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therefore no longer doubtful, nothing remained for his Imperial Majesty hat to resort to those means which Providence has placed in his hands, for no other purpose except that of giving protection and safety to his dominions; and he has deemed it right to notify this intention to the King of Sweden, and to all Europe. Having thus acquitted himself of that duty, which the safety of his dominions require, his Imperial Majesty is ready to change the measures he is about to take, to measures of precaution only, if the King of Sweden will, without delay, join Russia and Denmark in shatting the Baltic against England until the conclusion of a maritime. peace. He himself invites the king his brother-in-law, for the last time, and with all the feelings of real friendship, no longer to hesitate in fulfilling his obligations, and in embracing the only system of policy which is cousistent with the interests of the Northern Powers. What has Sweden gained since her king attached himself to England ?-Nothing could be more painful to his Imperial Majesty than to see a rupture take place between Sweden and Russia. But his Swedish Majesty has it still in his power to prevent this event by, without delay, resolving to adopt that course which can alone preserve a strict union and perfect harmony between the two States.

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FINLAND Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Finland; issued by the Russian General, Count Buxhovden; dated Head Quarters, Fredericksham, Feb. 18,1908

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It is with the utmost concern his Imperial Majesty, my most gracious master, finds himself necessitated to order his troops under my command to enter your country, good friends, and inhabitants of Swedish Finland. His Imperial Majesty feels the more concerned to take this step, to which he is compelled by the transactions which have taken place in Sweden, as he still bears in mind the generous and friendly sentiments which the Fins displayed towards Russia in the last war, when the Swedish king engaged in an invasion of Finland, in a manner equally unexpected and unwarrantable.-His present Swedish Majesty, far from joining his Imperial Majesty in his exertions to restore the tranquillity of Europe, which alone can be effected by the coalition which so fortunately has been formed by the most powerful states, has on the contrary formed a closer alliance with the enemy of tranquillity and peace, whose oppressive system and unwarrantable conduct towards his Imperial Majesty and his nearest ally, his Imperial Majesty cannot by any means look upon with

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indifference. It is on this ground, in addition to what his Imperial Majesty owes to the security of his own dominions, that he finds himself necessitated to take your country under his protection, in order to serve to himself due satisfaction, in case his royal Swedish Majesty should persist in his design not to accept the just conditions of peace which have been tendered to him by his French Majesty, through the mediation of his Imperial Russian Majesty, in order to restore the blessings of peace, which are at all times the principal object of his Imperial Majesty's attention. Good friends and men of Finland remain quiet and fear nought, we A do not come to you as enemies, but as your friends and protectors, to render you more prosperous and happy, and to avert from you the calamities which, if war should become indispensible, must necessarily befall your Do not allow yourself to be seduced to take to arms, or to treat in a hostile manner the troops who are committed to my orders; should any one offend against this admonition, he must impute to himself the consequences of his conduct, while, on the other hand, those who meet his Imperial Majesty's paternal care for the welfare of this country, may rest assured of his powerful favour and protection. And as it is his Imperial Majesty's will, that all the affairs in your coun try shall pursue their usual course, and be managed according to your ancient laws and customs, which are to remain undisturbed, as long as his troops remain in your country, all officers both civil and military, are herewith directed to conform themselves thereto: provided that no bad use be made of this indulgence, contrary to the good of the country.-Prompt payment shall be made for all provisions and refreshments required for the troops, and in order that you may still more be convinced of his Majesty's paternal solicitude for your welfare, he has ordered several magazines to be formed, in addition to those which are already established, out of which the most indigent inhabitants shall be sup-~ plied with necessaries, in common with his Majesty's troops.Should circumstances arise to require an amicable discussion and deliberation, in that case you are directed to send your deputies, chosen in the usual manner, to the City of Abo, in order to delibe rate upon the subject, and adopt such measures as the welfare of the country shall require.It is his Imperial Majesty's pleasure, that from this moment Finland shall be considered and treated in the same manner as other conquered provinces of the Russian empire, which now enjoy happiness and peace under the mild government of his Im

perial Majesty, and remain in full possession of the freedom of religion and worship, as welf as of all its ancient rights and privileges. -The taxes payable to the crown remain in substance unaltered, and the pay of the public officers of every description continues likewise on its ancient footing.

SWEDEN

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The first intimation his Majesty received of the hostile entrance of Russian troops into Finland on the 21st of February last, and of their public incitements to rebellion and revolt circulated in that province imme diately afterwards, on behalf of his Imperial Russian Majesty, was by a telegraphic dispatch. A breach of peace without a previous declaration of war, without a single article of complaint being preferred ; a breach of peace emanating from treachery, and carried on by a traitor of his native country, placed at the side of the Commander in Chief, is an event which has but few examples, and must at the first glance create detestation; but when this act is examined at the same time with what has lately occurred between the two countries; when contemplated in its forbidding deviation from those paths of truth and honour exem plified by his Ally, no feeling can then express, no name can compass the extent of such depravity; its features will remain without a parallel in history, filling up the deeds of iniquity heaped together in the present age. At a time when his Imperial Russian Majesty, seemed to feel tenderly for oppressed princes and countries; at a time when he estimated the dangers which threatened all Europe, his Majesty, actuated by similar sentiments, was led into engage. ments with him, founded on the confidence he placed in him as a neighbour, an ally, and as an independent Monarch. The Emperor of Russia, in reference to the general welfare, had entered into useful engagements, had yet to demand of France the fulfilment of existing treaties, was possessed of power to support his own rights and those of all others concerned; his Majesty entered in to an alliance with him, and is now attacked by him on the direct ground of having been his allyNever did a prince enter into an alliance with a more assured consciousness of the purity of its molives, as well as of its being nviolably kept. The Emperor had been personally insulted by the refusal of the French government to fulfil a concluded and sealed treaty had been publicly defamed

Declaration against Russia, 11 March, 1808.

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by repeated insults levelled at his own person. The Russian nation had been no less insulted, being gazetted as savages and barbarians. Thos every thing that is sacred to a government, was connected with the common interest. Was it then possible but to look upon as irrevocable, what the Emperor himself had declared, that he would reject all conditions of peace, whether more or less advantageous, if they were not don sistent with the glory of the Russian name; the security of the Empire; the sanctity of alliances; and the tranquillity and peace of all Europe:" -In what manner, and how far these great objects have been obtained by the Peace of Tilsit, contemporaries have already decided, and futurity will more clearly discover. The King, although at his post on the theatre of war, was, contrary to the express tenor of his convention' with Russia, neither informed of the Armistice, nor of the definitive negociations, till the peace was concluded, having received advice of these transactions, accompanied with a cold and slight invitation to assist in the object of peace, the King renewed his application for an armistice (whicir ought, no doubt, to have been stipulated in the peace of Tilsit), but received only evasive answers, and discovered at once the valte of Russian co-operation. The King finding himself in conséquence unable to detend his

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A people (the Russians) who from thei barbarous customs and manners ought to create abhorrence amongst all civilized nations.-Ordre du Jour. Vienne, le 25 Bru maire, An. 14 (14th November, 1805.)

These savage bands, whose assistance shall for the last time, be called forth by European governments-25 Bulletin de la grand armet, le 25 Brumaire, An. 14. If the Greek religion be allowed once to spread itself between the Baltic and the Mediterranean seas, we shall soon see our provinces attacked by a heap of mad barbarians-proclamation, the head-quarters, Warsaw, 25th Jan. 1807. Signed Napoleon Buonaparte.

See the Russian Manifest of the 30th August, 1806.

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Both the high contracting parties had engaged in the most powerful manner, that the hostilities being once commenced, they should not lay down their arms, or treat about any reconciliation with the French govern nient without their mutual consent. The convention between Sweden and Russia, dated the 14th Jaunary, 1805.—Art. IX.

General Budberg's letter to Baron de Wetterstedt, First Secretary for the foreign correspondence dated the 10th July, 1807

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German states any longer, was obliged to leave them to their subsequent fate. Having sustained this loss, originating in the desertion of Russia, his Majesty was again placed out of the theatre of war, and endeavoured to enjoy within his own territory that peace and quietness which its geographical situation seemed to ensure to him. Having faithfully acted up to his engagements towards Russia, his Majesty promised himself that notwithstanding the different system she had adopted, a just and equitable retrospect would be given to former occurrences. The King had supported the operations of Russia with his ships of war; had shared with the Emperor his military stores, had rejected and immediately communicated the offers made him by the French Government. Among others one that on condition of breaking with Russia while in the midst of the war, and when the Russian frontiers and her very capital were defenceJess, Sweden should be put in possession of all the provinces lost during the reign of Charles XII, together with such further part of the Russian empire as his Majesty might determine. His Majesty stands ou higher ground than to make a merit of having resisted temptations so mean and contemptible; but he is not without hopes that the aggregated censure due to a power thus spared in the hour of danger, will be proportioned to its oppressive conduct towards this kingdom. The consequences of the secrei articles of the treaty of Tilsit, which were immediately suspected, and which the Russian Ministry have since acknowledged, began by degrees to unfold themselves. England's commercial monopoly, that ridiculous scarecrow, erected by the French government, in order to usurp to itself the continent, was also brought forward for the contemplation of the North, for the sake of extending, even to that part of the world, the oppression and misery which, from port to port, from state to state, Europe had been subjected to No government is any longer left to its own light and experience; no people to their own lawful industry; no

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4. Promise of Norway given by General Bernadotte to a Swedish officer-a prisoner, Nov. 1806, respecting the extending of dominions of the french minister, Bourienne, to Netzel the Chargé des Affaires the 14th November 1806. General Grandjean's representation to Colonel Baron. Tavast, the May, 1907, that Sween was to demand what terrory she wished to have in order that she might counterbalance Russia, &c.

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middle class must be acknowledged between the vassal and the enemy. Peace signifies confederacy-confederacy, submission; and from paris must proceed the mandates which are to dictate both principles, laws, and ordinancies, to the ielf-styled independaut confederacy, while they promote only a lust for power, and violate what is most sacred in society and between societies.-Preparations were made in conformity at St. Peterburgh last Autumn, for a rupture with England, and they waited only for the proper season of the year to be able, with somewhat more security, to carry that measure into effect. A proposal was made to his Royal Majesty, in a note, dated the 6th of October, to assist agreeably to the convention made in 1780, in shutting

against foreign ships of war. H Baltic

Majesty, on the 13th November, returned for answer that so long as the French government was in possession of so many harbours on the south side of the Baltic, and there exercised their system of exclusion, the Baltic could not be kept peaceable. His Majesty in consequence also requested that his Imperial Majesty would first endeavour to prevail on the French to quit those ports; and when the first-mertioned application was renewed on the 27th of the same month, as an objection grounded on the convention of 1780, This Majesty circumstantially declared on the 21st Jan. last, that by virtue of the convention made in the year 1801, between Russia and England, and to which his Majesty, at the pressing instance of Russia, and under her own guarantee, became a party, the previous armed neutrality had entirely ceased. That his majesty had then entered into direct engagements with England, in reference to that object, and which could not equitably be departed from, so long as the latter power, on her side, fulfilled her obligations. That at the same time that he armed neutrality was done away with, he stipulations grounded therein, respecting the shutting of the Baltic, became null and void, and which was the less applicable to existing circumstances, as the Danish naval force, then calculated upon, no longer was in being; not to mention that England had since that time, discovered the passage through the great Belt. But of Sweden could not with her arms eontribute to the protection of the Baltic, she would, on the other hand, take upon herself to obtain, by negociation with England, that not send any ships of into those scas, provided my other power made armaments there, or new hostilities should oblige her to come there as an a£,

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sistant. That Sweden should be called upon to serve Russia as outworks, because she had thought proper to provoke England; that Sweden should sacrifice her fleet and commerce as a defence for Cronstadt and Revel, was asking rather too much : yet immediately after these representations, Russia actually commenced her preparations for war on the frontiers of Finland. Majesty continued, notwithstanding, to view them with calm forbearance; for as yet no specific complaints had been preferred, nor had any unconditional demands been made. The proposal (His Majesty had made) of an agreement to protect the Baltic, presented aspects of tranquillity and advantage to Russia, to all the North, which it would appear could not, but under great responsibility, be refused, The ports of Russia would thereby become more frequent than they had been since the commencement of the war, and might obtain an emulation in trade respecting their produce unknown for many years. Neighbourly friendship, commerce, repose after an unfortunate war, and some motives for applause after a still more unfortunate peace, such were the advantages to be derived from the proposals which the king made to the Emperor. They were made with a well grounded confidence in the concurrence of England, and bis Majesty expected Russia's consent would have arrived much earlier than the dreaded English feet could shew itself as an avenger in the Baltic, He pressed a speedy answer, and it was intended that the King's Ambassador should on the 15th of February, in a private audience with the Emperor, which was promised him, urge this important concern, when at once the communication of the embassy with Sweden was in a violent manner interrupted, and Russian troops entered Finland with the following proclamations (Here follow the Russian proclamations, dated Frederiksham the 18th (6th) Feb. 1808, and Louisa, 10th (22d) Feb. 1808, already published). The declaration then concludes as follows:-Let every legal government, let every brave and honest warrior, every loyal subject, judge of this conduct a treacherous invasion of a peaceful neighbour's country, preceded by manifestoes inviting to rebellion, are things at all times detestable, even in these latter times, otherwise so burthened with examples of violence and injustice. The Russian Empire, the ally of France, is not it would seem, powerful enough to abide upon. the common terms of the law of nations, the resistance of a province left to defend itself on account of the season of the year.

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It calls forth the aid of treachery and treason. The government expects to purchase the Finlanders en masse, under promises of liberty; but the commander of the army offers to purchase the soldiers individually," like slaves, in the market of St. Petersburgh or Riga.-Ye youthful inhabitants of Finland, a people worthy of esteem your King has, during the whole of his reign,' paid attention to your instruction, to the cultivation and prosperity of your country. A faithless neighbour threatens to hurt you back to the state you were in in ages past, because your neighbourhood is become a reproach to him. His sword is brandished over your heads; his plundering hands ware stretched towards your property; his for ces approach your dwelling, and his prot mises and protestations have no other aimaban a to facilitate his access to you. Deep'y gue k at the distresses inseparable from war, b though conscious of in no wise having been the cause of it, your king rests-assured that your hearts will remain unseduced and your" courage unsubdued, till the time shall arrive when he can freely employ his whole fores and that of his ally in protecting and reveng ing you.

SWEDEN.

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Proclamation, 14th March,

1808.

Whereas the eastern frontiers of the king dom have already been invaded by a Russian force; and whereas the western, southern, and northern frontiers are in danger of invasion: we are compelled by all the means in our power to defend our kingdom, and at the same time to avail ourselves, for its security, of the sacred duty imposed upon the king of Sweden, as well by the ancient fundamental laws of the country, as by the present form of government. That we may be the better able to oppose our enemies, we hereby command all unmarried and able young men, between the ages of 18 and 25 years, of what rank soever they may be," excepting such as have heretofore served as soldiers or seamen, to be ready whenever they may be called upon, to defend their country. In the mean time we order our commanders immediately to enrol all young men of the above description, in every parish throughout the kingdom, and transmit to us a statement thereof as speedily as possible, that we may, accordingly to the information given of the number in each district, issue orders for their organization as regular troops./ All those whom these may concern are hereby enjoined to observance. Given at our palace at Stockholm, this 14th day of March 1808.-GUSTAF ADOLPH.

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Declaration against Sweden, 20th February, 1508.

The Danish government has with just impatience waited to see the effect of the efforts. employed by the court of St. Petersburgh for the purpose of recalling Sweden by the most friendly means, to those interests which are common to her with all the powers of the north, and to those principles which are the first bond of her connection with Russia and Denmark. These efforts having finally proved ineffectual, the Danish government finds itself placed in a position towards Swe den which will no longer allow its relations with that kingdom to remain uncertain. What these relations had become, it is indeed impossible to dissemble, after a perfidious aggression had suddenly forced Denmark from the path she had followed during a long series of years without the slightest deviation. All Europe has resounded with one cry of indignation at the crime committed by Great Britain against a neutral and peaceful state; and from all quarters has the Danish govern. ment received testimonies of the most lively interest in its cause. The court of Stockholm alone, notwithstanding the particular ties vh united it with that of Copenhagen, observed a total silence, which it at length broke, only to prefer complaints the most unfounded and reproaches the most unjust, with respect to the inconveniences that had indirectly resulted to it, from the events of the war, as well as from the rigorous measures which the situation to which the Danish government has been most unexpectedly reduced, has imperiously required it to adopt, and which the chicane and endlessevexations of Sweden have been little calculated to induce sit to abandon... The Danish cabinet would have been extremely embarrassed to interpret the conduct on the part of a sovereign, whose interests, principles, and sentiments, it had regarded as being equally wounded by an act of atrocity, which has suddenly lighted the flames of war in the north, if it had not quickly seen cause to suppose, that the resolution taken by the king of Sweden: under these circumstances was not merely that of indifference; The

DENMARK

extraordinary facility with which that monarch, several weeks before the reduction of Stralsund, had consented to the departure of the major part of the English forces in Pomerania (whither, as it should seem, they came with no other view than to await the opportunity of being conveyed to Zealand,) and the pains his Swedish majesty took to inform his people that this re-embarkation took place by virtue of a separate article of his convention with Great Britain, gave the first indications of a secret understanding at the expence of Denmark. These indications were very soon increased. The Danish government is not acquainted with the extent of the assistance which its enemy re ceived in the ports of Sweden; but it has felt the consequences of that assistance in a manner the most lamentable to itself. It is easy to conceive the impression which has been produced upon the Danish nation by the relations of every kind, and the unin terrupted communications which the English found no difficulty in maintaining with Sweden. No one could fail to remark how much Denmark was insulted by the pleasure which the king of Sweden appeared to take in repairing to the coast opposite to the Sound, and beholding personally all the injustice and outrage committed against a neighbouring country; by the caresses and numberless marks of distinction lavished upon the leaders of the English forces; by the. honours which they, on their part, affected to render to the ally of their sovereign; and by the demonstrations of respect towards his Swedish majesty, to which the ships of war, violently seized from the port of Copenhagen, were not bound, on their passage along the Sound, under the cannon even of that fortress to which their salute was owing. However unfavourable an aspect the concurrence of these circumstances necessarily casts upon the dispositions of the King of Sweden towards the government of Den-, mark, that government cannot reproach it. self with having gratuitously exaggerated those appearances, which the court of Stockholm, far from attempting to remove, wished to produce, nourish, and strengthen, as far as it was in its power. But these simple appearances were soon succeeded by facts, The government of England was the first to develope to Denmark the openly hostile disposition of his Swedish Majesty. Europe already knows the explanations occasione d between Denmark and Sweden by this denunciation. The King of Sweden, when called upon in the most frank and friendly Inanner to declare himself on this subject, was seen to endeavour cluding the necessity

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