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MR. WILLIAM CLARKE, AND MR. JOSEPH pawlins, or other coarse or heavy googls.

BUGBY, for Improvements in a Machine The machinery defcribed in this specififor Spinning Hemp, Flar, Tow, and cation, may be used to great advantage Wool.

in fpinning long wool for wortier; and The machinery here described will not although in molt cafes it is peculiarly admit of a writieu account that can be adapted to manual power, yet it may be intelligible without the aid of figures. It wrought by water steam, or any other is calculated to save the heavy expence power, and for coarse and heavy goods of currents of water, erecting spacious with advantage. buildings, water-works, fteain-engines, &c. and to fpin heinp, flax, tow and MR. EDWARD HEARD'S (LÒNDON,) for a wool, at such an easy expence, as to Discovery of certain Means of obtaining bring it within reach of small manufac Inflammable Gas from Pit-coal, in such turers, and constructed upon such safe a State, that it may be burned without and eafy principles, that no length of ex

any offensive Smell. perience will be neceffary to enable chil This invention may be thus defcribed; dren to work the fame; and the use of water, lime is laid in trata with coals, in a retort kteain, &c. thereby rendered unnecessary, fove or other clofa vessel, in which they and to occupy to little space, that the are placed for operation, or the gas when Niachines may be placed in small rooms, produced is suffered to pass over lime or out-buildings. To effect the above previoully laid in an iron or other tube, purpose, it was necessary to get rid of the or any other thaped vessel adapted to the Ayer upon the spindle used in the old ma- purpose, and exposed to beat. After the chinery, for spinning herup and tlax, gas has been conducted into a refrigerawhich requires a power in proportion of tory, and all condensible matter is depofive to one, and to furinount the difficulty fited, it is then suffered to enter the conthat arises from the want of elasticity in veying tubes, and burned in the usual these substances. This want of elasticity manner. The reason for employing line in the substance to be operated upon, is in preference to other substances is, tlat, compensated and provided for in this froin a series of analytical experiments, machinery; and upon this compensation Mr. H. has dete ted the prefence of fuland providon, effected by the various phur in a great variety of the coals which means mentioned in these improvements, are consumed in this country, and he the return of the carriage without any considers the fuffocating smell fo perautistance from the work-person, and the ceptible during the combustion of the traverse for dittributing the yarn upon gas obtained in the ordinary way, to arite bobbins or quills, rett the excellence of from the products of that combustion, this invention. The most fiinple mode principally the fulphureous acid gas, of compensating the want of elasticity, which is then generated. "I present," and which the patentees recommend in fays Mr. Ilearl, lime in fubstance to preference to the other, is that of having the fulphur, as it is disengaged by heat

bolder of large wire for every spindle from the coals, and through their inutual fred in an arbor or Phaft, that extends affinity arrett it in its progress, and forin from one end of the carriage to the other. a fulplsoret of lime, or hydro-fulpharet This arboror (haft, with the holders, înay depending on the circumstances of the he conlidered as an enlarged and im- operation. I have reason to conclude prored fubftitute, for whal is called a that any of the fixed alkalies, or alkaline failer in the moll-jennies for spinning carths,

or carbonate of lime, when exenton. One mode of compensating and posed to a degree of temperature futtiproviding for the want of elatticity in cient to drive of the carbonic acid gas, berp and flax, and prevent breakages might be substituted for linc; but from maid other accidents from any tightness economical motives, as well as from conto the yarn, occalioned by any obftruc- ftant success, I prefer the agency of lime. tion is by driving the common male Mr. Heard willes it to be diftinctly umbiode wahn Back band, having the yarn derstood, that lime, the alkaline earthis, to pass orer the holders, or over a cer certain metals or their oxides, wheir

Fonnd be with all the other appa- mixed with the coals laid on their furfor laring the yarn upon the spin- face, or put inta feparate veffels through The method it is faid camot be which the gas is nude to pass, are calcu

ed in any cale, but may lnted in a greater or less devree, to divert fibilitated for the other methods de- the gas of the cance of the otemlive imeli and Muftrated with drawings, for but lime be reckons the best, as well as e fos tail-cloths, facking, tap the inof economical.

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VARIETIES

VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PhilosoPHICAL,

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domeslie and Foreign,
Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received.

L of the Earl of Mount Norris, re-
ORD VALENTIA, the eldest fon titled Wallington, or Liberty Restored,

The basis of the work, exclusive of the paired a few years fince to India, with a' imagery, will rest folely upon hittorio view to contribute to the extention of truth. science, and to gratily his own curio Dr. Gillies announces a Hiftory of fity. After his arrival in Calcutta, he the World, from the Reign of Alexander repaired over-land to Lucknow ; and to that of Augulius, comprehending the having accepted an invitation from Mr. latter ages of Greece, and the history of Panll, an eminent merchant there, he the Greek kingdoms in Alia and Africa, relided at his house during several months. from their foundation to their deitruction; When the rainy season commenced, he with a preliminary survey of Alexanwas accompanied by that gentleinan der's caliern conquetis, and a conjecture down the stream of the Ganges; and relative to his plans for their contulidathey had an opportunity of becoming tion and improvement, acquainted with whatever related to a The Rev. WILLIAM Tunner, of Newriver fo famous in the anuals and religi- castle upon Tync, has ready for publis ous rites of the eastern world. In the cation an Abstract of the Hiliory of the course of several years' residence abroad, Bible, for the use of children and young Lord Valentia has visited and examined persons; with questions for exainination, a large portion of Asia, and has seen and a ketch of Scripture Geography, ile parts of Africa. Being of a curious and luttrated by maps. inquisitive turn, he has made a very va Mr. MiiFord is preparing to publish a luable collection of whatever is rare or new edition of the History of Greece, worthy of notice; and we are informed from the earliest accounts to the death of that the public will be fpcedily gratified Philip, king of Macedonia, revised and with an account of his extenlive tra- contiderably augmented, and a fourth vels, printed at the expence of his lord-' volume entirely ucw. thip. The exact size and extent of the Dr. Toulmix, of Birminghain, is prework are not precisely ascertained, but it paring for the prefs a Bew edition of a is supposed that it will confite of two or scarce and valuable tract, entitled The three volumes in quarto, with a folio Student and Patior, by the Rev. Joux volume of engravings. These travels, Mason, M. A. the author of the celeand those of Dr. Buchanan (announced brated Treatise on sell-huowledge. To in our last), will bring us better acquaint- this cdition it is intended to add, tlıç ed with our valt poffeflions in Afia. author's Letter to a Young Vinitier; Sir Joux Carr will speedily gratify

with some notes and enlargements, parthe public with an account of bis recent ticularly an Eiliy ou Catechning, by the excursion into Holland, and up the editor. Rbine as far as Mentz. These countries · Dr. Bardsley, physician to the Manhave long been objects of confiderable chester Infirmary, has been some time curiosity, on account of the great poli- preparing for the prets, and will speedily tical changes which they have undergone, publish, a Selection of Medical Reports and the events of which they have been of Cares, Observations, and Experiments, "the scene, since they were lali visited by chiefly derived from hospital practice; Dr. Cogan and Mrs. Radcliffe. This including, among others, clinical hillos voluine, like the other popular travels of ries of Diabetes, Chronic Rheunatilin, Sir John Carr, will be decorated with and Hydrophobia. numerous views of the places which he Dr. KINGLAKE is preparing fome Stricvisited.

tures on Mr. Parkinson's Observatius Mr. NortumORE has been for a confi- ou the Nature and Cure of Gout, rederable time engaged in writing an epic ceritly published in opposition to the pocin, to be completed in ten books, en- thicory that proposes the cooling treat

ment of that disease. The fame gentle bruary, at seven o'clock in the evening, man is about to publish additional Cases at his house, Grenville-street, Brunswickof Gout, in farther proof of the falutary fquare. efficacy of the cooling treatinent of that Mr. MILBURNE's Lectures on the afilicting difeale; with illnítrative anno- Principles and Operations of Surgery, tations, written authorities in its fupport, wiù coinmence on Monday the 9th init. controversial discussions, and a view of Mr. Davy, in the conclucting Lecture the present itate and future prospects of of the first part of his Courte on Vegethe practice. And also a painphict, calle table Chemitry, gavo a new theory to ed the Reviewers Reviewed, containing account for the Fairy Rings, to coinmon general observations on legitimate and in foing meadow lands. They have of Įicentious criticisin,

late years, been generally fuppored to Mr. Janson, an English gentleman, be occasioned by the electric fluid; but, who bas resided fourteen years in Aine- according to Mr. Davy, every fungus exrict, and has brought with lim many bąuits the ground on which it grows, fo interesting materials relative to the state that no other can exist, on the fame fpot : of fociety and manners in that republic, ýt theds its feed around, and on the feis arrangig them for the press; and they cond year, initead of a bingle fungus as a will speedily appear in a quarco yo- centre, a number arise in an exterior ring, lume, accompanied by a number of around the fpot where the individual elegant engravings,

flood : these exhaust the ground on which ÁIr, NATHANIEL "Ifoward, of Ply- they have come to perfection; and, on thoutli, has completed a tranlation, in the fucceeding year, the ring beconies blank verle, of the Inferno of Dante, till larger, from the fame principle of with notes historical, classical, and ex- divergency. Mr. Davy ackutowledged planatory.

himself indebted to Dr. Wollaston for Dr. A P.

, Wilson, of Worcester, has this ingenious theory. nearly ready for publication an Effay on Mr. Davy, in the concluding part of

Some Letters and Pofthumous Works ciety, considered the influence of elec of Mrs. Catapons are preparing for pub- tricity in the mineral kingdom; its aclication, by one of her relations. tion on the carburet of iron, and various

Mr. TaELWALL lins recently extended other mineral bodies; and also its imthe plan of his inftitution in Bedford- portance, as tending to elucidate inany place for the cure of impediments of phenomena in the icience of geology. (peech, by an arrangement which admits In the course of this Paper, were de the introduction of the class of junior tailed an account of several original ex pupils under the superintendence of Mrs. periments on the effects of electricity ou Thelwall, by whom they are initiated certain chemical meastra; in as of in all the customary elements of an ac- which the negative pole disengaged oxycomplifhed elucation, including the ru- gen, and the positive hydrogen, diments of the Englikh, French, Latin, The Copleyan Medal has been adand Italian languages, geography, astro judged to T. A. KNIGHT, Efq. for his nomy, &c. This class of pupils is kept numerous discoveries in vegetable phyfiditina frota those of adult years, who ology. Sir Jofepha Banks, upon prefentcontinue to be attended to by Mr. ing Mr. Knight with the reward of his Thelwall in all the higher branches of labours and bighi incrit, pronounced a eloquence and English literature. The inuft able discourse on the pursuits of this poblic lectures are to be delivered on gentleman.. He noticed his researches Sondays and Wednesdays only, till the and observations on the alburnous juices Icalon of Leot; when they will be re- of plants, in its ufient elaborating the Sumed on Friday evenings allo. buds and leaves, and in its defcent form

The Rev. J. Milser has cominenced iug wood; and of his discovery of the mia the pulication of an cntirely new edi- tural decay of apple-trees, and of the onu o Fox's origjual Book of Christian grafts, wluch decline and becoine unHouston The embellishments will con productive at the faine time with the pua

af opwards of fifty engravings. rent ftock. The learned Prefident reDR Conase of Lectures on the ferred next to the experiments, which

and Practice of Medicine, will went to prove that all vegetables radiate e ou Irides the 6th of fe by gravitation only, and not by any in

tinctive

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stinctive energy; that new and superior churches, apartinents, hy merely placing fpecies of apples may he produced from it under the leaf to be drawn on.

To feed; and that impregnating the pollen reader the instrument more complete, a was found to be an advantageons fubiti- of plate glass Mould be added, of the tute for grafting. He then alluded te faine size as the leaf of the drawing-book, the new and very valuable species of on which the dark lines Mould be drawn. pears produced by Mr. Knight, and to a Mr. Donaldson is preparing for the new fpecies of vines, which bear grapes press, a Treatise on Cominercial Law. not only fuperor in flavour to others hi The fecret of the Invisible Girl has therto known, but which are ble of lately been supposed to have been difarriving at perfećtion, even in the most covered, from which it should seem, that adverse seasons, in our climate. For the whole deception consists in a very these, and other discoveries ably enume- triling addition to the niechanifin of the rated by the learned President, the Cop- speaking buft; which consists of a tube leyan Medal was adjudged to Mr. Knight, from the mouth of the bust, leading to a whore successful labours in this branch of confederate in an adjoining room, and natural history, bave probably furpassed another tube to the fanne place, cuding those of any other philosopher, in deve- in the ear of the figure. By the latt of loping the cconomy of vegetation, and these a found whispered to the ear of the the laws of vegetable life.

bult, is immediately carried to the conDr. ROBERTSON, Savilian Professor of federate, who instantly returns an answer Geometry at Oxford, has lately present by the other tube ending in the mouth ed to the Royal Society, a Paper on of the figure, who feems to utter it: and “ The Precession of the Equinoxes;" in the invifible girl only differs in this cirwhich he has suggested some new me- cumftance, that an artificial echo is prothods of ascertaining, with greater accu duced by means of certain trumpets; racy than las hitherto been done, the and thus the found does not proceed in calculations of compound rotatory motion, its original direction, but is completely

Mr. Smitli exhibited to the Society of reversed. Antiquarians, a silver ring about an inch Mr. CUMBERLAND and Sir JAMES in diameter, with twelve points, refeim. Bland Burgess will nortly publish a bling the teeth of a wheel in clock-work, Poem, entitled, the Exodiad. The in one of which was a rowel, which pro- fubject is the departure of Israel froin jected a little inore than the others. Mr. Eyypt. S. imagines that this ring was used as a Mir. SOUTILEY has in the press a Traurchaplet in the days of the catholic reli- lation of the Chronicle of Cid, from the gion in this country; and that each point Spanis. was to indicate a prayer, as a help to Dr. Maltby has undertaken to fuperthe memory, or to those who could not intend a new edition of Morell's Thejane read.

rus Greca Pocjzos ; it work long wanted The Literary and Philosophical So- by the classical scholar. ciety at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, continues The London Medical Society proto flourith: many valuable Papers were pose to confer the Fothergillian gold communicated and read to it in the 'inedal upon the authors of the bett ellays course of the last year. Much of the on the following fubjeéts. prosperity of this Society mult be referred

Questions for the year 1807.-The beft acto the labours and real of the Rev. Wil- count of the epidemic fevers which have preliam Turner.

vailed at several times in Nerth America, Mr. CUMBERLAND has lately given to Spain, and Gibraltar, fince the year 1793, the public a description of a very simple and whether they are the ijme or different and useful scale for dividing the vanilie diseases? ing lines in perspećtive. It is thus form, thods of preventing and of curing epidemic

For the year 1808 —What are the best me. ed": take a sheet of paper, and having made an horizontal line, tix on a point,

dysentery?

For tbe year 1809. What are the criteria as a centre, called the point of light; by which epidemic disorders thut are we inthis point is crossed with diagonal lines fe&ious may be distinguished from those that in various directions; and thus an inftrument is prepared, that will be a fure For the year 1810.-What are the qualities guide to an inexperienced eye, in taking in the atmosphere most to be defired under the the perspective lines of all ohjects placed various circunstances of pulmonary con: at right angles, such as streets, buildings, fumption?

"The

are ?

The Unitariao Society, which has dit- would excite in the air strong corumotions tinguiibed itielt by the publication, in a capable of thaking the particles of water cheap form, of very many valuable theo- adhering to it, to as to produce abundant logical works, is now about to print a very rain : this is to be done by the found of lurze edition of the New Testament, chiefly great bells, the noile of guns or druins, invm the tramikation of the late venerable by the detonation of the fulminating Archbishop NEWCOMBE.

powder, and by the explosion, in the It has been lately recommended that, iniddle of the clouds, of rockets directed excepting the

lancet employed in towards the place where the clouds are var ciuntin, all the infiruments of sure thickett. (2.) He would ettablith energory ough to be dipped into oil at the getic conductors between the clouds and wonent when they are going to be used; the earth, either by tires lighted from by which method ine pain of the subject diitance to distance, and kept burning by oprrated upou will always be dininished. fupplies of dry fubiiances, or by the dis. It is recommended to inake all inftru- engagernent of bumid vapours, or the pents of a bluud-heat a little before the combuition of rclinous matters. (S.) He operation.

would draw off the electric fluid, which Pruijia.

is in superabundance in the clouds, by a Mr. HELMOSTADT, of Berlin, gives multiplicity of thunder-rods: he would the following as a cheap Method of ob- cliablith these conductors on those fides Lainnig the Sugur of the Beet-root: from which the winds chietly come, and Les tie beet-ronts be pounded in a mor- there are to be placed on elevated places, tar, and then lubjected to the press; high trees, &c. We are informed, that the juice is next to be clarified withi liine, the practice recominended in this Melike that of the sugar-cane, and then by moir, is inade use of in inany parts of evaporation bring it to the confiftence France with the greatest success

. o: lyrup. From 100 lbs. of raw lugar

Dr. CarRADORI, in opposition to the thus obtained, 80 llis. inay be bad by experiments and conclutions of Mellis. the first refining, of well-crylialized fugar, Huinbolt and Gay Lufac, atfirms that interior neither in quality nor wlitenets ebullition is not fútfcient to free water tu that of the Weit-Indies. Two days from all the oxygen that it contains; and aru suficient to complete the operation, that nothing but congelation, and the Germany.

rcfpiration of fishes, can entirely clear A new branch of science, entitled, water of its oxygen. There, he says, are But monica, is now inuch fiudicu in Ger- the only means that complcte the fepamany. it was originally taught and ration from water of all the oxygen it practifort in Egypt and Greece, and was

contains interposed between its globules. An intention attributed to Sinonides. Fishes he conceives to be the eudiometers Tue modern retirer of this art is M. of water; and one of thefe, thut up in a AJETIN, who exacts from his pupils a body of water, is capable of leparating, poniie not to write down his lectures. by incans of its respiration, in several Accurlioy to a book, laid to have been bours, all the oxygen from the water, written by a child of twelve ycars of age, and to exhaust it entirely from this prinand mentioned in the catalogue for the ciple. By leveral ingenious, but cruel, lai September fair at Leiplic, mnemonica experiments on fill, this philosopher is a true science, and may be so ght proves that melted snow, as well us to give a memory to individuals of water that bas been congealed, is deeiery age.

prived of all its oxygen.
France.
M. LEROL, who has made many

fucM. LESCHEVIN, Chief Commissary for cetstul experiments in agriculture, adGunpowder and Saltpetre at Dijon, has viles pertons by no means to procure Sugvelted a method of averting towers grain for fowing from a foil north of their oi hail, and diffipating storms. The Mc

own land, but from a country south of moir iu which lie has related the disco- it; because he says it is a general rule, very, as he couceives, is long, but we that the produci'on' feed improves in gothall be able to present the English rendering froin touch to northi, and that it dewith the results in few words :-(1.) He creates in virtue in going from north to

south. He recommends boiled carrots A gentleman known to the writer of this

as an excellent and cheap food for the arlele, can, by the power of asociation, re

fattening of pigs; and he ands, that by peat tackwards and forwards, or by any complez alternation, thirty abstract terms, on steeping raw carrots in water to deprive berio, em repeared but once.

thein of their acrid principle, then by

builing

as

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