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painted by the late Mr. Barry, is now incidents, relating to the finding, reengraving by Mr. Anker Smith, and to covering, and at length placing the Holy be published by Mr. Manson. This Cross at the Gate of Jerusalem. They being painted when he was much younger, exhibit specimens of the art of painting may be fairly presumed to be a more in two distinct ages, but both prior to characteristic resemblance, than any of the Reformation, and were brought to those which have preceded it.

light by the accidental removal of whiteMr. Desenfans' very fine Collection of wash, during the repair of the chapel in Pictures is selling by private contract. 1804. The subsequent destruction of Many of the most capital works in this the originals, suggests the propriety of collection are said to have been a short now offering copies of ihem to the pubtine since the property of a recently lic. As specimens of the arts of painting created Peer.

and design in the 13th and 15th centuIn the Summer of 1804, a number of ries, they will be found curious, especie ancient, allegorical, historical, and le- ally to those who are fond of comparing gendary paintings in fresco, were dis- the progressive advancement of this via covered on the walls of the chapel of the vine art from the rude beginnings of Holy Trinity, at Stratford-upon-Avon, in uninformer genius, to the perfection of Warwickshire. Drawings were made modern times. Descriptions of the from them at the time, by Mr. Thomas Paintings, and an Account of the proFisher, who proposes to publish seven- bable Periods of their Execution will be teen of them by subscription, with views annexed. The size will be super-royal and sections, illustrating the architec- folio, and the publication will be in three ture of the chapel. The greater num- parts, at two guineas cach. ber of these paintings represent various



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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. REPORT of the TRANSACTIONS of the Puy are tive in number, and the calyx is die

SICAL ond MATHEMATICAL CLASS of vided into equal seyments; the fruit, the NATIONAL INSTITUTE in 1800. which is inferior and unilocular, contains By M. CUVIER, SECRETARY to the several seeds.

The second is called calothamnus, from A

MONG the botanical works, pub- the elegance of its powers, the numerous

lished during the present year, M. Stameny of which stand upon a large fila. Cuvier notices, in a very distinguished ment, divided into two at each extremity, manner, the continuation of the Fiora of while the other are sierile. The fruit reNew Holland, by M. de la Billardiere; sembles, in every respect, the metrosidethe splendid Description of Malmaison, by M. Ventenat; the Flora of Owarree The third, called calytrir, is known and Benin, by M. Beauvois; and the Ru- by its tubulated calyx, placed above the ral Botanist, by M. Dumont, We like germen, and divided into five parts; each wise learn from this Report, that Courset, of which is terminated by a long awn or a corresponding member of the Academy, bristle. The capsule contains only one and M. de Lamark have given, conjoint- seed. ly with M. Decandolle, a third and en The fourth has received the name of larged edition of ine French Flora. capnalotus, and belongs to the family of

M. Bilardiere has, in bis valuable the rosucea. The species termed follicuwork above mentioned, made known to laria, is perhaps still more remarkable us, in particular, six new genera of than the sarracenia, and the nepenthes, plants of New Hullund. The three first' by the form of some of the leaves, which are naturally arranged among the myr- represents very nearly a purse, surmounttes, which form a very numerous family ed by an operculum, and bordered with in New Holland, and from which medio books, directed towards its inner side, cine and the arts may derive much ad The fifth is pamed actinotu., and has vantage, as the trees and shrubs belong- all the appearance of a plaut belonging ing to it furnish aromatic oils.

to the corymbiform tribe, thougi in fact, The first genus, denominated pileanthus, it belonys to the unbellare. The two is very remarkable by an envelope of a sin- stigmas, which swell towards the apex, gle piece inclosing each flower; the petals arc surmounted, on the internal side-, hý

a bristle

a bristie, resembling the feelers, or an- he treats of the fossil bones of the bear, tennæ of insects, as in the lagoecia. It rhinoceros, and elephant. The bones of contains only one seed.

two species of bears, at presen« unknown, The sixthi, called prostanthera, belongs are found buried with those of the flyet, to the lubiute tribe. The calyx is com- hyena, and other carnivorous animais, in posed of two complete divisions, the a great number of caverns, in tbe mwanlargest of which proceeds towards the talus of Hungary and Germany. other, and covers it, as soon as the corol Bones of the rhinoceros and elephant has dropt off. A filiform appendix pro

are tund in abundance in every part of ceeds from underneath each of the an our globe. thers. The fruit is, in every respect, si Accounts have been transmitted to the milar to that of the genus prasium; but author, from which it appears, thai eleone thing very remarkable in this family phants' boncs have been dug up in mure of plants is, ihat the einbryo, or corcle, than six hundred places of the two COBis enclosed in a thick and feshy albu- tinents. Still more recently have the jawmen, whilst in the other labiate plants, bones and tusks of these animals been hitherto observed, it is naked.

found in the forest of Boudy, in digging M. Beauvois having investigated cer- the canal, intended to bring the waters tain mushrooms, in all the various stages of the river Ouigue to Paris. The fare of their growth, found, that their forins ther we proceed towards the north, these became so much changed, at different bones are found in a still more perfect periods, that several botanists had thence state of preservation. An island, situabeen led to place them in different ge- ted in the Frozen Sea, is almost enurely nera, according to the age at which they composed of them. These facts were examined them: thus, according to this previously known; but the results of a author, the rizomorpha of Persoon is comparison made by M. Cuvier between only a mushroom in the second stage of these fossil bones of the rhinocerus and its growth, and becomes a boletus at the elephant, with those of the saine kind of third; the dematrium bombycinum of the animals existing in Africa at the present same author becomes, at the termination day, clearly prove that the former were of some time, his mesenterica argentea. of a different species from the latter. It then thickens, acquires a cellular tex Exclusive of the different structure of ture, so as to resemble a morel, and, like the muzzle, the fossil rhinoceros ap the rizomorpha, at length becomes a bole- pears to have had much shorter legs, a tus. This plant, however, requires larger and more elongated tiead, than farther investigation.

the rhinoceros now known. The jaita The researches into natural history, bones of the fossil elephant, as well as we learn from this Report, though less nu: the head, and particularly the alveola of merous, during the present year, than the tusks, appear also to have been ui's those made in botany, are yet far from different structure from the same parts being uninteresting.

belonging to the present species; the M. de Beauvois has begun to publish proboscis also differs in its proportions. an account of the insects which he .col On the whole, the author thinks there lected, during his travels in Africa and is reason to conclude that these two spe America. Two numbers of this work cies are now extinct, as well as many have a'ready made their appearance. M. others whose bones he has examined, and Cuvier intimates to the academy that of which ten or twelve species, deened he himself continues to pursue the re- non-descripts by most naturalists, have searches, in which he has been engaged been found with their bones encrusied for several years, on the animals without in the plaster-quarries near Paris, vertebræ, and on the fossil bones of qua- He also thinks, there is reason to supdrupeds.

pose, that these species have lived in the In the continuation of the first great places where their bones are found, and division of his work, he has given, that they have not been transported this during the present year, the anatomy of ther by an inundation, as is generally seven genera; the scyllea, glaucus, colides supposed; since these banes are not in colimucia, limar, Linned, and planorbus. the least worn down by friction. We Even the extemal appearance of the two should acquire a very superficial knowfirst was little known, and the reporter ledge of natural bodies, continues the res has rectified several mistakes, into which porter, and attain very imperfect ideas of naturalists had fallen concerning them. the different phenomena they present, i

In the continuation of the second part, we confined ourselves merely to the de


scription of their external parts, and did thollet alleges, in reply to this opinion, not endeavour to obtain a more intimate that, if this were the case, the sulphuric knowledge of their structure, by means acid poured on a sub-carbonate would of anatomy and chemistry.

immediately seize upon the uncombined M. Fourcroy has published a new and alkaline molecules, previously to entering enlarged edition of his Philosophy of into union with those combined with the Chemistry, which M. Cuvier justly con- carbonic acid. Now, that is not the siders as the best elementary work on fact; for the sınallest drop of the former that science.

acid instantaneously produces an efferAttruction and repulsion. These two vescence, and extrication of the second. powerful agents in nature have, during The aciduluus sulphate of soda effloresces the present year, as we learn from this Rea on exposure to the air; that is, it

parts port, attracted the attention of philoso- with its water of crystallization, which phers.

could not happen, were the sulphuric It is well known, that ice is lighter than acid uncombined with it, since there is water, since it swims in it. On the other no substance that more greedily attracts hand, hot water is, in general, liglier the moisture of the air than this acid. than that which is cold. But does not this M. Berthollet has furnished us with fluid become uniformly condensed, in the means of estimating the degree of proportion as it is couled, and expand acidity of the different acids, and the alsuddenly at the moment of its congela- kalinity of the different bases, by the tion? This, bowever, is not the case; for quantity which it is necessary to employ watr. is at its maximum of density, when of each of these substances, completely a few degrees above the freezing-point. to saturate or neutralize the ottier, so This M. Febvre-Gineau proved by direct that po sign of any superabundant acid experiments, several years ago, by means oralkali is perceivable in the combination. of the thermometer and hydrostatical ba lle confirms this method by shewing, lance. Since that period Count Rum- that the proportions of these quantities ford has, by well devised experiments, are uniform, and that if to one basis rendered the facts still more evident.* twice inore of one kind of acid be ne

M. Berthollet perseveres with indefati- cessary to saturate it, than to saturate gable industry in his Chemical Researe another basis, the first will also require ches, a continuation of which has ap- twice more of any other kind of acid thau peared during the present year.

the second. He therein proves that, by ineans of But the degree of resistance to heat pressure, we may combine, with the docs not correspond with this force, and three alkalies, a much greater quantity it is inore easy, for example, to decomof carbonic acid than u-ual, and thus pose by fire the carbonate of magnesia form neutral salts, as well as with the than that of lune, though the affinity of other acids. He restricts the use of the these two earths for the acid be nearly term carbonate to these combinations, equal: the reason of which is, that the while he gives to those usually formed former carbonate contains much inore with this acid and the alkalies, the name water; and other experients shew, that of sub-carbonates; and shews, that there water favours the disengagement of carare between these two many interme- bonic acid. diate states.

The consequences deducible from The same holds equally true in these facts, in every branch of chemistry, the earthy carbonates, and many and particularly in the theory of analyses, other salts. The phosphate of soda, for are incalculable. example, is crystallizable, both with The tables of the affinities, and a great an excess of acid, and an excess of part of the analyses hithertó made; are basis. The partizans of the old doc- invalidated by them, and experience, in trines suppose that, in such cases, no fact, proves that these data require tu be combination takes place, but, that the revised. For example, M. Kliproth, and superabundant principle remains mere- afterwards M. l'auquelin, tound a hith ly interposed in a free state, between of Maoric acid in the topaz, in wlich the nolecules of the two principles, com- it never before suspected to Lined in the usual proportion.' M. Cer- exist. This stone must, therefore, le

now transferred to the class of substances An account of these experiments will be containing acids. found in vol. xxii, p. 474, of the Monthly Another mineral, hitherto considered Magazine.

as a stooc, is now found to be a metal,


It was formerly termed by Delamethieré History, without an exact acquaintance oisanite, and still more recently by M. with geography. Hence it appears, that Hany anathuse. M. Vauquelin bas, this knowledge is scarcely less necessary however, found in it nothing but the to the naturalist, than to the astronomes oxide of titanium, as in the other mi- It is well known, how inuch we stand inneral denominated red schocri.

debted to scientific travellers; and 31. This fact may be considered as impor- Olivier has furnished us with new proofs tant, since chemistry bad not at that of this truth, in a Topographical Account time been able to discover any essential of Persia, which he has just published. dif ence in the composition of these He describes the chains of the mountains, two minerals, though their plıysical the course of the rivers, and explains the qualities and their crystallization were nature of the productions by that of the wholly different.

climate. By reason of the great drough: A similar example had formerly oc- which so generally prevails througbour ? curred in mineralogy. I here allude to this vast empire, not above a twentieth the urragonile, in which chemistry dis- part of it is in a state of culuvation. covers nothing but a carbonate of lime, There are many provinces in which not thongh neither, in weight, hardness, a single tree is to be scen, escept such as fracture, nor crystallization, does it re- have been planted and watered by tbe semble calcareous spar, or common hand of man.

This evil progressively carbonate of lime.

augiments by the destruction of the A different example, but which esta- canals which conduct the waters from blishes also a species of opposition the mountains; and the lands being debetween the physical and chemical cha- serted become impregnated with salt, racters of minerals, has occurred during which renders them for ever sterile. the present year. It is an iron ore,

The labours of naturalials who, isknown under the imme of spathic iron. stead of exploring foreign countries, purIt uniformly exhibits the same crystalline sue their studies at home, may also prore appearance as carbonated lime, and, in useful to the improvement of geography, like manner, contains a great proportion by suggesting lights calculated to assist of it. M. Haüy had arranged it among the inquiries of travellers. the varieties of this species, considering M. de Lacepede, atter examining what the oxide of iron merely as accidentally is already known respecting Africa, commixed vith it, during the crystallization paring the size of the rivers which flow of the lime, nearly in the same manner into the sea, with the extent of the as the sand, in the curious crystals of the country, on which the rains of the worrid hard grey stone, found in the forest of zone fall

, and with the probable quantity Fontainbleau.

of water carried off by evaporation; forIt had been indeed long known, that ming, in short, a judgment respecting the quantity of iron contained in it, is the number and direction of the mounextremely variable; but Messts. Drapier tainous chains in the interior, by boose and Descotils have discovered, that the with which we are acquainted on the proportion of lime varies still more; that borders of this great division of the globe; very frequently it scarcely contains any, from all these circumstànces he has and that the magnesia, and the oxide of been led to conjectures respecting the manganese, are found in very different physical disposition of the unknown requantities in different specimens. gions in the center, and particularly in

Such are the various combinations regard to the inland lakes and seas, which occur under the same form. which must, he thinks, exist therem. He

These apparent oppositions, concludes has sketched out the routes which ought, M. Cuvier, between two branches of the in his opinion, to be pursued by trarch same science, or between two modes of lers, who intend to explore these yet ube viewing the same objects, can only pro- discovered countries. ceed from some imperfection in the There is also another kind of spect principles of the one or the other of the lative geography, which endeavours to two methods, and merit the attention of ascertain from the present appearancE men of science.

of countries, their state in past times. The productions of nature are so in M. Olivier has, we learn from the pretimately connected with, and so materi- sent report, investigated in this way, the ally modified by, the climates, in which probability of the communication, which they are found, that no improvement can was formerly supposed to exist between be made in any of the branches of Natural the Caspian and Black-Sea. He is of 2



opinion that this communication must Mediterranean, in consequence of being have been to the north of Mount Cau- suddenly augmented by the saine cause, casus, and that, at last, it was interrupted had broken down the pillars of Hercules, by the illuvial depositions of the Cuban, and formed the strait, which now unites the Wolga, and the Don.

it with the ocean. Since then, the Caspian no longer re But M. Olivier conceives that, if thie ceives any rivers equivalent to the water Euxine had ever been inore elevated carried off by evaporation, it has greatly than at present, it inust have found a sunk, and is now, at the present day, natural outlet by the plain of Nicca, and sixty feet below the level of the Euxine. by other vallies which lead to the Pro

li is thus, that it has been separated pontis, and the Archipelago; that, in any from the sea of Aral, and leti exposed other case, the narrow channel of the the immense plains of sand, which lie to Bosphorus, could not furnish sufficient the north and east.

water to inundate the lofty mountains of M. Dureau de la Malle, a son of one of the Greece, which are more elevated than meinbers of the Institute, has discovered in any other on the borders of the Euxine ; the Greek and Roman writers, numerous and still less to produce any perceptible testimonies of the former extent of the effect upou the vast expanse of the Me Caspian Sea, and of its communications diterranean. with the Euxine and Aral, and has col He is therefore of opinion, that the lected them in a Memoir, which he has relations of the ancients on this subject, presented to this class, and to that of originated neither from observation nor Ancient Natural History. The ancients tradition, but merely in conjectures, ascribed the separation of the two for which the physical state of the countries mer, and the great diminution of the entirely overthrows. It is equally true, Euxine itself, to a disruption of the that the part of the Bosphorus, nearest to Bosphorus, which they supposed was the the Euxine Sea, exhibits traces of volcause of the food of Deucalion, the canic revolutions, while the remaining Euxine being thrown with violence, by part forms a natural valley. This holds this opening, upon the Archipelago, and equally true with regard to the Hellesthe shores of Greece, Some of them pont. even imagined, that, at this epoch, the


the 20th of May and the 2014 of June, extracted from the London Gazettes.


Degrave, Peter Cheareide, and Thomas Bainbridges

warehousenen. (Fulkes and Co. Gray's inn (Ibe Solicitors' names are between Parentbeles) Davics jonn, Cardiff, builver. (Tarrant and Co. Chan

(Alcxander, ANDREWI Charles, Barnham, burther.

Elsam 'Richardt, Newington, carpenter. (Theakston

and Welshinan, Blackfriars Adams Robert, southampton, ship builder. (Nicholls, Gibh, Rrbert, write Cross alley, Chairmaker.

(Russen scuthar ptou Alexander Henry, Moorfieds, broker. (Maddock and Gibson William Hogarth, Saville ruw, warehousemaa. ro. New square

(ledwich, Baldwin's court Brook Thoras, Eston, ironmonger. (Lodington and Co. Ginsen Richard, Seiby coper.

(James, Gray's inn Temple

Good Timothy Kings'on upon-Huil, shoe maker. (Ellis Bullock James. Scott's yard, wine merchant. (Crowder

Cursitos street and Co Old Jewry

lebh William Astley, Bridge north, lined draper, (Smart Blackmore Edward Meuricita street, taylor. (Henrich and Thoinas, Stanle lui and Co Temple Rar

Heard William, Lower East Smith ld, victualler, Brides Edward, Market street, maltster. Hind, (Turner Edward street Ten pie

Heaps Joha, Charlotte street, taylor. (Harrison, Ingras Bing Aarow Isaacs, Great Prescott street, merchant.

court (Willert and Co. Finsbury Square

Hale John, Bedminster, victualler. (Edmunds and Bruckner John, South Molton street, ladies shoe maker. NUD. Fxchequer office (Pike. Air etiset

Halder Johannewick, hutcher. (Cooke, Strand Chipps beorge. Cecil street, taylor. (Hodgson and Co. Hooton William, Knightsbridge, coach maker. Cierney's inn

rich, Palakrave place Cooper Thorns, Wilbariton, draper. (Bowe and Co. Jackson William, Bickford, Exeter, merchant. (W11. 1 ooke's court

Jams and Darke. Medford yw Cana Richard, Frith street, painter. (Walton, Girdler's King Joseph, and Wam Edward King, King otrret,

silk mercer (Booth an Cu. New square Culmer George. Chilham, miller.

and (Nethersole aud Portal Kekwick Joseph, East Ham, dealer chapman. Sssex trert

I woulkes, Southain pron treet Cier Richard, Valmouth, merchant. (Bourdilloa Kendall Edward Tabernacie walk, allow chandlet. nd Co. Little Friday street

william, Upper John street Carele" Joseph, Maidstooc, corn merchant. (Webb, sz. Knight Richard Bath. chartseibger. (Sheppard and Thumas's street

Co.scdturd row Carter widia, the younger. Warminster, clothier. (Da. Lapish John, Kighley grocer. (Aleu and Co. Furnival's

vies. Luthury Carney Robert, New Gravel lane, opseller, (Wilde, Miley Josepp, Leeds, grocer. (Meddowcroft, Gray's Jun Castle etrest

ina MONTHLY Mag. No. 159.


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