris quæ (1 Cor. xiii. 4—7.) denique Spiritui,
adversarii citant, Spiritui Sancto acti i.e. vento, quod spiret ubi velit.'
ones tribuuntur, et ea quæ personarum (John iii. 8.) c. 6. Vide Socini Epis.
sunt propria ; ex hoc nihil concludi tolam 3. ad Petrum Statorium.
potest, cum aliis rebus, quas personas 3 Quod si quis dixerit, satis con-
non esse constat, similiter in Scrip stare, Paulum eo in loco figurate loqui,
turis sacris actiones tribuantur, et ea et charitatis nomine eum intelligere
quæ sunt propria personarum. Cujus qui charitate est præditus, quatenus
rei plenissimam fidem facere potest vel ea est præditus: respondebo, cum
locus ille Pauli, (1 Cor. xiii. a 4 usque Spiritus Sanctus sit Spiritus Dei,
ad 8.) ubi perpetuo de charitate, tan. certumque sit alioqui spiritum ali-
quam de persona aliqua loquitur, illi cujus persone non posse esse per-
permulta tribuens, quæ revera non sonam ab ea, cujus est spiritus,
nisi in personam cadunt.' Faustus distinctam; non minus constare, cum
Socinus contra Wickum. c. 10. [Vol. 11. Spiritui Sancto ea tribuuntur, quæ
p. 620. col. 2.]

persone et simul ipsius Dei sunt
9 So the Racovian Catechism doth propria, nihil aliud intelligendum
enlarge this answer, stating the ques nomine Spiritus Sancti esse, quam
tion thus: 'Qui vero ii Scripturæ loci ipsum Deum Spiritu suo, id est,
accipiendi sunt, in quibus Spiritui virtute atque efficacia sua, agentem
Sancto actiones personarum propriæ, atque operantem. F. Socinus, cont.
et ad Deum ipsum spectantes, attri Wiek. c. 10. Quoniam vero Spiritus
buuntur?' And returning this solution: Sanctus virtus Dei est, hinc fit ut ea
Ad eum modum, quo in Scripturis quæ Dei sunt, Spiritui Sancto attri-
rebus id attribuatur sæpenumero, buantur, et sub nomine Spiritus
quod personarum est; neque tamen Sancti sæpe Deus ipse intelligatur,
res illæ propterea personæ censentur, quatenus suam virtutem Deus per
ut peccato, quod deceperit, et occiderit Spiritum suum crerit.' Catech. Racov.
(Rom. vii. 11.), et logi quod loquatur

c. 6.

virtue, power, and efficacy of God, the Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ, because that God the Father is a person, and
doth perform those personal actions, attributed to the Holy

Ghost, by that virtue, power, and efficacy in himself, which is
Acts x. 19, the Holy Ghost. As when we read, The Spirit said unto

Peter, Behold, three men seek thee : arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them: we must understand that God the Father was the person which spake those words, and which sent those men; but because he did so by that virtue which is the Holy Ghost, therefore the Holy Ghost is said to speak those words, and

send those men. In the same manner when we read, The Acts xiii. 2. Holy Ghost said unto those at Antioch, Separate me Barnabas

and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them: we must conceive it was God the Father who spake those words, who had called Barnabas and Saul, and to whom they were to be separated; but because God did all this by that power within him, which is his Spirit, therefore those words and actions are attributed to the Holy Ghost. This is the sum of their answer; and more than this I conceive cannot be said in answer to that argument which we urge from those personal expressions attributed to the Spirit of God, and, as we believe, as to a person.

But this answer is most apparently insufficient, as giving no satisfaction to the argument. For if all the personal actions, attributed in the Scriptures to the Spirit, might proceed from the person of God the Father, according to the power which is in him, then might this answer seem satisfactory: but if these actions be personal, as they are acknowledged, and cannot be denied; if the same cannot be attributed to the person of God the Father, whcse Spirit it is; if he cannot be said to do that by the power within him, which is said to be done by the Holy Ghost; then is that defence not to be defended, then must the Holy Ghost be acknowledged a per

But I shall clearly prove, that there are several personal attributes given in the sacred Scriptures expressly to the Holy Ghost, which cannot be ascribed to God the Father; which God the Father, by that power which is in him, cannot be said to do; and consequently cannot be any ground why 312 those attributes should be given to the Spirit if it be not a person.

son.

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