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General Doyle then read another, the turned round, and, drawing her sabre, Jast note but one, he had at that time with great calmness, but determination, received from Palafox: it was written at told hiin, that if he followed her another Pamplona, to which place he had been step, she would cut him down. The deremoved by the enemy in his way to sire of this gay, but not gallant, Lothario, Paris, and was dated March 13. “My was instantly turned into fear, and he dearest Doyle, my friend, my brother, fled from the object of his wishes, as fast for God's sake send me by the bearer, or as his legs could carry hiin. She was by letter on Bayonne, some money. proceeding to Seville, to be presented to You know how long a journey is before the Central Junta, for the purpose of me, and the moment will arrive when I soliciting a higher appointment in the shall beg charity. This is the only com. patriotic army.* fort I can now receive from your good ASPECT OF THE COUNTRY. heart. My dearest friend they have Our ride to Seville was four leagues, rabbed me to the very shirt. Adieu, and continued for the greatest part over adieu, adieu!”—The face of Augustina, a dreary, bladeless, fat, plain, then which, as I have observed, is reinarkable parched up, but which in the winter is for its sweetness, assumed a mingled ex. in several parts overflown by the Guapression of commiseration for her hero, dalquivir: this was a short cut, and out and revenge against his enemies. Her of the high road. So barren was the eyes, naturally soft, flashed with peculiar scene, that the only objects which excited fire and animation; tears rolled down notice were several stone wells, which her cheeks, and clasping her hands, as frequently appear, for the purpose of the last word, “adieu" was repeated, supplying troughs with water for the she exclaimed “Oh, those base invaders cattle. In the country approaching to of my country, those oppressors of its Seville, may be traced some appearance best of patriots! should the fate of war of the baneful effects of the blind iinpo. place any of them within my power, I licy of the Spaniards in neglecting agri. will instantly deliver up their throats to culture, in favour of their sheep. Enga the knife." General Doyle was much land and other countries have been forimpressed with the manner in which she merly infested with wolves and other uttered this fierce denunciation, a man- ravenous beasts. Spain may be said to ner that can leave but little doubt of her be devoured by the meekest of all ania carrying it into execution, should an op- mals, by sheep, which are permitted to portunity offer.

Soon afterwards the riot in and impoverish a region, which, husband of Augustina entered, who had on account of its richness and fertility, been severely wounded during the sieges, the ancients in the warınch of imagiaccompanied by a youth, a nobleman, nation, determined to have been the and a cousin of Palafox: when the se. garden of the Hesperides, and the site of cond siege took place, this young man the Elysian fields. It seems to be agreed was at college, which, upon the irruprion by alınost all writers on Spain, that the of the French, he abruptly quitted, and, æra of the Mussalman government of after having distinguished himself at Rio that country, was by far the most bril. Sico, under General Cuesta, with scarcely liant in its history; and that agriculture any money, and little food and cloathing, he made his way to Zaragoza, and fought * The following energetic lines were writunder his noble relative with enthusiastic ten upon this amiable and intrepid female, bravery. . It does not often fall to the by Mr. Joseph Blackers a distinguished, but, lot of a traveller to meet with occur. alas! a departed, genius, in a poem called rences such as I have related, and to see other poems, have just been rescued from ob

the Fall of Zaragoza, which, with some a group of persons, so distinguished for

livion by the benevolence of Mr. Pratt. their intrepidity and patriotism. Au

Oh! heaven-born heroine, gustina calls herself the Woman of Za. ragoza : she occasionally, wears the dress Fair Augustina, bold heroic maid ! of the service into which she has entered, Thine is the beauteous forın, but warrior's the artillery, but modestly preserves the Thine the re-animating gen'rous pride, petticoat. One evening as she was like fam’d Camilla, nobly to deal forth walking alone in this habit, in one of the Destroying vengeance on thy country's 'foes; streets of Cadiz, with her sabre by her Back to the breast of fainting courage call side, a man attracied by her beauty, fol. The curdling blood, and bid thy brothers, Jowed her a considerable way, upon armed, which, offended at bis inpertinence, she Or dic or wiumph with thee !

especially

PLEBOTOMY.

especially had to deplore the expulsion and on which are traceable the ruins of of the Moors. Fruitful as is the soil, the ancient city of Cartea, the town of and propitious to vegetation as is the San Roque, and the lofty mountains of climate of Spaio, it is well known, that Granada. even at this period, nearly two-thirds of Quiting this spot, I visited one of the the country is uncultivated. Of this signal-houses, and, as the levanter was neglect, the vast tracts of land which are just beginning to blow, I had an oppope always kept in pasture for sheep, present tunity, which an officer who bad been one of the causes, and one of great mago nearly three years on the rock bad not nitude.

before met with, of seeing groups of very

large monkeys, to whom this wind is The Spaniards still continue their en. peculiarly disagreeable, quit their caverns, thusiastic veneration for the bleeding which almost impend over the inaccessystem of Galen, so laughably satirized sible crags on the eastern side, and, in the practice of doctor Sangrado, by having ascended the heights, descend, Le Sage. Even to this day, the physi- many bearing their young on their backs, cians and

surgeons of Spain are very igo a short way, and range themselves in norant. Their recent intercourse with rather formidable bodies on the western the medical staff of England may, pere side. I counted no less than fourteen in haps,lead to their improvement. This igno. a short space of time. We passed near rance may in a great degree be attributed them, but they did not appear to be anie to the superstition of the people, who noyed at our presence. As shooting at think there is more healing power in a them is prohibited, perhaps more from saint than a doctor, and that a prayer is the fear of loosening the stones of tliese a panacea for maladies as well as sins. summits by the shot, which by rolling This darling operation of bleeding is from such a beight towards the town usually performed either on the hand or might do mischief below, than from tenfoot, I believe rarely, if ever, on the arm. derness to the antic race, they may pro. It is regarded as a neglect of health not bably derive confidence from being but to be bled several times in the course of seldom molested. As they were seated the year. In Seville, and at Cadiz, I on this side of the rock, some time since, saw the hands of several persons tied an officer happened to pass with a fine with black ribbon, and found this to be terrier, which ran at them. The monthe cause. A Spaniard in this city, keys who were seated in a circle were known to a friend of mine, who had been not in the least dismayeri; but, upon bled three times, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d, some of them moving a little, che dog of June preceding, my arrival, went for ran into the centre, when a very powerfifteen days following into a bath, and ful monkey seized him by one of his then considered himself safe from ma. hinder legs, ran with hiin to the top, Sady for a whole year. He had pursued hurled him over the eastern side of the this course for thirty years, during which rock, a stupendous, and nearly perpen. he had never required, or taken any dicular, height, and dashed the rash as. medicine. The Spanish barbers are sailant to pieces. Of these monkeys called sangrados. and sacamuelas, on stranger stories are related. A most ab. account of their being bleeders and surd and ridiculous one has obtained tooth-drawers.

credit with some of the most credulous

of the inhabitants, that, before the En. The excavated batteries, which open glish got possession of this place, one of towards the Spanish lines, and the great them contrived to seize a pretty girl cavern called the ball of St. George, are whilst she was enjoying the view from wonderful efforts of huinan ingenuity and an elevated part of the rock, and to gralabour. From the stupendous summits tify his amorous propensities towards her, above these batteries, upwards of one that he was put under arrest according to thousand three hundred feet high, there military law, tried by a court martial of is a vast and magnificent view of the grave Spanish officers, and shot for the African coast, including Babary, Fez, rape. It is worthy of remark, that this And Morocco, the Atlantic, the Medi. is the only spot in Europe wbere monkeys terranean, the town below, the bay with • are found wild. Many are brought over its numerous shipping, Algeziras, the from Barbary and sold in the market for country behind, the hill from whence the

a mere trifle; and hence, a monkey is Queen of Spain contemplated as a spec- almost as common as a cat in the houses Gracle the memorable siege of Gibraltar, of Gibraltar.

The

GIBRALTAR.

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The stern, and hostile aspect of the contrive to find pasture upon its western
northern side of the rock softens into side. The roads are excellent, and eis-
scenes of rural beauty to the soulli, lead- livened with persons riding hackwards
ing to Europa Point, Here well-cuc and forwards, and even by barouches
roads wind through avenues of poplars, and other carriages.
along the sides of gardens, and through In the town, there is an excellent gar-
groves of orange and citron-trees. The rison library in a handsome detached
otticial house of the commissioner, ele- building. To the balls given by the mi-
vaced high on the rock, half-embosomed litary, the families of the merchants are
in a garden abounding with productions rarely, if ever, admitted: this unpleasant
of the south, offers," at least is point of line of separation has been drawn, in cuna
picturesque situation, a comparison un- sequence of the great number of low and
favourable to the residence of the go. vulgar mercantile adventurers, who have
vernor, which stands in the town, at the settled in Gibraltar. Universal toleration
base of the rock, in the principal street, exists, without, as might be expected, any
and was formerly a Franciscan convent. inconvenience to the garrison, always
It is called “ the convent" to this day. excepting, however, the horrid nuisance
Here, howerer, there is an excellent produced by a fellow beating the bell of
garden, kept in high order, containing the Spanish Catholic church with a great
orange and citron trees, vines,' flowers, hamner, many times in the course of
and vegetables. Towards Europa Point, the day, to the no little annoyance of
there are also several other beautiful every one in its neighbourhood. This
spots. Mr. Commissary Sweetland and noisy functionary is a great coxcomb in
his amiable lady lave a delightful cottage his way, and says that the English have
here, as well known for the elegant hos- good bells, but do not know how to ring
pitality which reigns within, as for the them, and that be alone possesses taste
beauty of the scenery without.

in this way! I was informed, that an
On this side of the rock is the cele. officer once, provoked by his noise, after
brated cave of St. Michael; this is a repeatedly, but unavailingly, requesting
inagnificent hall of nature, apparently him not lo strike so hard, could not re-
sopported by columns of crystalization, sise caniny him when he descended, upon
rude, brilliant, and beautiful, from which which the bell-ringer brought his action,
there are narrow and difficult passages and obtained damages; he now, there-
leading to other apartinents,

During fore, frequently shows bis triumph, by,
the war with Spain, and before the The additional vehemence with which he
French arms became sullied by a spirit of strikes his bell.
ruthless ferocity, an intercourse, distine The traveller will do well to pay a visit
guished for its urbanity, existed between to Catalan Bay, situated at the base of
Cur garrison and the Spaniards, such as the eastern side of the rock, which is
did honour to the exalted sensibility of there perfectly inaccessible; this spot is
two great nations. Our officers were iruly romantic and beautiful.

Here,
perinitted to enjuy the sports of the turf under the sharle of vines and fig-trees,
within the Spanish territory, and, in re- in company with some intelligent en.
torn, gave balls and other entertainments gineer officers, with a fine beach and
10 the Spaniards. Upon some of these rolling sta in our front, and in our rear
festive and generous occasions, the cave the cliffs of this nighty rock, on the sides
of St. Michael's was accustomed to be' of which several moikeys were playing
brilliantly lighted up. Under these ile their “ fantastic tricks," we dined in re-
luminations, the effect of its roof, fretted freshing coolness, although it was sultry
and richly adorned with prismatic spars hot on the other side of the rock.
and dropping crystals, wildly resembling The marble of Gibraltar is very beau.'
the minute and delicate richness of sara. tiful, and admits of a fine polish: shells
cenic decoration, of its glittering sides, and petrified fish are frequently found
of its milk-white and semi-transparent in it.
columns, presenting all sorts of fantastic The inns in the town, without being
orders of architecture, its numerous and very clean or comfortable, are exces.
mysterious récesses, the whole enlivened sively dear; but there is one to which I
by groups of visitors gaily dressed, must would recommend the traveller of plea.,
have been inost singular and enchanting. sure to go, equal in neatness and com-
Rugged, barren, and bladeless, as this fort to any in England, standing in an
rock appears at the height of this cave, enchanting situation a little above the
still Rocks of goats and even some cows dock-yard and Europa Bay,

The

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The musquitos commit sad havoc upon the enemy, which advanced with great strangers, for which reason, and the valour, were cut to pieces, the marsiial usual effects attendant on a change of continued the contest, but at length was climate, an officer is seldom put on duty overpowered, and in the evening comfor a fortnight after, his arrival. The pelled to retire, leaving a general and society is here altogether gloomy, for about one thousand six hundrer dead want of more females. The theatre is upon the field of battle, and about (wo execrable. One of the few amusements thousand muskets. The loss of the ape is, spearing of fish by torch-light. The triotic tronps was also very considerable. market is well supplied with vegetables, On the 26th of January, 1809, the now from Spain, as well as Barbary. batteries were unmasked, and a beavy At night, a passenger is sadly annoyed by cannonade from twenty-four and thirty, the challenges of the numerous centinels six pounders commenced, accompanied who are stationed in and near the town. by a shower of shells. After some time, Every one not in uniform, must carry a the enemy succeeded in destroying some lanthorn. To the eye of the stranger, slight batteries which had been raised of the town presents a natural masquerade wood and fascines, near the convent of of people, from various countries, in St. Joseph, and the bridge of Huerba, their different costumes, of whom the and took possession of both. In the conchief are Moors. The Spanish character vent fell the heroine Manuella Sancho. forms a striking feature. Spaniards This noble female used to bring prosj. from all parts are to be found here. sions to the soldiers, after which she

Gibraltar is indeed well worthy of a served at the guns, or carried a muskei, voyage to be seen; and, when its nu- and was always to be seen wherever the merous and astonishing fortifications, its firing was the huttest; whilst she was lown, barracks, docks, arsenals, country- thus serving her country, a shot entered houses, and population, sometimes her head. amounting to sixteen thousand souls, After repeated attacks, the French distributed on one side of a rock whose gained the Plaza, where they raised fresh circumference does not exceed seven works, whence they kept up a dreadful miles, are all brought within the eye's discharge of shot and shells, which reand mind's view, it may justly be ranked duced to ruin the principal part of the arnoligst the greatest of natural and are town. The only places of defence left tificial wonders.

were a convent of St. Augustine's, of THE SECOND SIEGE OF SARAGOSSA. las Monicus, an oil-mill, the botanical On the 21st of Deceinber, 1808, the garden, and a small redoubt. During French returned again to lay siege to his desperate crisis, all descriptions of Zaragoza. They were in great force, and persons, with fearless animation, assisted presented themselves in different direc- in making fascines, digging ditches, and tions. The military and inhabitants of heaping up carth, in the streets, not yet the city, though far from having recovered destroyed by the enemy. Whilst the from the effects of the carnage, fatigue, most distinguished acts of heroism were and sickness, by which they had been re- exhibiting above, a subterranean war was duced in the preceding siege, which had carrying on below, by a large body of been raised about four months, pre- miners and sappers of the enemy, who pared once more, under their beloved succeeded in blowing houses from their and heroic Palafox, to resist their cruel very foundations into the air. The sia and ruthless enemy.

tuation of the besieged now, indeed, heMortier, with about fourteen thousand gan to wear the aspect of desperation, chosen troops, mostly grenadiers of the Exhausted with almost incredible fatigue imperial guards, approached the Arrabal, and anguish, the mind of their general, which includes three short streets, at the Palafox, began to shew occasional sympend of each of which, a weak battery of toms of deliriuin. earth and fa cines was constructed,

But still the work of death went on, having a small ditch three yards broad. with redoubled fury. The smoke of and two and a half deep, without any gunpowder kept the city in twilight darkother protection or covered way, but ness, frequently reddened and horribly what the houses afforded. The marshal illumined by the fire, that issued from the commenced the attack with his sharp- destroying mouths of the cannou and shooters, supported by his artillery, which mortars of the enemy. In the intervals discharged thirty-six pounders, at half which succeeded these discharges, wopistol shot. Although three columns of men and children were beheld in the

streets

142

streets writhing in the agonies of death, undaunted courage in the cause of her
yet scarcely a sigh or mioan was heard, country. Numerous were the instances
whilst those whose wounds permitted of female heroism. Women, many of
thein to move, crawled behind the walls them of the highest orders of life, and of
of roofless houses and sunk down on their elegant habits, without respect to rank,
ruins. At the same time priests were formed themselves into corps, to carry
seen, as they were rushing to meet the provisions, to bear away the wounded to
advancing fue, to kneel by the side of the the hospitals, and to fight in the streets,
dying, and, dropping their sabres, or their in which they were frequently accom-
muskets, to take with holy zeal the cross panied by children, who, with the plea-
from their bosoms, and administer the sure displayed in their amusements,
consolations of their religion, during rashly and exultingly rushed into danger,
which they exhibited the same calinness and could not be prevailed on to stay in
usually displayed in the chambers of those places which the firing of the enemy
sickness.

had then spared. Amongst other fe.
On the 30th, after having undermined males who distinguished themselves in
upwards of sixty houses, the enemy ob- this illustrious siege, was one 'Darned
tained possession of the monasteries of Benita, who headed one of these corps.
the Augustines and Las Monichas, wbich This lady, after rendering many impore
adjoined each other. In this assault, tant services and encountering many
the carnage amongst the hostile troops perils, rapidly died of a broken heart,
was dreadful; but they continued still upon hearing that her daughter had been
adiancing, and at length the combatants shot. In this siege, no less than six
entered the church, from which a party hundred women and children perished
of the French was at first repulsed by the by the bayonet or the bullet. At length,
mnonks, who fought with all the fervour the city nearly demolished by the con-
of zeal, and the fury of despair. The stant firing of an inmense artillery, and
enemy, however, returned to the charge; of about forty thousand shells, and the
and a scene, such as had been seldom, surviving tronps and inhabitants quite
if ever, beheld before, was exhibited.

worn out hy disease, fighting, and famine,
In this sacred sanctuary, every inch of their idolized general no longer able to
ground was disputed by its holy func. attend to the duties of his eventful com-
tionaries; the columns, the lateral chap- mand, all these afflicting circumstances
els, and the altar, became so many rain. conspiring, the besieged were obliged
parts, and were frequently stormed, with' broken hearts to surrender, and
taken, and retaken; and the pavement they accordingly laid down their arms at
was covered with the bleeding bodies of the gate of the portiilo, on the 21st of
monks and soldiers; the battle raged in February, 1809, after having covered
every part, till the roof, shattered by themselves with glory during one of the
numerous bombs, at length. gave way, most memorable sieges in the annals of
and felt with a terrific crash upon the war, which lasted sixty-three days.
combitants, when those who survived its
fall, as soon as they had recovered the The patriots of Spain, high and low,
shock of so unexpected a disaster, mnot seenied to have but one opinion of the
upon the ruins, and, joined by others, Supreme Junta. In this opinion its
continued the fight with unabated fe. members were divided into four classes;
rocity.

the first comprehended one or two atle
The enemy, by undermining, still and upright men; the second those who,
gained upon the inhabitants, who fought without actually corresponding with the
as formerly from house to house, and enemy, did not hesitate, every opporo
room to room, but at length, after a pro- - tunity within their pawers, and to its full
digious effusion of blood, the great street extent, to sacrifice the interests of their
caller Coz, in the heart of the town, country to their own personal aggran.
became for a short period, the boundary dizement; the third those who were weak
between the besieged and the hesiegers, and easily intimidated; and the fourth
when the latter blew up the public semi- those who looked on with perfect apathy,
nàries. The city now presented little and sanctioned every measure without
more than a vast pile of smoking ruins, investigation; such were the function,
encumbering the streeis.

There was aries who composed this new majesty of not a house ihat had not in some degree Spain, in which neither the king, the suffered. During these scenes, the ce- aristocracy, nor the people were repren! lebrated Augustina again displayed her sented.

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THE SUPREME JUNTA

DEFENCE

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